Quantitative analysis of the mandible for sex estimation

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i4.14284

Keywords:

Forensic Anthropology; Mandible; Sex Determination by Skeleton; Forensic Dentistry.

Abstract

This study aimed to investigate the applicability of mandibular measures for sex estimation in human dry skulls from two Brazilian bone collections. This was a blind diagnostic study with 471 mandibles of 215 females and 256 males. The variables considered were: bigonial-width; bicondylar-width; right/left condylar process width; coronoid width; distance between the mandibular foramina; distance between the mental foramina; distance between the genial spinal foramina and the right/left mandibular foramina; right/left coronoid process height; right and left mandibular ramus height; right/left mandibular thickness; anterior mandibular thickness; maximum width of the right and left mandibular ramus; minimum width of the right and left mandibular ramus; mandibular-length; and the mandibular angle. Discriminant analysis was performed to check for associations concerning sex both for individual and total measurements. The statistical analysis indicated that all variables were found to be significantly associated with sex. When applied to males and females, the stepwise method correctly classified 77.50% and 80.20% of the cases, respectively, with a total percentage of agreement of 78.70%. The left mandibular ramus height (74.80%) and the bigonial width (77.60%) were the variables with the highest agreement rates among males and females, respectively. Equations were generated from the discriminant analysis for each variable and a unique formula for the six variables showed the highest preference for sex. All mandibular measures were statistically different between the sexes, suggesting that the mandible plays an important role in forensic anthropology as a source of quantitative information for sex estimation.

References

Azaroual, M. F., Fikri, M., Abouqal, R., Benyahya, H., & Zaoui, F. (2014). Relationship between dimensions of muscles of mastication (masseter and lateral pterygoid) and skeletal dimensions: study of 40 cases. International orthodontics, 12(1), 111-124.

Belaldavar, C., Acharya, A. B., & Angadi, P. (2019). Sex estimation in Indians by digital analysis of the gonial angle on lateral cephalographs. The Journal of forensic odonto-stomatology, 37(2), 45.

Datta, A., Siddappa, S. C., Gowda, V. K., Channabasappa, S. R., Shivalingappa, S. B., & Dey, D. (2015). A study of sex determination from human mandible using various morphometrical parameters. Indian Journal of Forensic and Community Medicine, 2(3), 158-166.

Dong, H., Deng, M., Wang, W., Zhang, J., Mu, J., & Zhu, G. (2015). Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a contemporary Chinese Han population. Forensic science international, 255, 9-15.

Durso, D. F., Bydlowski, S. P., Hutz, M. H., Suarez-Kurtz, G., Magalhães, T. R., & Pena, S. D. J. (2014). Association of genetic variants with self-assessed color categories in Brazilians. PLoS One, 9(1), e83926.

Franklin, D., O’Higgins, P., Oxnard, C. E., & Dadour, I. (2008). Discriminant function sexing of the mandible of indigenous South Africans. Forensic Science International, 179(1), 84-e1.

Gamba, T., Alves, M. C., & Haiter-Neto, F. (2016). Mandibular sexual dimorphism analysis in CBCT scans. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 38, 106–110. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jflm.2015.11.024

Gharehdaghi, J., Baazm, M., Ghadipasha, M., Solhi, S., & Toutounchian, F. (2018). Anthropometric measurements in Iranian men. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 53, 31-34.

İlgüy, D., İlgüy, M., Ersan, N., Dölekoğlu, S., & Fişekçioğlu, E. (2014). Measurements of the foramen magnum and mandible in relation to sex using CBCT. Journal of forensic sciences, 59(3), 601-605.

Indira, A. P., Markande, A., & David, M. P. (2012). Mandibular ramus: An indicator for sex determination-A digital radiographic study. Journal of forensic dental sciences, 4(2), 58.

James, S. H., & Nordby, J. J. (2002). Forensic science: an introduction to scientific and investigative techniques. CRC press.

Kano, T., Oritani, S., Michiue, T., Ishikawa, T., Hishmat, A. M., Sogawa, N., ... & Maeda, H. (2015). Postmortem CT morphometry with a proposal of novel parameters for sex discrimination of the mandible using Japanese adult data. Legal Medicine, 17(3), 167-171.

