Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir and Anadenanthera colubrina as alternatives in drug addiction treatment





Natural products; Hallucinogens; Drug abuse.


Drug addiction is considered a worldwide public health problem. There are few effective pharmacotherapeutic options for this condition treatment. However, the use of serotonergic hallucinogenic molecules from plants used in religious contexts such as those found in Mimosa tenuiflora root bark and Anadenanthera colubrina seeds have great therapeutic potential by reducing addictive behaviors associated with abstinence. This paper presents the ethnopharmacological, phytochemical, pharmacological, and toxicological characteristics that can support the plants study Mimosa tenuiflora and Anadenanthera colubrina in drug addiction treatment. During this in narrative review, 159 texts were evaluated where it was possible to observe that there are justifications that can endorse the therapeutic investigation of these of these plants, especially when verifying the presence of serotoninergic hallucinogenic molecules such as N, N-dimetiltriptamine and 5-OH-N, N-dimetiltriptamine opening, therefore, the possibility of developing and producing new anti-addict therapeutic options.

Author Biography

Maurício Pires de Moura do Amaral, Universidade Federal do Piaui

Professor do curso de Farmácia da Universidade Federal do Piauí - UFPI


Albuquerque, U. P., Monteiro, J. M., Ramosa, M. A., & Amorim, E. L. C. (2007). Medicinal and magic plants from a public market in Northeastern Brazil. The Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 110(1), 76–91. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2006.09.010

Ali, S.,Tahir, B., Jabeen, S., & Malik, M. (2017). Methadone treatment of opiate addiction: a systematic review of comparative studies. Innovations in clinical Neuroscience. 14(7-8), 8–19. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/29616150/

Alinejad, S., Kazemi, T., Zamani, N., Hoffman, R. S., & Mehrpour, O (2015). A systematic review of the cardiotoxicity of methadone. EXCLI journal. 14, 577–600. http://europepmc.org/article/PMC/4747000

Almeida, C. F., Ramos, M. A., Amorim. E. L., & Albuquerque, U. P. (2010). A comparison of knowledge about medicinal plants for three rural communities in the semi-arid region of northeast of Brazil. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 27, 674-684. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/19969057/

Alper, K., Dong, B., Shah, R., Sershen, H., & Vinod, K. Y. (2018). LSD Administered as a Single Dose Reduces Alcohol Consumption in C57BL/6J Mice. Frontiers in pharmacology. 9, 994. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00994

Bairrão, J. F. M. H. (2003). Raízes da Jurema. Psicologia USP. 14(1), 157-184. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/S0103-65642003000100009

Barar, J., Rafi, M. A., Pourseif, M. M., & Omidi, Y. (2016). Blood-brain barrier transport machineries and targeted therapy of brain diseases. BioImpacts : BI. 6(4), 225–248. https://doi.org/10.15171/bi.2016.30

Barrett F.S., Griffiths R.R. (2017). Classic Hallucinogens and Mystical Experiences: Phenomenology and Neural Correlates. In: Halberstadt, A. L., Vollenweider, F.X., Nichols D.E. (eds) Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. Berlin: Springer https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2017_474

Bedell, S., Wells, J., Liu, Q., & Breivogel, C. (2019). Vitexin as na active ingredient in passion flower with potencial as na agent for nicotine cessation: vitexin antagonism of the expression of nicotine locomotor sensitization in rats. Pharmaceutical biology. 57(1), 8–12. https://doi.org/10.1080/13880209.2018.1561725

Belgers, M., Leenaars, M., Homberg, J. R., Ritskes-Hoitinga, M., Schellekens, A. F., & Hooijmans, C. R. (2016). Ibogaine and addiction in the animal model, a systematic review and meta-analysis. Translational psychiatry. 6(5), e826. https://doi.org/10.1038/tp.2016.71

Belzen, J. A., & Geels, A. (2003). Mysticism: a variety of psychological perspectives. New York: Rodopi.

Bezerra, F. F. et al. (2018). Antidiarrheal activity of a novel sulfated polysaccharide from the red seaweed Gracilaria cervicornis. Journal Ethnopharmacology. 224, 27-35. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.05.033

Bogenschutz, M. P. et al. (2015). Psilocybin-assisted treatment for alcohol dependence: a proof-of-concept study. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 29(3), 289–299. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881114565144

Bogenschutz, M. P., & Johnson, M. W. (2016). Classic hallucinogens in the treatment of addictions. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry. 64, 250–258. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2015.03.002

Bogenschutz, M. P., & Ross, S. (2018). Therapeutic Applications of Classic Hallucinogens. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 36, 361–391. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2016_464

Byock I. (2018). Taking Psychedelics Seriously. Journal of palliative medicine. 21(4), 417–421. https://doi.org/10.1089/jpm.2017.0684

Cakic, V., Potkonyak, J., & Marshall, A. (2010). Dimethyltryptamine (DMT): subective effects and patterns of use among Australian recreational users. Drug and alcohol dependence. 111(1-2), 30–37. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.03.015

