Moderate and severe symptoms of anxiety and depression are increased among female medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i6.15406

Keywords:

COVID-19; Mental Health; Anxiety; Student, Medical; Depression.

Abstract

Background: Emotional disorders in medical students are expected and deserve more attention, especially during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Objective: Evaluate anxiety and depression disorders among medical students during the COVID-19 Pandemic. Methods:  A cross-sectional study at a private medical college in Brazil, two months after stay-at-home order and postponed classes due to the COVID-19 Pandemic. A survey among medical students was conducted in May 2020, using questionnaires regarding social and demographic status, the GAD-7 for symptoms of anxiety, and the PHQ-9 for symptoms of depression. Results: A total of 340 of 347 (97.98%) medical students participated. The average GAD-7 score was 9.18 (±4.75), and the average PHQ-9 score was 12.72 (±6.62). The results indicate a significant positive relationship between GAD-7 and females (F=5.816 P=.016). Using a cut-off score of 10 for GAD-7, 157 (46.17%) students were identified with moderate or severe anxiety symptoms. For the PHQ-9 score, using a cut-off of 10 219 (64.41%), students were recognized with moderate or severe symptoms of depression; the results indicate a significant positive relationship between the PHQ-9 and females (F=5.640 P=.018). Conclusion: The analysis demonstrated a significantly higher prevalence of moderate and severe anxiety    and depression symptoms among female medical students during the COVID-19 Pandemic.

References

Ahmed, I., Banu, H., Al-Fageer, R., & Al-Suwaidi, R. (2009). Cognitive emotions: Depression and anxiety in medical students and staff. Journal of Critical Care, 24(3), e1–e7. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcrc.2009.06.003

Baldassin, S., Alves, T. C. D. T. F., De Andrade, A. G., & Nogueira Martins, L. A. (2008). The characteristics of depressive symptoms in medical students during medical education and training: A cross-sectional study. BMC Medical Education. https://doi.org/10.1186/1472-6920-8-60

Beard, C., & Björgvinsson, T. (2014). Beyond generalized anxiety disorder: Psychometric properties of the GAD-7 in a heterogeneous psychiatric sample. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2014.06.002

Bendtsen, M., Müssener, U., Linderoth, C., & Thomas, K. (2020). A Mobile Health Intervention for Mental Health Promotion Among University Students: Randomized Controlled Trial. JMIR MHealth and UHealth, 8(3), e17208. https://doi.org/10.2196/17208

Cullen, W., Gulati, G., & Kelly, B. D. (2020). Mental health in the COVID-19 Pandemic. QJM: An International Journal of Medicine, 113(5), 311–312. https://doi.org/10.1093/qjmed/hcaa110

Dyrbye, L. N., Thomas, M. R., & Shanafelt, T. D. (2006). Systematic review of depression, anxiety, and other indicators of psychological distress among U.S. and Canadian medical students. Academic Medicine, 81(4), 354–373. https://doi.org/10.1097/00001888-200604000-00009

Inoue, T., Tanaka, T., Nakagawa, S., Nakato, Y., Kameyama, R., Boku, S., … Koyama, T. (2012). Utility and limitations of PHQ-9 in a clinic specializing in psychiatric care. BMC Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-244X-12-73

Iqbal, S., Gupta, S., & Venkatarao, E. (2015). Stress, anxiety & depression among medical undergraduate students & their socio-demographic correlates. Indian Journal of Medical Research, Supplement, 141(Mar2015), 354–357. https://doi.org/10.4103/0971-5916.156571

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. W. (2001a). The PHQ-9: Validity of a brief depression severity measure. Journal of General Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., & Williams, J. B. W. (2001b). The PHQ-9. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 16(9), 606–613. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1525-1497.2001.016009606.x

Kroenke, K., Spitzer, R. L., Williams, J. B. W., Monahan, P. O., & Löwe, B. (2007). Anxiety disorders in primary care: Prevalence, impairment, comorbidity, and detection. Annals of Internal Medicine, 146(5), 317–325. https://doi.org/10.7326/0003-4819-146-5-200703060-00004

Lai, J., Ma, S., Wang, Y., Cai, Z., Hu, J., Wei, N., & Hu, S. (2020). Factors Associated With Mental Health Outcomes Among Health Care Workers Exposed to Coronavirus Disease 2019. JAMA Network Open, 3(3), e203976. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.3976

Manea, L., Gilbody, S., & McMillan, D. (2012). Optimal cut-off score for diagnosing depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire (PHQ-9): a meta-analysis. Canadian Medical Association Journal, 184(3), E191–E196. https://doi.org/10.1503/cmaj.110829

Moutinho, I. L. D., Maddalena, N. de C. P., Roland, R. K., Lucchetti, A. L. G., Tibiriçá, S. H. C., Ezequiel, O. da S., & Lucchetti, G. (2017). Depression, stress and anxiety in medical students: A cross-sectional comparison between students from different semesters. Revista Da Associação Médica Brasileira, 63(1), 21–28. https://doi.org/10.1590/1806-9282.63.01.21

Pappa, S., Ntella, V., Giannakas, T., Giannakoulis, V. G., Papoutsi, E., & Katsaounou, P. (2020). Prevalence of depression, anxiety, and insomnia among healthcare workers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.026

Puthran, R., Zhang, M. W. B., Tam, W. W., & Ho, R. C. (2016). Prevalence of depression amongst medical students: a meta-analysis. Medical Education, 50(4), 456–468. https://doi.org/10.1111/medu.12962

Rosenthal, J. M., & Okie, S. (2005). White Coat, Mood Indigo — Depression in Medical School. New England Journal of Medicine, 353(11), 1085–1088. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMp058183

Sahu, P. (2020). Closure of Universities Due to Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): Impact on Education and Mental Health of Students and Academic Staff. Cureus, 2019(4), 4–9. https://doi.org/10.7759/cureus.7541

Santos, I. S., Tavares, B. F., Munhoz, T. N., Almeida, L. S. P. de, Silva, N. T. B. da, Tams, B. D., & Matijasevich, A. (2013). Sensibilidade e especificidade do Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) entre adultos da população geral. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 29(8), 1533–1543. https://doi.org/10.1590/0102-311X00144612

Sousa, T. V., Viveiros, V., Chai, M. V., Vicente, F. L., Jesus, G., Carnot, M. J., … Ferreira, P. L. (2015). Reliability and validity of the Portuguese version of the Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-015-0244-2

Spitzer, R. L., Kroenke, K., Williams, J. B. W., & Löwe, B. (2006). A brief measure for assessing generalized anxiety disorder: The GAD-7. Archives of Internal Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1001/archinte.166.10.1092

Thomas, K., & Bendtsen, M. (2019). Mental Health Promotion Among University Students Using Text Messaging: Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mobile Phone–Based Intervention. JMIR Research Protocols, 8(8), e12396. https://doi.org/10.2196/12396

WHO. (2020). WHO Characterizes COVID-19 as A Pandemic. World Health Organization. Retrieved from https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019

Downloads

Published

01/06/2021

How to Cite

SARTORÃO FILHO, C. I. .; RODRIGUES, W. C. de L. V. .; CASTRO , R. B. de .; MARÇAL, A. A. .; PAVELQUEIRES, S. .; TAKANO, L. .; OLIVEIRA, W. L. de .; SARTORÃO NETO, C. I. . Moderate and severe symptoms of anxiety and depression are increased among female medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 6, p. e34610615406, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i6.15406. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/15406. Acesso em: 22 oct. 2021.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences