Digital image filters are not necessarily related to improvement in diagnostic of degenerative bone changes in the temporomandibular joint on cone beam computed tomography




Cone beam computed tomography; Temporomandibular joint; Diagnosis.


This study assessed whether the use of digital image filters influences the detection of temporomandibular joint (TMJ) bone changes on cone beam computed tomography (CBCT). Two radiologists evaluated the TMJ images of CBCT scans to verify the presence of osteophytes, erosions, pseudocysts, bone sclerosis and flattening, using the software XoranCAT®; each image of the TMJ was assessed with and without the use of the following filters: Angio Sharpen 3x3 and Angio Sharpen 5x5. Kruskal-Wallis’ test was used to assess whether the application of filters influenced the scores assigned to the degenerative bone changes in the condyle. Flattening was present in 15 cases (51.72%), followed by osteophytes in six cases (20.69%), sclerosis in three cases (10.34%), and erosion in three cases (10.34%), with pseudocyst found in two cases (6.90%). No statistically significant difference was found in the scores (P = 0.786) regarding the original images and those treated with both filters. Digital image filters used in our study did not influence the diagnosis of degenerative bone changes in the TMJ on CBCT images.


Al-Ekrish, A. A., Al-Juhani, H. O., Alhaidari, R. I., & Alfaleh, W. M. (2015). Comparative study of the prevalence of temporomandibular joint osteoarthritic changes in cone beam computed tomograms of patients with or without temporomandibular disorder. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology, 120(1), 78–85.

Alkhader, M., Al-Sadhan, R. & Al-Shawaf, R. (2012). Cone-beam computed tomography findings of temporomandibular joints with osseous abnormalities. Oral Radiol, 28, 82–86.

Al-Shwaikh, H., Urtane, I., Pirttiniemi, P., Pesonen, P., Krisjane, Z., Jankovska, I., Davidsone, Z., & Stanevica, V. (2016). Radiologic features of temporomandibular joint osseous structures in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis. Cone beam computed tomography study. Stomatologija, 18(2), 51–60.

Bastos, L. C., Campos, P. S., Ramos-Perez, F. M., Pontual, A., & Almeida, S. M. (2013). Evaluation of condyle defects using different reconstruction protocols of cone-beam computed tomography. Brazilian oral research, 27(6), 503–509.

Bertram, F., Hupp, L., Schnabl, D., Rudisch, A., & Emshoff, R. (2018). Association Between Missing Posterior Teeth and Occurrence of Temporomandibular Joint Condylar Erosion: A Cone Beam Computed Tomography Study. The International journal of prosthodontics, 31(1), 9–14.

Carvalho, D. D., Arias Lorza, A. M., Niessen, W. J., de Bruijne, M., & Klein, S. (2017). Automated Registration of Freehand B-Mode Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging of the Carotid Arteries Based on Geometric Features. Ultrasound in medicine & biology, 43(1), 273–285.

Chen, S., Lei, J., Fu, K. Y., Wang, X., & Yi, B. (2015). Cephalometric Analysis of the Facial Skeletal Morphology of Female Patients Exhibiting Skeletal Class II Deformity with and without Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthrosis. PloS one, 10(10), e0139743.

Choudhary, A., Ahuja, U. S., Rathore, A., Puri, N., Dhillon, M., & Budakoti, A. (2020). Association of temporomandibular joint morphology in patients with and without temporomandibular joint dysfunction: A cone-beam computed tomography based study. Dental research journal, 17(5), 338–346.

Cömert Kiliç, S., Kiliç, N., & Sümbüllü, M. A. (2015). Temporomandibular joint osteoarthritis: cone beam computed tomography findings, clinical features, and correlations. International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery, 44(10), 1268–1274.

De Azevedo Vaz, S. L., Vasconcelos, T. V., Neves, F. S., de Freitas, D. Q., & Haiter-Neto, F. (2012). Influence of cone-beam computed tomography enhancement filters on diagnosis of simulated external root resorption. Journal of endodontics, 38(3), 305–308.

De Sousa, E. T., Pinheiro, M. A., Maciel, P. P., & Sales, M. A. (2017). Influence of enhancement filters in apical bone loss measurement: A cone-beam computed tomography study. Journal of clinical and experimental dentistry, 9(4), e516–e519.

Dos Anjos Pontual, M. L., Freire, J. S., Barbosa, J. M., Frazão, M. A., & dos Anjos Pontual, A. (2012). Evaluation of bone changes in the temporomandibular joint using cone beam CT. Dento maxillo facial radiology, 41(1), 24–29.

Derwich, M., Mitus-Kenig, M., & Pawlowska, E. (2020). Interdisciplinary Approach to the Temporomandibular Joint Osteoarthritis-Review of the Literature. Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 56(5), 225.

Eliášová, H., & Dostálová, T. (2017). 3D Multislice and Cone-beam Computed Tomography Systems for Dental Identification. Prague medical report, 118(1), 14–25.

García-Sanz, V., Bellot-Arcís, C., Hernández, V., Serrano-Sánchez, P., Guarinos, J., & Paredes-Gallardo, V. (2017). Accuracy and Reliability of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography for Linear and Volumetric Mandibular Condyle Measurements. A Human Cadaver Study. Scientific reports, 7(1), 11993.