Cameron, L. P., & Olson, D. E. (2018). Dark Classics in Chemical Neuroscience: N, N-Dimethyltryptamine (DMT). ACS chemical neuroscience. 9(10), 2344–2357. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschemneuro.8b00101

Cao, R., Peng, W., Wang, Z., & Xu, A. (2007). beta-Carboline alkaloids: biochemical and pharmacological functions. Current medicinal chemistry, 14(4), 479–500. https://doi.org/10.2174/092986707779940998

Carbonaro, T. M., & Gatch, M. B. (2016). Neuropharmacology of N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Brain research bulletin, 126(Pt1), 74–88. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2016.04.016

Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Goodwin, G. M. (2017). The Therapeutic Potential of Psychedelic Drugs: Past, Present, and Future. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 42(11), 2105–2113. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2017.84

Carhart-Harris, R. L., & Nutt, D. J. (2017). Serotonin and brain function: a tale of two receptors. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 31(9), 1091–1120. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881117725915

Carod-Artal F. J. (2015). Hallucinogenic drugs in pre-Columbian Mesoamerican cultures. Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), 30(1), 42–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nrl.2011.07.003

Cartaxo, S. L., Souza, M. M., & de Albuquerque, U. P. (2010). Medicinal plants with bioprospecting potential used in semi-arid northeastern Brazil. Journal of ethnopharmacology, 131(2), 326–342. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2010.07.003

Cata-Preta, E. G., et al. Ayahuasca and Its DMT- and β-carbolines - Containing Ingredients Block the Expression of Ethanol-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Mice: Role of the Treatment Environment. Frontiers in pharmacology, 9, 561. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00561

Chamakura, R. P. (1994). Bufotenine - a hallucinogen in ancient snuff powders of South America and a drug of abuse on the streets of New York City. Forensic Science Review. 6 (1), 1-18. http://europepmc.org/article/MED/26270149

Chen, C., et al. (2018). Effect of Yulangsan Polysaccharide on the Reinstatement of Morphine-Induced Conditioned Place Preference in Sprague-Dawley Rats. Neurochemical research, 43(4), 918–929. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11064-018-2497-8

Chen, W., et al. (2017). Role of Dopamine Signaling in Drug Addiction. Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 17(21), 2440–2455. https://doi.org/10.2174/1568026617666170504100642

Ciccocioppo R. (2017). Grand Challenge in Psychopharmacology: Setting Priorities to Shape a Bright Future. Frontiers in psychiatry, 8, 15. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2017.00015

Costa, P. H. A. et al. (2015). Desatando a trama das redes assistenciais sobre drogas: uma revisão narrativa da literatura. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva [online]. 20(2), 395-406. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-81232015202.20682013

Crocq, M. A. (2007). Aspectos históricos e culturais da relação do homem com as drogas aditivas. Dialogues in Clinical Neuroscience. 9(4), 355-361.

Cruz, J. I., & Nappo, S. A. (2018). Is Ayahuasca an option for the treatment of crack cocaine dependence?. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 50(3), 247-255. 10.1080/02791072.2018.1447174.

Dakic, v. et al. (2016). Harmine stimulates proliferation of human neural progenitors. PeerJ. 4:e2727. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.2727

Daniel, J., Haberman, M. (2018). Clinical potential of psilocybin as a treatment for mental health conditions. The mental health clinician. 7(1), 24–28. 10.9740/mhc.2017.01.024.

Dantas, A. F., et al. (2012). Embryonic death in goats caused by the ingestion of Mimosa teinuiflora. Toxicon: official journal of the International Society on toxinolog. . 59(5), 555–557. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2011.11.020

Das, S., Barnwal, P., Ramasamy, A., Sen, S., & Mondal, S. (2016). Lysergic acid diethylamide: a drug of 'use'?. Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology. 6(3), 214–228. https://doi.org/10.1177/2045125316640440

Davis, A. K., So, S., Lancelotta, R., Barsuglia, J. P., & Griffiths, R. R. (2019). 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) used in a naturalistic group setting is associated with unintended improvements in depression and anxiety. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. 45(2), 161–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2018.1545024

De Smet P. A. (1985). A multidisciplinary overview of intoxicating snuff rituals in the western hemisphere. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 13(1), 3–49. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(85)90060-1

Degenhardt, L. et al. (2009). Mortality among clients of a state-wide opioid pharmacotherapy program over 20 years: risk factors and lives saved. Drug and alcohol dependence. 105(1-2), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2009.05.021

Descarries, L., Cornea-Hébert, V., & Riad, M. (2016). Cellular and subcellular localization of serotonin receptors in the central nervous system. In: Roth, B. L. The serotonin receptors: from molecular pharmacology to human therapeutics. Humana Press.

Diana M. (2011). The dopamine hypothesis of drug addiction and its potential therapeutic value. Frontiers in psychiatry, 2, 64. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2011.00064

Doering-Silveira, E. et al. (2005). Report on psychoactive drug use among adolescents using ayahuasca within a religious context. The Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 37(2),141-144.

