Beers: relationship between styles; phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity




Lager; Ale; Phytochemicals; Stability.


In the chemical composition of beer, phenolic compounds that contribute to the sensory characteristics and show antioxidant capacity are found and help to maintain oxidative stability. The compilation of 35 studies, published between 2006 and 2020, aimed to gather information about the phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of beers and to relate the results obtained with the types of beers analyzed. The results showed that both, the content and the profile of phenolic compounds and the antioxidant activity of beer, are influenced by the ingredients used and by the manufacturing process. Ale beers, dark in color, with higher bitterness and alcohol content, showed higher values of phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity than other types and styles. Analyzes for specialty beers showed that the addition of diversified foods contributed to improving the bioactive composition of the beverage. Over 50 phenolic compounds have already been identified in beers, derived from the ingredients used in the manufacture. Among the most frequent phenolic compounds are phenolic acids, such as ferulic and caffeic acids and catechins. A close correlation between the content of total phenolic compounds and the antioxidant capacity was observed, and the presence of some specific compounds may increase this activity. However, during beer storage, a decrease in antioxidant activity may occur due to changes in the structures of molecules related to this capacity. These studies contribute to the improvement and development of beverages with a higher content of phenolic compounds, improving their oxidative stability and shelf life.

Author Biographies

Roberta Nogueira Pereira da Silva, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Programa de Pòs-graduação em Alimentos e Nutrição - PPGAN

Juliana Furtado Dias, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Programa de Pós-graduação em Alimentos e Nutrição - PPGAN

Maria Gabriela Bello Koblitz, Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

Programa de Pós-garduação em Alimentos e Nutrição

Núcleo de Bioquímica Nutricional

Escola de Nutrição


Almaguer, C., Schönberger, C., Gastl, M., Arendt, E. K., & Becker, T. (2014). Humulus lupulus - a story that begs to be told. A review: Humulus lupulus - a story that begs to be told. Journal of the Institute of Brewing.

Angelo, P. M., & Jorge, N. (2007). Compostos fenólicos em alimentos—Uma breve revisão. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz (Impresso), 66(1), 01–09.

Bertuzzi, T., Mulazzi, A., Rastelli, S., Donadini, G., Rossi, F., & Spigno, G. (2020). Targeted healthy compounds in small and large-scale brewed beers. Food Chemistry, 310, 125935.

Bettenhausen, H. M., Barr, L., Broeckling, C. D., Chaparro, J. M., Holbrook, C., Sedin, D., & Heuberger, A. L. (2018). Influence of malt source on beer chemistry, flavor, and flavor stability. Food Research International, 113, 487–504.

Bezerra, F. de S., da Costa, D. F., & Koblitz, M. G. B. (2020). Integral use of oil-based raw materials with “green solvents”: review and opportunities. Research, Society and Development, 9(8), e372985388.

Callemien, D., & Collin, S. (2009). Structure, Organoleptic Properties, Quantification Methods, and Stability of Phenolic Compounds in Beer—A Review. Food Reviews International, 26(1), 1–84.

Cheiran, K. P., Raimundo, V. P., Manfroi, V., Anzanello, M. J., Kahmann, A., Rodrigues, E., & Frazzon, J. (2019). Simultaneous identification of low-molecular weight phenolic and nitrogen compounds in craft beers by HPLC-ESI-MS/MS. Food Chemistry, 286, 113–122.

Cho, J.-H., Kim, I.-D., Dhungana, S. K., Do, H.-M., & Shin, D.-H. (2018). Persimmon fruit enhanced quality characteristics and antioxidant potential of beer. Food Science and Biotechnology, 27(4), 1067–1073.

Ducruet, J., Rébénaque, P., Diserens, S., Kosińska-Cagnazzo, A., Héritier, I., & Andlauer, W. (2017). Amber ale beer enriched with goji berries – The effect on bioactive compound content and sensorial properties. Food Chemistry, 226, 109–118.

Elrod, S. M. (2018). Xanthohumol and the Medicinal Benefits of Beer. In Polyphenols: Mechanisms of Action in Human Health and Disease (p. 19–32). Elsevier.

Granato, D., Branco, G. F., Faria, J. de A. F., & Cruz, A. G. (2011). Characterization of Brazilian lager and brown ale beers based on color, phenolic compounds, and antioxidant activity using chemometrics. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 91(3), 563–571.

Habschied, K., Lončarić, A., & Mastanjević, K. (2020). Screening of Polyphenols and Antioxidative Activity in Industrial Beers. Foods, 9(2), 238.

Humia, B. V., Santos, K. S., Schneider, J. K., Leal, I. L., de Abreu Barreto, G., Batista, T., Machado, B. A. S., Druzian, J. I., Krause, L. C., da Costa Mendonça, M., & Padilha, F. F. (2020). Physicochemical and sensory profile of Beauregard sweet potato beer. Food Chemistry, 312, 126087.

Koren, D., Kun, S., Hegyesné Vecseri, B., & Kun-Farkas, G. (2019). Study of antioxidant activity during the malting and brewing process. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 56(8), 3801–3809.

Leitao, C., Marchioni, E., Bergaentzlé, M., Zhao, M., Didierjean, L., Taidi, B., & Ennahar, S. (2011). Effects of Processing Steps on the Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Beer. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 59(4), 1249–1255.

Li, H., Zhao, M., Cui, C., Sun, W., & Zhao, H. (2016). Antioxidant activity and typical ageing compounds: Their evolutions and relationships during the storage of lager beers. International Journal of Food Science & Technology, 51(9), 2026–2033.

Maia, I. C., D’Almeida, C. T. S, Freire, D. G., M., Cavalcanti, E. D. A C., Cameron, L. C., Dias, J. F., & Ferreira, M. S. L. (2020). Effect of solid-state fermentation over the release of phenolic compounds from brewer’s spent grain revealed by UPLC-MSE. LWT, 133, 110136.

Marques, D. R, Cassis, M. A., Quelhas, J. O. F., Bertozzi, J., Visentainer, J.V., Oliveira, C. C., & Antonio Monteiro, A. R.G. (2017). Characterization of craft beers and their bioactive compounds. Chemical Engineering Transactions, 57, 1747–1752.

Martínez, A., Vegara, S., Herranz-López, M., Martí, N., Valero, M., Micol, V., & Saura, D. (2017). Kinetic changes of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in forced aged hibiscus ale beer: Kinetic changes of polyphenols, anthocyanins and antioxidant capacity in forced aged hibiscus ale beer. Journal of the Institute of Brewing, 123(1), 58–65.

Martinez-Gomez, A., Caballero, I., & Blanco, C. A. (2020). Phenols and Melanoidins as Natural Antioxidants in Beer. Structure, Reactivity and Antioxidant Activity. Biomolecules, 10(3), 400.

Moura-Nunes, N., Brito, T. C., Fonseca, N. D. da, de Aguiar, P. F., Monteiro, M., Perrone, D., & Torres, A. G. (2016). Phenolic compounds of Brazilian beers from different types and styles and application of chemometrics for modeling antioxidant capacity. Food Chemistry, 199, 105–113.

Mesquita, J. S., Ramos, J. P., Everton, G. O., Mouchrek Filho, V. E., & Coelho, S. C. (2020). Production and physicochemical evaluation of a pure malt craft beer with the addition of Extracts of Syzygium aromaticum and Cinnamomum zeylanicum. Research, Society and Development, 9(8), e872986216.

Nardini, M., & Foddai, M. S. (2020). Phenolics Profile and Antioxidant Activity of Special Beers. Molecules, 25(11), 2466.

Nardini, M., & Garaguso, I. (2020). Characterization of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fruit beers. Food Chemistry, 305, 125437.

Oliveira Neto, J. R., de Oliveira, T. S., Ghedini, P. C., Vaz, B. G., & Gil, E. de S. (2017). Antioxidant and vasodilatory activity of commercial beers. Journal of Functional Foods, 34, 130–138.