Kehdy, F. S., Gouveia, M. H., Machado, M., Magalhães, W. C., Horimoto, A. R., Horta, B. L., & Brazilian EPIGEN Project Consortium. (2015). Origin and dynamics of admixture in Brazilians and its effect on the pattern of deleterious mutations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 112(28), 8696-8701.

Kharoshah, M. A. A., Almadani, O., Ghaleb, S. S., Zaki, M. K., & Fattah, Y. A. A. (2010). Sexual dimorphism of the mandible in a modern Egyptian population. Journal of forensic and legal medicine, 17(4), 213-215.

Kumar, M. P., & Lokanadham, S. (2013). Sex determination & morphometric parameters of human mandible. Int J Res Med Sci, 1(2), 93-96.

Lima-Costa, M. F., Rodrigues, L. C., Barreto, M. L., Gouveia, M., Horta, B. L., Mambrini, J., & Tarazona-Santos, E. (2015). Genomic ancestry and ethnoracial self-classification based on 5,871 community-dwelling Brazilians (The Epigen Initiative). Scientific reports, 5(1), 1-7.

Lin, C., Jiao, B., Liu, S., Guan, F., Chung, N. E., Han, S. H., & Lee, U. Y. (2014). Sex determination from the mandibular ramus flexure of Koreans by discrimination function analysis using three-dimensional mandible models. Forensic science international, 236, 191-e1.

Lopez-Capp, T. T., Rynn, C., Wilkinson, C., de Paiva, L. A. S., Michel-Crosato, E., & Biazevic, M. G. H. (2018). Discriminant analysis of mandibular measurements for the estimation of sex in a modern Brazilian sample. International journal of legal medicine, 132(3), 843-851.

Mehta, H., Bhuvaneshwari, S., Singh, M. P., Nahar, P., Mehta, K., & Sharma, T. (2020). Gender determination using mandibular ramus and gonial angle on OPG. Journal of Indian Academy of Oral Medicine and Radiology, 32(2), 154.

Pereira, M. G. (2001). Epidemiologia: teoria e prática. In Epidemiologia: teoria e prática (pp. 596-596).

Rouquayrol, M. Z., & Almeida Filho, N. (2006). Epidemiologia e Saúde. (4a ed.).

Saini, V., Srivastava, R., Rai, R. K., Shamal, S. N., Singh, T. B., & Tripathi, S. K. (2011). Mandibular ramus: An indicator for sex in fragmentary mandible. Journal of forensic sciences, 56, S13-S16.

Saini, V., Srivastava, R., Rai, R. K., Shamal, S. N., Singh, T. B., & Tripathi, S. K. (2011). Mandibular ramus: An indicator for sex in fragmentary mandible. Journal of forensic sciences, 56, S13-S16.

Sharma, M., Gorea, R. K., Gorea, A., & Abuderman, A. (2016). A morphometric study of the human mandible in the Indian population for sex determination. Egyptian Journal of Forensic Sciences, 6(2), 165-169.

Spradley, M. K. (2016). Metric methods for the biological profile in forensic anthropology: sex, ancestry, and stature. Academic forensic pathology, 6(3), 391-399.

Tunis, T. S., Sarig, R., Cohen, H., Medlej, B., Peled, N., & May, H. (2017). Sex estimation using computed tomography of the mandible. International journal of legal medicine, 131(6), 1691-1700.

Upadhyay, R. B., Upadhyay, J., Agrawal, P., & Rao, N. N. (2012). Analysis of gonial angle in relation to age, gender, and dentition status by radiological and anthropometric methods. Journal of forensic dental sciences, 4(1), 29.

Vinay, G., Mangala Gowri, S. R., & Anbalagan, J. (2013). Sex determination of human mandible using metrical parameters. Journal of clinical and diagnostic research: JCDR, 7(12), 2671.

Downloads

Published

18/04/2021

How to Cite

BENTO, M. I. C. .; CROSATO, E. M. .; SANTIAGO, B. M.; SORIANO, E. P. .; CARVALHO, M. V. D. de .; RABELLO, P. M. .; FRANCESQUINI JÚNIOR, L.; ALMEIDA, A. C. de .; CAMPELLO, R. I. C. . Quantitative analysis of the mandible for sex estimation. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 4, p. e45910414284, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i4.14284. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/14284. Acesso em: 11 may. 2021.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences