Does mindful eating modify eating behavior in individuals with excess weight?
Keywords:Obesidad; Ciencias de la Nutrición; Atención plena; Dieta; Protocols.
Traditional strategies for the control of excess weight, such as the use of restrictive diets and the encouragement of physical exercise, do not seem to be effective in the long term, as they often fail to promote a change in eating behavior. Therefore, behavioral strategies, such as mindful eating, which is being mindful of what one eats without judgment or criticism and helps an individual to have a better relationship with food through the establishment of harmony among mind, body and eating, seems to be an effective alternative for the consolidation of more conscious eating. The aim of the present study was to perform an integrative review of the literature on the main mindful eating protocols used in studies involving individuals with excess weight to achieve a change in eating behavior. Searches were performed in the PubMed, ScienceDirect, TRIP and Scielo databases. Eight articles met the inclusion criteria for the present review. The benefits of the different mindful eating protocols varied among the studies. The main benefits were a reduction in or maintenance of weight, an improvement in eating behavior, a reduction of episodes of binge eating and increases in mindfulness and conscious eating. MB-EAT was the most used protocol among the studies included in the present review. Further studies involving different mindful eating strategies are needed for a better analysis of the effects of such protocols on eating behavior.
Adler, E., Dhruva, A., Moran, P., Daubenmier, J., Acree, M., Epel, E. S. … Hecht, F. M. (2017). Impact of a Mindfulness-Based Weight-Loss Intervention on Sleep Quality Among Adults with Obesity: Data from the SHINE Randomized Controlled Trial. J Altern Complement Med., 3 (3), 188-195. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/acm.2016.0141.
Alberts, H. J. E. M., Thewissen, R., & Raes, L. (2012). Dealing with problematic eating behavior: The effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on eating behavior, food cravings, dichotomous thinking and body image concern. Appetite, 58, 847–851. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2012.01.009.
Alvarenga, M., Polacow, V., & Scagliusi, F. (2016). Dieta e seus efeitos no comportamento alimentar. São Paulo: Manole Ltda.
Bays, J. C. (2009). Mindful eating – a guide to discovering a healthy and joyful relationship with food. Boston & London: Shambhala.
Blackburn, E. H. (2000). Estados dos telômeros e destino das células. Natureza, 408 (6808), 53–56. doi: https://doi.org/10.1038/35040500.
Bush, H., Rossy, L., Mintz, L. B., & Schopp, L. (2014). Eat for Life: A Work Site Feasibility Study of a Novel Mindfulness-Based Intuitive Eating Intervention. Am J Health Promot, 28 (6). doi: https://doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.120404-QUAN-186.
Dalen, J., Smith, B. W., Shelley, B. M., Sloan, A. L., Leahigh, L., & Begay, D. (2010). Pilot study: Mindful Eating and Living (MEAL): Weight, eating behavior, and psychological outcomes associated with a mindfulness-based intervention for people with obesity. Complement Ther Med., 18 (6), 260-264. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ctim.2010.09.008.
Daubenmier, J., Lin, J., Blackbum, E., Hecht, F. M., Kristeller, J., Maninger, N. … Epel, E. (2012). Changes in stress, eating, and metabolic factors are related to changes in telomerase activity in a randomized mindfulness intervention pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology, 37 (7), 917–928. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psyneuen.2011.10.008.
Daubenmier, J., Moran, P. J., Kristeller, J., Acree, M., Bacchetti, P., Kemeny, M. E., … Hecht, F. M. (2016). Effects of a mindfulness-based weight loss intervention in adults with obesity: A randomized clinical trial. Obesity (Silver Spring), 24 (4), 794-804. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/oby.21396.
Decety, J., & Jackson, P. L. (2004). The functional architecture of human empathy. Behav Cog Neurosci Rev., 3 (2), 71-100. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1534582304267187.
Foxcroft, L. (2013). A tirania das dietas. São Paulo: Três Estrelas.