Hou, L., Ye, G. H., Liu, X. J., & Li, Z. L. (2020). Beijing da xue xue bao. Yi xue ban = Journal of Peking University. Health sciences, 52(1), 113–118.

Jain, S., Choudhary, K., Nagi, R., Shukla, S., Kaur, N., & Grover, D. (2019). New evolution of cone-beam computed tomography in dentistry: Combining digital technologies. Imaging science in dentistry, 49(3), 179–190.

Ladeira, D. B., da Cruz, A. D., & de Almeida, S. M. (2015). Digital panoramic radiography for diagnosis of the temporomandibular joint: CBCT as the gold standard. Brazilian oral research, 29(1), S1806–S8.32420150001003E16.

Liang, X., Liu, S., Qu, X., Wang, Z., Zheng, J., Xie, X., Ma, G., Zhang, Z., & Ma, X. (2017). Evaluation of trabecular structure changes in osteoarthritis of the temporomandibular joint with cone beam computed tomography imaging. Oral surgery, oral medicine, oral pathology and oral radiology, 124(3), 315–322.

Librizzi, Z. T., Tadinada, A. S., Valiyaparambil, J. V., Lurie, A. G., & Mallya, S. M. (2011). Cone-beam computed tomography to detect erosions of the temporomandibular joint: Effect of field of view and voxel size on diagnostic efficacy and effective dose. American journal of orthodontics and dentofacial orthopedics : official publication of the American Association of Orthodontists, its constituent societies, and the American Board of Orthodontics, 140(1), e25–e30.

Miller, E., Inarejos Clemente, E. J., Tzaribachev, N., Guleria, S., Tolend, M., Meyers, A. B., von Kalle, T., Stimec, J., Koos, B., Appenzeller, S., Arvidsson, L. Z., Kirkhus, E., Doria, A. S., Kellenberger, C. J., & Larheim, T. A. (2018). Imaging of temporomandibular joint abnormalities in juvenile idiopathic arthritis with a focus on developing a magnetic resonance imaging protocol. Pediatric radiology, 48(6), 792–800.

Monteiro, B. M., Nobrega Filho, D. S., Lopes, P., & de Sales, M. A. (2012). Impact of Image Filters and Observations Parameters in CBCT for Identification of Mandibular Osteolytic Lesions. International journal of dentistry, 2012, 239306.

Oliveira, S. R., Oliveira, R., Rodrigues, E. D., Junqueira, J., & Panzarella, F. K. (2020). Accuracy of Panoramic Radiography for Degenerative Changes of the Temporomandibular Joint. Journal of International Society of Preventive & Community Dentistry, 10(1), 96–100.

Pallaver, A., & Honigmann, P. (2019). The Role of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) Scan for Detection and Follow-Up of Traumatic Wrist Pathologies. The Journal of hand surgery, 44(12), 1081–1087.

Simon, J., Longis, P. M., & Passuti, N. (2017). Correlation between radiographic parameters and functional scores in degenerative lumbar and thoracolumbar scoliosis. Orthopaedics & traumatology, surgery & research : OTSR, 103(2), 285–290.

Soares, L. E., Freitas, D. Q., Lima, K. L., Silva, L. R., Yamamoto-Silva, F. P., & Vieira, M. (2021). Application of image processing techniques to aid in the detection of vertical root fractures in digital periapical radiography. Clinical oral investigations, 10.1007/s00784-021-03820-z. Advance online publication.

Sun, H., Su, Y., Song, N., Li, C., Shi, Z., & Li, L. (2018). Clinical Outcome of Sodium Hyaluronate Injection into the Superior and Inferior Joint Space for Osteoarthritis of the Temporomandibular Joint Evaluated by Cone-Beam Computed Tomography: A Retrospective Study of 51 Patients and 56 Joints. Medical science monitor : international medical journal of experimental and clinical research, 24, 5793–5801.

Urtane, I., Jankovska, I., Al-Shwaikh, H., & Krisjane, Z. (2018). Correlation of temporomandibular joint clinical signs with cone beam computed tomography radiologic features in juvenile idiopathic arthritis patients. Stomatologija, 20(3), 82–89.

Verner, F. S., D'Addazio, P. S., Campos, C. N., Devito, K. L., Almeida, S. M., & Junqueira, R. B. (2017). Influence of Cone-Beam Computed Tomography filters on diagnosis of simulated endodontic complications. International endodontic journal, 50(11), 1089–1096.

Verner, F. S., Visconti, M. A. P. G., Junqueira, R. B., Dias, I. M., Ferreira, L. A., & Devito, K. L. (2015). Performance of cone-beam computed tomography filters for detection of temporomandibular joint osseous changes. Oral Radiol, 31, 90–96.




How to Cite

MARQUES, L. M.; COSTA, A. L. F. .; BAEDER, F. M. .; CORAZZA, P. F. L. .; SILVA, D. F. .; ALBUQUERQUE, A. C. L. de; JUNQUEIRA, J. L. C.; PANZARELLA, F. K. Digital image filters are not necessarily related to improvement in diagnostic of degenerative bone changes in the temporomandibular joint on cone beam computed tomography . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 4, p. e44010414296, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i4.14296. Disponível em: Acesso em: 16 may. 2021.



Health Sciences