Pai, T. V., Sawant, S. Y., Ghatak, A. A., Chaturvedi, P. A., Gupte, A. M., & Desai, N. S. (2015). Characterization of Indian beers: Chemical composition and antioxidant potential. Journal of Food Science and Technology, 52(3), 1414–1423.

Pereira A.S. et al. (2018). Metodologia da pesquisa científica. UFSM.

Piazzon, A., Forte, M., & Nardini, M. (2010). Characterization of Phenolics Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Beer Types. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 58(19), 10677–10683.

Pires, J., Torres, P. B., Chow, F., & Santos, D. (2017). Ensaio em microplaca do potencial antioxidante através do método de sequestro do radical livre DPPH para extratos de algas. Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo.

Quifer-Rada, P., Vallverdú-Queralt, A., Martínez-Huélamo, M., Chiva-Blanch, G., Jáuregui, O., Estruch, R., & Lamuela-Raventós, R. (2015). A comprehensive characterisation of beer polyphenols by high resolution mass spectrometry (LC–ESI-LTQ-Orbitrap-MS). Food Chemistry, 169, 336–343.

Rahman, M. J., Liang, J., Eskin, N. A. M., Eck, P., & Thiyam-Holländer, U. (2020). Identification of hydroxycinnamic acid derivatives of selected canadian and foreign commercial beer extracts and determination of their antioxidant properties. LWT, 122, 109021.

Rodrigues, J. A., Barros, A. S., Carvalho, B., Brandão, T., Gil, A. M., & Ferreira, A. C. S. (2011). Evaluation of beer deterioration by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry/multivariate analysis: A rapid tool for assessing beer composition. Journal of Chromatography A, 1218(7), 990–996.

Santos, M. C. B, Lima, L. R. S, Nascimento, F. R, Nascimento, T.P., Cameron, L. C., & Ferreira, M. S. L. (2019). Metabolomic approach for characterization of phenolic compounds in different wheat genotypes during grain development. Food Research International, 124, 118–128.

Tafulo, P. A. R., Queirós, R. B., Delerue-Matos, C. M., & Sales, M. G. F. (2010). Control and comparison of the antioxidant capacity of beers. Food Research International, 43(6), 1702–1709.

Torres, P., Santos, J., Chow, F., & Santos, D. (2017). Ensaio do potencial antioxidante de extratos de algas através do sequestro do ABTS•+ em microplaca. Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo.

Urrea-Victoria, V., Pires, J. S., Torres, P. B., Chow, F., & Santos, D. (2016). Ensaio antioxidante em microplaca do poder de redução do ferro (FRAP) para extratos de algas. Instituto de Biociências, Universidade de São Paulo.

Vanderhaegen, B., Neven, H., Verachtert, H., & Derdelinckx, G. (2006). The chemistry of beer aging – a critical review. Food Chemistry, 95(3), 357–381.

Wannenmacher, J., Cotterchio, C., Schlumberger, M., Reuber, V., Gastl, M., & Becker, T. (2019). Technological influence on sensory stability and antioxidant activity of beers measured by ORAC and FRAP. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(14), 6628–6637.

Wannenmacher, J., Gastl, M., & Becker, T. (2018). Phenolic Substances in Beer: Structural Diversity, Reactive Potential and Relevance for Brewing Process and Beer Quality: Phenolic substances in beer and brewing…. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 17(4), 953–988.

Zhao, H. (2015). Effects of Processing Stages on the Profile of Phenolic Compounds in Beer. In Processing and Impact on Active Components in Food (p. 533–539). Elsevier.

Zhao, H., Chen, W., Lu, J., & Zhao, M. (2010). Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activities of commercial beers. Food Chemistry, 119(3), 1150–1158.

Zhao, H., Li, H., Sun, G., Yang, B., & Zhao, M. (2013). Assessment of endogenous antioxidative compounds and antioxidant activities of lager beers: Assessment of antioxidants of lager beers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 93(4), 910–917.



How to Cite

SILVA, R. N. P. da .; DIAS, J. F.; KOBLITZ, M. G. B. Beers: relationship between styles; phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 3, p. e42210313471, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i3.13471. Disponível em: Acesso em: 28 mar. 2023.



Review Article