Dos Santos, R. G., Osório, F. L., Crippa, J. A., Riba, J., Zuardi, A. W., & Hallak, J. E. (2016). Antidepressive, anxiolytic, and antiaddictive effects of ayahuasca, psilocybin and lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD): a systematic review of clinical trials published in the last 25 years. Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology. 6(3), 193–213. https://doi.org/10.1177/2045125316638008

Dutra, R. C., Campos, M. M., Santos, A. R., & Calixto, J. B. (2016). Medicinal plants in Brazil: Pharmacological studies, drug discovery, challenges and perspectives. Pharmacological research. 112, 4–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.phrs.2016.01.021

Elias, C. S. R. et al. (2012). Quando chega o fim? uma revisão narrativa sobre terminalidade do período escolar para alunos deficientes mentais. SMAD. Revista eletrônica saúde mental álcool e drogas. 8(1), 48-53. http://pepsic.bvsalud.org/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1806-69762012000100008&lng=pt&tlng=pt.

Fábregas, J. M. et al. (2010). Assessment of addiction severity among ritual users of ayahuasca. Drug Alcohol Dependence. 111(3), 257-261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2010.03.024

Fedotova, J., et al. (2017). Therapeutical strategies for anxiety and anxiety-like disorders using plant-derived natural compounds and plant extracts. Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 95, 437–446. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopha.2017.08.107

Ferreira, J. M., Fernandes-Silva, C. C., Salatino, A., Message, D., & Negri, G. (2017). Antioxidant Activity of a Geopropolis from Northeast Brazil: Chemical Characterization and Likely Botanical Origin. Evidence-based complementary and alternative medicine: eCAM, 2017, 4024721. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/4024721

Filip, M., & Bader, M. (2009). Overview on 5-HT receptors and their role in physiology and pathology of the central nervous system. Pharmacological Reports. 61(5), 761-777. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1734-1140(09)70132-X

Foong, A. L., Grindrod, K. A., Patel, T., & Kellar, J. (2018). Demystifying serotonin syndrome (or serotonin toxicity). Canadian family physician Medecin de famille canadien, 64(10), 720–727. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/30315014/

Fortunato, J. J. et al. (2010). Effects of beta-carboline harmine on behavioral and physiological parameters observed in the chronic mild stress model: further evidence of antidepressant properties. Brain Research Bulletin. 81, 491-496. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainresbull.2009.09.008

Fozard, J. R., & Mobarok Ali, A. T. (1978). Dual mechanism of the stimulant action of N,N-dimethyl-5-hydroxy-tryptamine (bufotenine) on cardiac sympathetic nerves. European journal of pharmacology, 49(1), 25–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/0014-2999(78)90218-2

Fusar-Poli, P.; Borgwardt, S. (2008). Albert Hofmann, the father of LSD (1906–2008). Neuropsychobiology. 58, 53-54.

Garcia-Romeu, A., Griffiths, R. R., & Johnson, M. W. (2014). Psilocybin-occasioned mystical experiences in the treatment of tobacco addiction. Current drug abuse reviews, 7(3), 157–164. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874473708666150107121331

Gardner, D. et al. (2014). Teratogenic effects of Mimosa tenuiflora in a rat model and possible role of N-methyl- and N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Journal of agricultural and food chemistry. 62(30), 7398–7401. https://doi.org/10.1021/jf5005176

Gaujac, A., Navickiene, S., Collins, M. I., Brandt, S. D., & de Andrade, J. B. (2012b). Analytical techniques for the determination of tryptamines and β-carbolines in plant matrices and in psychoactive beverages consumed during religious ceremonies and neo-shamanic urban practices. Drug testing and analysis. 4(7-8), 636–648. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1343

Gaujac, A., Aquino, A., Navickiene, S., & Andrade, J. B. (2012a). Determination of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in Mimosa tenuiflora inner barks by matrix solid-phase dispersion procedure and GC-MS. Journal of Chromatography B. 881,107-110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2011.11.014

Glennon, R. A., Titeler, M., & McKenney, J. D. (1984). Evidence for 5-HT2 involvement in the mechanism of action of hallucinogenic agents. Life Sciences. 35(25), 2505-2511. https://doi.org/10.1016/0024-3205(84)90436-3

Gresch, P. J., Smith, R. L., Barrett, R. J., & Sanders-Bush, E. (2005). Behavioral tolerance to lysergic acid diethylamide is associated with reduced serotonin-2A receptor signaling in rat cortex. Neuropsychopharmacology : official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology. 30(9), 1693–1702. https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.npp.1300711

Griffiths, R. R., Hurwitz, E. S., Davis, A. K., Johnson, M. W., & Jesse, R. (2019). Survey of subjective "God encounter experiences": Comparisons among naturally occurring experiences and those occasioned by the classic psychedelics psilocybin, LSD, ayahuasca, or DMT. PloS one. 14(4), e0214377. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0214377

Grof, S., Goodman, L. E., Richards, W. A., & Kurland, A. A. (1973). LSD-assisted psychotherapy in patients with terminal cancer. International pharmacopsychiatr. 8(3), 129–144. https://doi.org/10.1159/000467984

Grünewald, R. A. (2018). Nas Trilhas da Jurema. Religião & Sociedade. 38(1), 110-135. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0100-85872018v38n1cap05.