Framson, C., Kristal, A. R., Schenk, J. M., Littman, A. J., Zeliadt, S., & Benitez, D. (2009). Development and validation of the mindful eating questionnaire. J Am Diet Assoc., 109, 1439-44. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2009.05.006.
Germer, C. K., Siegel, R. D., & Fulton, P. R. (2016). Mindfulness e psicoterapia. Porto Alegre: Artmed.
Glanz, K., Basil, M., Maibach, E., Goldberg, J., & Snyder, D. (1998). Why Americans eat what they do: Taste, nutrition, cost, convenience, and weight control concerns as influences on food consumption. J Am Diet Assoc., 98 (10), 1118–26. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00260-0.
Haenen, S., Nyklíček, I., Van, S. J., Pop, V., & Pouwer, F. (2016). Mindfulness facets as differential mediators of short and long-term effects of Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy in diabetes outpatients: Findings from the DiaMind randomized trial. J Psychosom Res., (85), 44–50. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jpsychores.2016.04.006.
Hendrickson, K. L., & Rasmussen, E. B. (2013). Effects of mindful eating training on delay and probability discounting for food and money in obese and healthy-weight individuals. Behav Res Ther., 51, 399–409. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brat.2013.04.002.
Hölzel, B. K., Carmody, J., Vangel, M., Congleton, C., Yerramsetti, S. M., Gard, T. … Lazar S. W. (2011). Mindfulness practice leads to increases in regional brain gray matter density. Psychiatry Res Neur., 191, 36–43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pscychresns.2010.08.006.
Kabat-zinn, J. (1990). Full catastrophe living: using the wisdom of your body and mind to facestress, pain, and illness. New York: Delta.
Khan, Z., & Zadeh, Z. (2014). Mindful eating and its relationship with mental well-being. Social and Behavioral Sciences, 159, 69–73. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.sbspro.2014.12.330.
Kristeller, J. L., & Hallett, C. B. (1999). An exploratory study of a meditation-based intervention for binge eating disorder. J Health Psychol., 4, 357–363. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/135910539900400305.
Kristeller, J. L., & Wolever, R. Q. (2011). 'Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training for Treating Binge Eating Disorder: The Conceptual Foundation'. Eating Disorders, 19 (1), 49 – 61. doi: https://doi.org/10.1080/10640266.2011.533605.
Kristeller, J., Wolever, R. Q., & Sheets, V. (2014). Mindfulness-Based Eating Awareness Training (MB-EAT) for Binge Eating: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Mindfulness. Springer Science, 5 (3), 282-297. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-012-0179-1.
Kidd, L. I., Graor, C. H., & Murrock, C. J. (2013). A Mindful Eating Group Intervention for Obese Women: A Mixed Methods Feasibility Study. Arch Psychiatr Nurs., 27, 211-218. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apnu.2013.05.004.
Levin, M. E., Dalrymple, K., Himes, S., & Zimmerman, M. (2014). Which facets of mindfulness are related to problematic eating among patients seeking bariatric surgery? Eating Behav., 15, 298–305. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eatbeh.2014.03.012.
Levy, R. B., Claro, R. M., Mondini, L., Sichieri, R., & Monteiro, C. A. (2012). Distribuição regional e socioeconômica da disponibilidade de alimentos no Brasil, 2008-2009. Ver. Saúde Pública, 46 (1), 6-15. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0034-89102011005000088.
Mantzios, M., & Wilson, J. C. (2015). Mindfulness, eating behaviours, and obesity: a review and reflection on current findings. Curr Obes Rep., 4, 141–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s13679-014-0131-x.
Mason, A. E., Epel, E. S., Kristeller, J., Moran, P. J., Dallman, M., Lustig, R. H. … Daubenmier, J. (2016). Effects of a mindfulness-based intervention on mindful eating, sweets consumption, and fasting glucose levels in obese adults: data from the SHINE randomized controlled trial. J Behav Med., 39 (2), 201-13. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10865-015-9692-8.
Mendes, K. D. S., Silveira, R. C. C. P., & Galvão, C. M. (2008). Revisão integrativa: método de pesquisa para a incorporação de evidências na saúde e na enfermagem. Texto Contexto Enfermagem, 17 (4), 758-64. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S0104-07072008000400018.
