Main anesthetic blocks for eye surgery in dogs and cats




Analgesia; Locoregional anesthesia; Pets animals; Ophthalmology.


The aim of the article is to review the literature on the main anesthetic blocks used in eye surgery for dogs and cats, when they should be indicated, the forms of application, the main advantages and the complications that most occur in this type of anesthesia. A narrative review was carried out, using scientific articles, monographs, theses and dissertations published and available in online databases: Periodical Capes (Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel), SciELO (Scientific Electronic Library Online) and Google Scholar, in addition to specific books on the topic. The main anesthetic blocks used for eye surgery are retrobulbar, peribulbar and eyelid blocks, in addition to anesthesia of the ocular surface. The use of ophthalmic blocks, when performed properly, represents an effective complement to general anesthesia, since they reduce the systemic effects of drugs, decrease the need for inhaled and / or intravenous anesthetics, in addition to providing postoperative analgesia. Due to the greater proximity and care of animals by their tutors, in recent years the number of ophthalmic procedures in the clinic for dogs and cats has increased. Thus, it is important that the anesthetist has knowledge about the particularities of anesthesia in these patients, as well as about the main blocks used in the cranial region and which technique and local anesthetic are most appropriate for each type of procedure.

Author Biography

Andréia Vitor Couto do Amaral, Universidade Federal de Jataí

Unidade Acadêmica Especial de Ciências Agrárias


Accola, P. J., Bentley, E. & Smith, L. J. (2006). Development of a retrobulbar injection technique for ocular surgery and analgesia in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 229 (2), 220-225.

Amaral, A. V. C., Chaves, N. S. T., Silva, L. A. F., Fleury, L. F. F., Menezes, L. B., Lima, F. G., & Lima, A. M. V.. (2013). Estudo clínico e histológico das pálpebras e conjuntiva hígidas submetidas ao tratamento tópico com soluções anestésicas em coelhos. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 65(1), 67-74.

Binder, D. R., Herring, I. P. Duration of corneal anesthesia following topical administration of 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride solution in clinically normal cats. Am. J. Vet. Res. 2006, 67:1780-1782. 16.

Borges, A. C. do N., Costa, A. L., Bezerra, J. B., Araújo, D. S., Soares, M. A. A., Gonçalves, J. N. de A., Rodrigues, D. T. da S., Oliveira, E. H. S. de, Luz, L. E. da, Silva, T. R., & Silva, L. G. de S. (2020). Epidemiologia e fisiopatologia da sepse: uma revisão. Research, Society and Development, 9(2), e187922112.

Calatayud, J. & Gonzalvez, A. (2003). Development and Evolution of local anestesia since the coca leaf. Anesthesiology, 98 (6):1503-1508.

Cortopassi, S. R. G. & Junior, E. M. (2012). Anestésicos Locais. In: D. Fantoni (2012), Tratamento da dor na clínica de pequenos animais (p. 231-259). São Paulo: Elsevier Editora Ltda.

Evans, H. E. & De Lahunta, A. (2001) Miller: guia para a dissecação do cão. Guanabara Koogan.

Gelatt, K. N., & Brooks, D. E. (2011). Surgery of the cornea and sclera. Veterinary ophthalmic surgery, (p. 191-236). Gainesville, FL: Elsevier Editora Ltda.

Giuliano, E. A. & Walsh, K. P. (2013). The eye. In: L. Campoy & M. R. Read. Small Animal Regional Anesthesia and Analgesia (p. 103-118). Pondicherry: Wiley-Blackwell.

Herring, I. P., Bobofchak, M. A., Landry, M. P. & Ward, D. L. (2005). Duration of effect and effect of multiple doses of topical ophthalmic 0.5% proparacaine hydrochloride in clinically normal dogs. Am. J. Vet. Res. 66:77-80. 17.

Honsho, C. S., Franco, L. G, Cerejo, S. A., et. al., Ocular effects of retrobulbar block with diferente local anesthetics in healthy dogs. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 2014, 35, 2577-2590.

McGee, H. T. & Fraunfelder, F. (2007). Toxicities of topical ophthalmic anesthetics. Expert Opinion on Drug Safety. 6:637-640.

Oliva, V. N. L. S., Andrade, A. L., Bevilacqua, L., Matsubara, L.M., & Perri, S. H. V. (2010). Anestesia peribulbar com ropivacaína como alternativa ao bloqueio neuromuscular para facectomia em cães. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinária e Zootecnia, 62(3), 586-595.

Otero, P. E. & Portela, D. A. (2018). Bloqueos oftálmicos. In P. E. Otero, D. A. Portela. Manual de anestesia regional em animales de conpañia: anatomia para bloqueo guiado por ecografia y neuroestimulación. Buenos Aires: Inter-Médica.

Ripart, J., Benbabaali, M. & L’hermite (2001). Ophtalmic blocks at the medial canthus. Anesthesiology, 95, 1533-1535.

Shilo-Benjamini, Y. (2019). A review of ophtalmic local and regional anestesia in dogs and cats. Veterinaty Anaesthesia and Analgesia, (18).

Shilo‐Benjamini, Y., Pascoe, P. J., Maggs, D. J., Hollingsworth, S. R., Strom, A. R., Good, K. L., Thomasy, S.M., Kass, P.H. & Wisner, E. R. (2019). Retrobulbar vs peribulbar regional anesthesia techniques using bupivacaine in dogs.Veterinary ophthalmology, 22(2), 183-191.

Torres, R. J. A., Luchini, A., Weis, W., Frecceiro, P. R. & Casella, M. (2005). Oclusão artério-venosa da retina após bloqueio retrobulbar – Relato de dois casos. Arquivo Brasileiro de Oftalmologia, 68 (2), 257-261.

Zen Junior, J. H. (2019). Bloqueio subtenoniano comparado ao bloqueio peribulbar como técnica de anestesia oftalmológica para cirurgia de catarata: uma revisão sistemática e meta-análise. Dissertação de mestrado, Universidade Estadual de Campinas. Campinas, Brasil.



How to Cite

PINTO, R. B. B. .; RIBEIRO, K. C. .; SILVA, M. F. da; REGALIN, D. .; MEIRELLES-BARTOLI, R. B. .; AMARAL, A. V. C. do. Main anesthetic blocks for eye surgery in dogs and cats. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 3, p. e55210313719, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i3.13719. Disponível em: Acesso em: 4 feb. 2023.



Review Article