Guchhait R. B. (1976). Biogenesis of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine in human pineal gland. Journal of neurochemistry. 26(1), 187–190. https://europepmc.org/article/MED/1255170

Guiard, B. P., & Di Giovanni, G. Central serotonin-2A (5-HT2A) receptor dysfunction in depression and epilepsy: the missing link?. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 6, 2015. 10.3389/fphar.2015.00046

Guzman, G. (1983).The genus psilocybe: a systematic revision of the known species including the history, distribution and chemistry of the hallucinogenic species. Germany: J. Cramer.

Halberstadt, A. L. (2015). Recent advances in the neuropsychopharmacology of serotonergic hallucinogens. Behavioural Brain Research. 277, 99–120. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.07.016

Ham, S., Kim, T. K., Chung, S., & Im, H. I. (2017). Drug Abuse and Psychosis: New Insights into Drug-induced Psychosis. Experimental neurobiology. 26(1), 11–24. https://doi.org/10.5607/en.2017.26.1.11

Hamill, J., Hallak, J., Dursun, S. M., & Baker, G. (2019). Ayahuasca: Psychological and Physiologic Effects, Pharmacology and Potential Uses in Addiction and Mental Illness. Current neuropharmacology. 17(2), 108–128. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X16666180125095902

Heink, A., Katsikas, S., & Lange-Altman, T. (2017). Examination of the phenomenology of the Ibogaine treatment experience: role of altered states of consciousness and psychedelic experiences. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 49(3), 201-208. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2017.1290855

Howes, O. D., McCutcheon, R., Owen, M. J., & Murray, R. M. (2017). The Role of Genes, Stress, and Dopamine in the Development of Schizophrenia. Biological psychiatry. 81(1), 9–20. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsych.2016.07.014

Jiang, X. L., Shen, H. W., & Yu, A. M. (2016). Modification of 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine-induced hyperactivity by monoamine oxidase A inhibitor harmaline in mice and the underlying serotonergic mechanisms. Pharmacological reports: PR. 68(3), 608–615. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pharep.2016.01.008

Jiménez, J., Riverón-Negrete, L., Abdullaev, F., Espinosa-Aguirre, J., & Rodríguez-Arnaiz, R. (2008). Cytotoxicity of the beta-carboline alkaloids harmine and harmaline in human cell assays in vitro. Experimental and toxicologic pathology: official journal of the Gesellschaft fur Toxikologische Pathologie. 60(4-5), 381–389. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.etp.2007.12.003

Kometer M., & Vollenweider F. X. (2016) Serotonergic Hallucinogen-Induced Visual Perceptual Alterations. In: Halberstadt A.L., Vollenweider F.X., Nichols D.E. (eds) Behavioral Neurobiology of Psychedelic Drugs. Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences. 36. 257-282. Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2016_461

Koob, G., & Le Moal, M. (2001). Drug Addiction, Dysregulation of Reward, and Allostasis. Neuropsychopharmacology. 24, 97–129. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0893-133X(00)00195-0

Kraehenmann R. (2017). Dreams and Psychedelics: Neurophenomenological Comparison and Therapeutic Implications. Current neuropharmacology. 15(7), 1032–1042. https://doi.org/10.2174/1573413713666170619092629

Krebs, T. S., & Johansen, P. Ø. (2012). Lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) for alcoholism: meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 26(7), 994–1002. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881112439253

Kvam, T. M., Stewart, L. H., & Andreassen, O. A. (2018). Psychedelic drugs in the treatment of anxiety, depression and addiction. Psykedeliske stoffer i behandling av angst, depresjon og avhengighet. Tidsskrift for den Norske laegeforening : tidsskrift for praktisk medicin, ny raekke. 138(18), 10.4045/tidsskr.17.1110. https://doi.org/10.4045/tidsskr.17.1110

Lauriola, M. M., & Corazza, M. (2016). Allergic contact dermatitis caused by argan oil, neem oil, and Mimosa tenuiflora. Contact dermatitis. 75(6), 388–390. https://doi.org/10.1111/cod.12665

Lerner, A. G, & Shaul L. R. M. D. (2014). LSD flashbacks - the appearance of new visual imagery not experienced during initial intoxication: two case reports. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences. 51(4), 307-309.