Miller, C. K., Kristeller, J. L., Headings, A., & Nagaraja, H. (2014). Comparison of a mindful eating intervention to a diabetes self-management intervention among adults with type 2 diabetes: a randomized controlled trial. Health Educ Behav., 41, 145–154. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198113493092.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., & Altman, D. G. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLOS Medicine, 6 (7). doi: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.
Ouwens, M. A., Schiffer, A. A., Visser, L. I., Raeijmaekers, N. J. C., & Nyklíčk, L. (2015). Mindfulness and eating behaviour styles in morbidly obese males and females. Appetite, 87, 62–67. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2014.11.030.
Pereira, A. S., Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J., & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica [Versão digital em ebook]. Recuperado de https://repositorio.ufsm.br/bitstream/handle/1/15824/Lic_Computacao_Metodologia-Pesquisa-Cientifica.pdf.
Pinheiro, A. R. O., Freitas, S. F. T., & Corso, A. C. T. (2004). Uma abordagem epidemiológica da obesidade. Rev. Nutr. [online], 17 (4), 523-33. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732004000400012.
Rozin, P., Ashmore, M., & Markwith, M. (1996). Lay American conceptions of nutrition: dose insensivity, cathegorical thinking, contagion, and monotonic mind. J of Health Psychology, 15 (6), 438-47. doi: https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6184.108.40.2068.
Shapiro, S. L., Carlson, L. E., Astin, J. A., & Freedman, B. (2006). Mechanisms of mindfulness. J Clin Psychol., 62, 373–386. doi: https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20237.
Smith, B. W., Shelley, B. M., Leahigh, L., & Vanleit, B. (2006). A preliminary study of the effects of a modified mindfulness intervention on binge eating. Complement Health Practice, 1 (3), 133-43. doi: https://doi.org/10.1177/1533210106297217.
Souto, S., & Ferro-Bucher, J. S. N.S (2006). Práticas indiscriminadas de dietas de emagrecimento e o desenvolvimento de transtornos alimentares. Rev. Nutr. [online], 19 (6), 693-704. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/S1415-52732006000600006.
Souza, M. T., Silva, M. D., & Carvalho, R. (2010). Revisão integrativa: o que é e como fazer. Einstein, 8(1), 102-106. doi: https://doi.org/10.1590/s1679-45082010rw1134.
Timmerman, G. M., & Brown, A. (2012). The effect of a mindful restaurant eating intervention on weight management in women. J Nutr Educ Behav., 44 (1), 22-8. doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2011.03.143.
Tribole, E., & Resch, E. (1995). Intuitive Eating: A Recovery Book for the Chronic Dieter. New York: St. Martin’s Press.
Tribole, E., & Resch, E. (2012). Intuitive eating - A revolutionary program that works. New York: St. Martin’s Griffin.
Warren, J., Smith, N., & Ashwell, M. (2017). A structured literature review on the role of mindfulness, mindful eating and intuitive eating in changing eating behaviours: Effectiveness and associated potential mechanisms. Nutr Res Rev., 30 (2), 272-283. doi: https://doi.org/10.1017/S0954422417000154.
Wnuk, S. M., Du, C. T., Exan, J. V., Wallwork, A., Tremblay, L., Kowgier, M., & Sockalingam, S. (2017). Mindfulness-Based Eating and Awareness Training for Post-Bariatric Surgery Patients: a Feasibility Pilot Study. Mindfulness, 9 (3), 949-960. doi: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12671-017-0834-7.
World Health Organization (2010). Creating an enabling environment for population-based salt reduction strategies: report of a joint technical meeting held by WHO and the Food Standards Agency, United Kingdom. Geneva: WHO. Recuperado de https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/44474.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Maria Beatriz Guega Silva Bezerra; Luciana Gonçalves de Orange; Priscilla Régia de Andrade Calaça; Geórgia Mônica Marques de Menezes; Cybelle Rolim de Lima
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.