Evaluation of gustatory sensitivity of individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and their relatives





Taste Perception; Diabetes education; Healthy eating.


According to the literature reports of both the sensory loss of individuals with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and of the importance of family interrelationships in the management of this pathology, there is a demand to evaluate the sensory perception of relatives of individuals with type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. Consequently, the aim of this study was to evaluate sweet taste perception of diabetic individuals and their relatives. Methods: For this purpose, a sample of 150 volunteers was invited to participate, which was composed by individuals of both sexes, aged between 18 and 59 years, equally divided into three groups, constituted with 50 volunteers each: non-diabetic individuals, diabetic individuals and relatives. Furthermore, the glucose concentration of all participants was determined by capillary glycemia, and the diabetic participants were referred to a third-party laboratory to perform the glycated hemoglobin test using the immunoturbidimetric. Moreover, a questionnaire of personal and socio-demographic information was applied to diabetic participants and the sensory perception was evaluated through the test for sweet taste sensitivity. Results: The glycemic levels of the diabetic participants given by the Glycated Hemoglobin (HbA1c) test revealed that the results had a mean of 7.92 + 1.89%, equivalent to 180.60 + 54.52 mg/dL. The threshold was 3.34 g/L for diabetic participants, 2.60 g/L for relatives, and 1.92 g/L for the control group. Conclusions: Therefore, the present study demonstrated that the threshold index for sweet taste perception is higher in individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and their relatives when compared to the control group.


American Diabetes Association (ADA). (2017). Classification and diagnosis of diabetes. Sec. 2. In Standards of Medical Care in Diabetes. Diabetes Care 40; S11–S24.

Arana, M. A., Valderas, J. M., & Solomon, J. (2019). Being tested but not educated–a qualitative focus group study exploring patients’ perceptions of diabetic dietary advice. BMC family practice, 20(1), 1-7.

Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (ABNT). (1994) Norma Brasileira nº 13172: Teste de sensibilidade em análise sensorial. Rio de Janeiro, ABNT.

Baig, A. A., Benitez, A., Quinn, M. T., & Burnet, D. L. (2015). Family interventions to improve diabetes outcomes for adults. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1353(1), 89.

Davis, T. M. (2020). Fenofibrate and Impaired Taste Perception in Type 2 Diabetes. The American journal of case reports, 21, e927647-1.

De Carli, L., Gambino, R., Lubrano, C., Rosato, R., Bongiovanni, D., Lanfranco, F., ... & Bo, S. (2018). Impaired taste sensation in type 2 diabetic patients without chronic complications: a case–control study. Journal of endocrinological investigation, 41(7), 765-772.

de Castro, A. A. M., Kumpel, C., Porto, E. F., Menezes, E., Carpes, M. F., Malheiros, R. T., & Oliveira, S. C. (2016). Análise comparativa dos níveis glicêmicos em indivíduos que praticam atividade física e sedentários. Life Style, 3(1), 49-66.

Dias, V. R., Brazil, J. M., Almeida, J. A. R., de Souza Silva, C., & Milagres, M. P. (2016). Avaliação da percepção sensorial ao gosto doce em pessoas com Diabetes Mellitus tipo 2. Rev Rene, 17(4), 483-489.

Fernandes, A. M. T., Henriques, E. L. V., & Amendola, F. (2014). Características de usuários portadores de diabetes mellitus tipo II com glicemia capilar alterada em um pronto atendimento municipal. Revista Saúde-UNG-Ser, 8(1-2), 6-15.

Henkin, R. I., Levy, L. M., & Fordyce, A. (2013). Taste and smell function in chronic disease:: A review of clinical and biochemical evaluations of taste and smell dysfunction in over 5000 patients at The Taste and Smell Clinic in Washington, DC. American journal of otolaryngology, 34(5), 477-489.

International Organization for Standartization. (2002). Sensory analysis. Methodology. General guidance for measuring odour, flavour and taste detection thresholds by a three-alternative forced-choice (3-AFC) procedure. In: ISO International Standard. Nº 13301/International Organization for Standardization, Geneva: International Organization for Standartization :27.

Khera, S., & Saigal, A. (2018). Assessment and evaluation of gustatory functions in patients with diabetes mellitus type II: a study. Indian journal of endocrinology and metabolism, 22(2), 204.

Landa-Anell, M. V., Melgarejo-Hernández, M. A., García-Ulloa, A. C., Del Razo-Olvera, F. M., Velázquez-Jurado, H. R., & Hernández-Jiménez, S. (2020). Barriers to adherence to a nutritional plan and strategies to overcome them in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus; results after two years of follow-up. Endocrinologia, diabetes y nutricion, 67(1), 4-12.

Leslie, W. S., Ford, I., Sattar, N., Hollingsworth, K. G., Adamson, A., Sniehotta, F. F., ... & Lean, M. E. (2016). The Diabetes Remission Clinical Trial (DiRECT): protocol for a cluster randomised trial. BMC Family Practice, 17(1), 1-10.

Malaquias, T. D. S. M., Marques, C. D. C., de Paula Faria, A. C., Pupulim, J. S. L., Marcon, S. S., & Higarashi, I. H. (2016). A criança e o adolescente com diabetes mellitus tipo 1: desdobrar do cuidado familiar. Cogitare Enfermagem, 21(1).

Pamungkas, R. A., Chamroonsawasdi, K., & Vatanasomboon, P. (2017). A systematic review: family support integrated with diabetes self-management among uncontrolled type II diabetes mellitus patients. Behavioral Sciences, 7(3), 62.

Pereira, A. et al. Metodologia da pesquisa científica. 1. ed.Santa Maria, RS : UFSM, NTE, 2018. 1 e-book

Rintala, T. M., Jaatinen, P., Paavilainen, E., & Åstedt-Kurki, P. (2013). Interrelation between adult persons with diabetes and their family: a systematic review of the literature. Journal of family nursing, 19(1), 3-28.

Sakai, C., Abe, S., Kouzuki, M., Shimohiro, H., Ota, Y., Sakinada, H., ... & Hanaki, K. (2019). A randomized placebo-controlled trial of an oral preparation of high molecular weight fucoidan in patients with type 2 diabetes with evaluation of taste sensitivity. Yonago acta medica, 62(1), 014-023.

Wasalathanthri, S., Hettiarachchi, P., & Prathapan, S. (2014). Sweet taste sensitivity in pre-diabetics, diabetics and normoglycemic controls: a comparative cross sectional study. BMC endocrine disorders, 14(1), 1-7.

Wermeling, M., Thiele-Manjali, U., Koschack, J., Lucius-Hoene, G., & Himmel, W. (2014). Type 2 diabetes patients’ perspectives on lifestyle counselling and weight management in general practice: a qualitative study. BMC family practice, 15(1), 1-7.




How to Cite

MATOS, T. B.; SILVA, L. de A. .; VALASQUES JUNIOR, G. L.; SANTANA, I. V.; MILAGRES, M. P. . Evaluation of gustatory sensitivity of individuals with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and their relatives. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 3, p. e41610313525, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i3.13525. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/13525. Acesso em: 2 apr. 2023.



Health Sciences