Li, S. P., et al. (2018). Analogous β-Carboline Alkaloids Harmaline and Harmine Ameliorate Scopolamine-Induced Cognition Dysfunction by Attenuating Acetylcholinesterase Activity, Oxidative Stress, and Inflammation in Mice. Frontiers in pharmacology. 9, 346. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00346

Lladó-Pelfort, L., et al. (2018). Effects of Hallucinogens on Neuronal Activity. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences. 36, 75–105. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2017_473

Liechti M. E. (2017). Modern Clinical Research on LSD. Neuropsychopharmacology: official publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 42(11), 2114–2127. https://doi.org/10.1038/npp.2017.86

Litjens, R. P., & Brunt, T. M. (2016). How toxic is ibogaine? Clinical toxicology (Philadelphia, Pa.), 54(4), 297–302. https://doi.org/10.3109/15563650.2016.1138226

Liu, J. F., & Li, J. X. (2018). Drug addiction: a curable mental disorder? Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 39(12), 1823–1829. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41401-018-0180-x

Lobmaier, P., Gossop, M., Waal, H., & Bramness, J. (2010). The pharmacological treatment of opioid addiction--a clinical perspective. European journal of clinical pharmacology, 66(6), 537–545. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00228-010-0793-6

López-Giménez, J. F., & González-Maeso, J. (2018). Hallucinogens and Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor-Mediated Signaling Pathways. Current topics in behavioral neurosciences, 36, 45–73. https://doi.org/10.1007/7854_2017_478

Lusettia, M., Licata, M., Silingardi, E., Bonetti, L. R., & Palmiere, C. (2016). Therapeutic and recreational methadone cardiotoxicity. Journal of Forensic and Legal Medicine. 39, 80-84. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2016.01.016

Ly, C. et al. (2018). Psychedelics promote structural and functional neural plasticity. Cell Reports. 23(11), 3170–3182. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.05.022

Malcom, B. J., & Lee, K. C. (2017). Ayahuasca: an ancient sacrament for treatment of contemporary psychiatric illness?. Mental Health Clinician. 7(1), 39–45. https://doi.org/10.9740/mhc.2017.01.039

Marazzitia, D. (2017). Understanding the role of serotonin in psychiatric diseases. F1000Res. 6, 180. 10.12688/f1000research.10094.1

Mash, D. C., Duque, L., Page, B., & Allen-Ferdinand, K. (2018). Ibogaine Detoxification Transitions Opioid and Cocaine Abusers Between Dependence and Abstinence: Clinical Observations and Treatment Outcomes. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 5(9), 529. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.0052

McKenna, D. J., & Towers, G. H. N. (1984). Biochemistry and Pharmacology of Tryptamines and β-Carbolines A Minireview. Journal of Psychoactive Drugs. 16(4), 347-358. 10.1080/02791072.1984.10472305

Meckes-Lozoya, M. et al. (1990). N,N-dimethyltryptamine alkaloid in Mimosa tenuiflora bark (tepescohuite). Archivos de investigacion medica. 21(2), 175–177. https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/2103707/

Medeiros, R. M., de Figueiredo, A. P., Benício, T. M., Dantas, F. P., & Riet-Correa, F. (2008). Teratogenicity of Mimosa tenuiflora seeds to pregnant rats. Toxicon : official journal of the International Society on Toxinology. 51(2), 316–319. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2007.06.012

Migliaccio, G. P., Shieh, T. L. N., Byrn, S. R., Hathaway, B. A., & Nichols, D. E. (1981). “Comparison of solution conformational preferences for the hallucinogens bufotenin and psilocin using 360-MHz proton NMR spectroscopy”. Journal of Medicinal Chemistry. 24(2), 206–209. https://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/jm00134a016

Miller, M. J., Albarracin-Jordan, J., Moore, C., & Capriles, J. M. (2019). Chemical evidence for the use of multiple psychotropic plants in a 1,000-year-old ritual bundle from South America. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 116(23), 11207–11212. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1902174116

Monteiro, J.M et al. (2006). Use and traditional management of Anadenanthera colubrina(Vell.) Brenan in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil. J Ethnobiology Ethnomedicine. 2, 6 https://doi.org/10.1186/1746-4269-2-6

Mota, C.N., & Barros, J. F. P. (2002). O complexo da jurema: representações e drama social negro-indígena. In: Mota, C.N., & Albuquerque, U. P. As muitas faces da Jurema – de espécie botânica à divindade afro-indígena (p. 19-60). Recife: Bagaço.

Müller, C. P., & Homberg, J. R. (2015). The role of serotonin in drug use and addiction. Behavioural brain research. 277, 146–192. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbr.2014.04.007

Murnane K. S. (2019). Serotonin 2A receptors are a stress response system: implications for post-traumatic stress disorder. Behavioural pharmacology. 30(2 and 3-Spec Issue), 151–162. https://doi.org/10.1097/FBP.0000000000000459

Nabavi, S. M., Daglia, M., Braidy, N., & Nabavi, S. F. (2017). Natural products, micronutrients, and nutraceuticals for the treatment of depression: A short review. Nutritional neuroscience. 20(3), 180–194. https://doi.org/10.1080/1028415X.2015.1103461

Nagai, F., Nonaka, R., & Satoh Hisashi Kamimura, K. (2007). The effects of non-medically used psychoactive drugs on monoamine neurotransmission in rat brain. European journal of pharmacology. 559(2-3), 132–137. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2006.11.075

Newman, D. J. (2017). The Influence of Brazilian Biodiversity on Searching for Human Use Pharmaceuticals. Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society. 28(3), 402-414. https://dx.doi.org/10.21577/0103-5053.20160225

Nicasio, M. D. P.,Villarreal, M. L., Gillet, F., Bensaddek, L., & Fliniaux, M. A. (2005). Variation in the accumulation levels of N,N-dimethyltryptamine in micropropagated trees and in in vitro cultures of Mimosa tenuiflora. Natural Product Research. 19(1), 61-67. https://doi.org/10.1080/14786410410001658860

Noble, F., & Marie, N. (2019). Management of Opioid Addiction With Opioid Substitution Treatments: Beyond Methadone and Buprenorphine. Frontiers in psychiatry. 9, 742. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00742

Noller, G. E., Frampton, C. M., & Yazar-Klosinski, B. (2018). Ibogaine treatment outcomes for opioid dependence from a twelve-month follow-up observational study. The American journal of drug and alcohol abuse. 44(1), 37–46. https://doi.org/10.1080/00952990.2017.1310218

Nyberg, H. (1992) Religious use of hallucimnogenic fungi: a comparison between Siberian and Mesoamerican cultures. Karstenia. 32, 71-80. https://doi.org/10.29203/ka.1992.294

Omidi, Y., & Barar, J. (2012). Impacts of blood-brain barrier in drug delivery and targeting of brain tumors. BioImpacts : BI. 2(1), 5–22. https://doi.org/10.5681/bi.2012.002

Osmond, H. (1957). A review of the clinical effects of psychotomimetic agents. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences. 66(3), 418–434. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1749-6632.1957.tb40738.x

Ott J. (2001). Pharmañopo-psychonautics: human intranasal, sublingual, intrarectal, pulmonary and oral pharmacology of bufotenine. Journal of psychoactive drugs. 33(3), 273–281. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2001.10400574

Pajouhesh, H., & Lenz, G. R. (2005). Medicinal chemical properties of successful central nervous system drugs. NeuroRx : the journal of the American Society for Experimental NeuroTherapeutics. 2(4), 541–553. https://doi.org/10.1602/neurorx.2.4.541

Paparelli, A., Di Forti, A., Morrison, P. D., & Murray, R. M. (2011). Drug-induced psychosis: how to avoid star gazing in schizophrenia research by looking at more obvious sources of light. Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience. 5(1). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00001

Passie, T., Halpern, J. H., Stichtenoth, D. O., Emrich, H. M., & Hintzen, A. (2008). The pharmacology of lysergic acid diethylamide: a review. CNS neuroscience & therapeutics. 14(4), 295–314. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1755-5949.2008.00059.x

Passie, T., Seifert, J., Schneider, U., & Emrich, H. M. (2002). The pharmacology of psilocybin. Addiction biology. 7(4), 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1080/1355621021000005937

Paula, J. E. (1981). Estudo das estruturas internas das madeiras de dezesseis espécies da flora brasileira visando o aproveitamento econômico para a produção de álcool, carvão, coque e papel. Brasil Florestal. 11(47), 23-50.

Penido, A. B. et al. (2017). Medicinal Plants from Northeastern Brazil against Alzheimer's Disease. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2017, 7. https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/1753673

Pimentel, L. A. et al. (2007). Mimosa tenuiflora as a Cause of Malformations in Ruminants in the Northeastern Brazilian Semiarid Rangelands. Veterinary Pathology. 44(6), 928–931. https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.44-6-928

Pithadia, A. B., & Jain, S. M. (2009). 5-Hydroxytryptamine receptor subtypes and their modulators with therapeutic potentials. Journal of clinical medicine research. 1(2), 72–80. https://doi.org/10.4021/jocmr2009.05.1237

Riba, J., McIlhenny, E. H., Bouso, J. C., & Barker, S. A. (2015). Metabolism and urinary disposition of N,N-dimethyltryptamine after oral and smoked administration: a comparative study. Drug testing and analysis. 7(5), 401–406. https://doi.org/10.1002/dta.1685

Rodd R. (2002). Snuff synergy: preparation, use and pharmacology of yopo and Banisteriopsis caapi among the Piaroa of southern Venezuela. Journal of psychoactive drugs. 34(3), 273–279. https://doi.org/10.1080/02791072.2002.10399963

Rodrigues, P. M. S., Silva, J. O., Eisenlohr, P. V., & Schaefer, C. E. G. R. (2015). Climate change effects on the geographic distribution of specialist tree species of the Brazilian tropical dry forests. Brazilian Journal of Biology, 75(3), 679-684. https://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1519-6984.20913

Roth, B. L. (2011). 5-HT2A serotonin receptor biology: Interacting proteins, kinases and paradoxical regulation. Neuropharmacology. 61(3), 348–354. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2011.01.012

Rother, E. T. (2007). Revisão sistemática X revisão narrativa. Acta Paulista de Enfermagem. 20(2), v-vi. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-21002007000200001

Rovida, C. et al. (2015). Toxicity testing in the 21st century beyond environmental chemicals. ALTEX. 32(3), 171–181. https://doi.org/10.14573/altex.1506201

Rucker, J. J., Jelen, L. A., Flynn, S., Frowde, K. D., & Young, A. H. (2016). Psychedelics in the treatment of unipolar mood disorders: a systematic review. Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England). 30(12), 1220–1229. https://doi.org/10.1177/0269881116679368

Savage, C., & McCabe, O. L. (1973). Residential psychedelic (LSD) therapy for the narcotic addict. A controlled study. Archives of general psychiatry. 28(6), 808–814. https://doi.org/10.1001/archpsyc.1973.01750360040005

Schenberg, E. E. (2018). Psychedelic-Assisted psychotherapy: a paradigm shift in psychiatric research and development. Frontiers in Pharmacology. 9. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00733

Schep, L. J., Slaughter, R. J., Galea, S., & Newcombe, D. (2016). Ibogaine for treating drug dependence. What is a safe dose? Drug and alcohol dependence, 166, 1–5. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2016.07.005

Schultes, R. E.; Hofmann, A., & Ratsch, C. (2001). Plants of the gods: their sacred, healing, and hallucinogenic powers. (2a ed). Rev. Healing Arts Press.

Sellers E. M. (2017). Psilocybin: good trip or bad trip. Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics. 102(4), 580–584. https://doi.org/10.1002/cpt.697

Shal, B., Ding, W., Ali, H., Kim, Y. S., & Khan, S. (2018). Anti-neuroinflammatory Potential of Natural Products in Attenuation of Alzheimer's Disease. Frontiers in pharmacology. 9, 548. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2018.00548

Shen, H. W., Jiang, X. L., & Yu, A. M. (2009). Development of a LC-MS/MS method to analyze 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine and bufotenine, and application to pharmacokinetic study. Bioanalysis. 1(1), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.4155/bio.09.7

Shukla, S. J., Huang, R., Austin, C. P., & Xia, M. (2010). The future of toxicity testing: a focus on in vitro methods using a quantitative high-throughput screening platform. Drug discovery today. 15(23-24), 997–1007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drudis.2010.07.007

Sloan, M. E., Gowin, J. L., Ramchandani, V. A., Hurd, Y. L., & Le Foll, B. (2017). The endocannabinoid system as a target for addiction treatment: Trials and tribulations. Neuropharmacology. 124, 73–83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2017.05.031

Smith, R. L., Canton, H., Barrett, R., & Sanders-Bush, E. (1998). Agonist Properties of N,N-Dimethyltryptamine at Serotonin 5-HT2A and 5-HT2C Receptors. Pharmacology Biochemistry and Behavior. 61, 323−330. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0091-3057(98)00110-5

Soni, P., Namana, V., Aggarwal, N., Rai, A. K., & Kupfer, Y. (2018). Methadone Induced Near Fatal Cardiotoxicity Leading to Cardiac Arrest and Tako-Tsubo Cardiomyopathy. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. https://www.atsjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1164/ajrccm-conference.2018.197.1_MeetingAbstracts.A6925

Sousa, G. A. et al. (2018). Gastroprotective effect of ethanol extracts of cladodes and roots of Pilosocereus gounellei (A. Weber ex K. Schum.) Bly. Ex Rowl (Cactaceae) on experimental ulcer models. Journal of Ethnopharmacology. 218, 100-108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jep.2018.02.009

Souza, R. S. O., Albuquerque, U. P., Monteiro, J. M., & Amorim, E. L. C. (2008). Jurema-Preta (Mimosa tenuiflora [Willd.] Poir.): a review of its traditional use, phytochemistry and pharmacology. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. 51(5), 937-947. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1516-89132008000500010

Soyka, M. et al. (2008). World federation of societies of biological psychiatry (WFSBP) guidelines for biological treatment of substance use and related disorders, part 1: alcoholism. The World Journal of Biological Psychiatry. 9(1), 6–23. 10.1080/15622970801896390

Spencer, D.G., Glaser, T. & Traber, J. (1987). Serotonin receptor subtype mediation of the interoceptive discriminative stimuli induced by 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine. Psychopharmacology. 93, 158–166. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF00179927

Stace, W. T. (1960). Mysticism and philosophy. MacMillan Press.

Szabo, A., Kovacs, A., Frecska, E., & Rajnavolgyi, E. (2014). Psychedelic N,N-dimethyltryptamine and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine modulate innate and adaptive inflammatory responses through the sigma-1 receptor of human monocyte-derived dendritic cells. PloS one. 9(8), e106533. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0106533

Talin, P., & Sanabria, E. (2017). Ayahuasca's entwined efficacy: An ethnographic study of ritual healing from 'addiction'. The International journal on drug policy. 44, 23–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.drugpo.2017.02.017

Teixeira, L. S. (2016). Impacto econômico da legalização das drogas no Brasil. Brasília, DF. Câmara dos deputados. https://www2.camara.leg.br/atividade-legislativa/estudos-e-notas-tecnicas/estudos-por-assunto/tema10/impacto-economico-da-legalizacao-das-drogas-no-brasil

Tittarelli, R., Mannocchi, G., Pantano, F., & Romolo, F. S. (2015). Recreational use, analysis and toxicity of tryptamines. Current neuropharmacology. 13(1), 26–46. https://doi.org/10.2174/1570159X13666141210222409

Tokarnia, C. H., Peixoto, P. V., Brito, M. F., Duarte, M. D., & Brust, L. A. C. (1999). Estudos experimentais com plantas cianogênicas em bovinos. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira. 19(2), 84-90. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0100-736X1999000200006

Torres, C. M. (1998). Psychoactive Substances in the archaelogy of northern Chile and nw argetina a comparative review of the evidence. Chungará (Arica), 30(1), 49-63. https://dx.doi.org/10.4067/S0717-73561998000100004

Torres, C. M., & Repke, D. (2006). Anadenanthera: visionary plant of ancient South America. (p. 256). The Haworth Herbal Press.

Underwood, M. D. et al. (2018). Serotonin receptors and suicide, major depression, alcohol use disorder and reported early life adversity. Translational psychiatry. 8(1), 279. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41398-018-0309-1

United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). (2019). World Drug Report 2019. wdr.unodc.org/wdr2019.

Vepsalainen, J. J., Auriola, S., Tukiainen, M., Ropponen, N., & Callaway, J.C. (2005). Isolation and characterization of yuremamine, a new phytoindole. Planta Medica. 71(11), 1053-1057. https://pubag.nal.usda.gov/catalog/1529452

Vigerelli, H. et al. (2018). Biological Effects and Biodistribution of Bufotenine on Mice. BioMed research international. 2018, 1032638. https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/1032638

Volkow, N. D., Koob, G. F., & McLellan, A. T. (2016). Neurobiologic Advances from the Brain Disease Model of Addiction. The New England journal of medicine. 374(4), 363–371. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMra1511480

Volkow, N. D., Wise, R. A., & Baler, R. (2017). The dopamine motive system: implications for drug and food addiction. Nature reviews. Neuroscience. 18(12), 741–752. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn.2017.130

Volpi-Abadie, J., Kaye, A. M., & Kaye, A. D. (2013). Serotonin syndrome. Ochsner Journal. 13(4), 533–540. http://www.ochsnerjournal.org/content/13/4/533

Vosgerau, S. A. R., & Romanowski, P. (2014). Estudos de revisão: implicações conceituais e metodológicas. Revista Diálogo Educacional. 14(41), 165-189. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.7213/dialogo.educ.14.041.DS08

Wei, C. et al. (2018). Response dynamics of midbrain dopamine neurons and serotonin neurons to heroin, nicotine, cocaine, and MDMA. Cell discovery. 4, 60. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41421-018-0060-z

Weil, A. T., & Davis, W. (1994). Bufo alvarius: a potent hallucinogen of animal origin. Journal of ethnopharmacology. 41(1-2), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1016/0378-8741(94)90051-5

Winkelman M. (2014). Psychedelics as medicines for substance abuse rehabilitation: evaluating treatments with LSD, Peyote, Ibogaine and Ayahuasca. Current drug abuse reviews. 7(2), 101–116. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874473708666150107120011

Wong, Y. C. et al. (2019). Neuronal vulnerability in Parkinson disease: should the focus be on axons and synaptic terminals?. Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 34(10), 1406–1422. https://doi.org/10.1002/mds.27823

Xi, Z. X., Gardner, E. L. (2008). Hypothesis-driven medication discovery for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. Current Drug Abuse Reviews. 1(3), 303-327. DOI: 10.2174/1874473710801030303.

Xu, C. et al. (2016). Orbitofrontal cortex 5-HT2A receptor mediates chronic stress-induced depressive-like behaviors and alterations of spine density and Kalirin7. Neuropharmacology. 109, 7-17. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neuropharm.2016.02.020

Zhang, G., & Stackman, R. W., Jr (2015). The role of serotonin 5-HT2A receptors in memory and cognition. Frontiers in pharmacology. 6, 225. https://doi.org/10.3389/fphar.2015.00225

Zhu, W., Zhang, Y., Huang, Y., & Lu, L. (2017). Chinese Herbal Medicine for the Treatment of Drug Addiction. International review of neurobiology. 135, 279–295. https://doi.org/10.1016/bs.irn.2017.02.013

Zou, Z. et al. (2017). Definition of Substance and Non-substance Addiction. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. 1010, 21–41. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-5562-1_2



How to Cite

SOUSA, P. C. M. de .; SOUSA, I. N. A. de .; LEITE, L. L. L. .; OLIVEIRA, A. L. O. .; SOUZA, K. A. da S. .; SOARES, J. dos S. .; VIANA, M. da R. .; AMARAL, M. P. de M. do . Mimosa tenuiflora (Willd.) Poir and Anadenanthera colubrina as alternatives in drug addiction treatment. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 4, p. e48710414251, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i4.14251. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/14251. Acesso em: 16 may. 2021.



Health Sciences