High prevalence and incidence of human immunodeficiency virus 1 among men who have sex with men at the voluntary counselling and testing center in Northeast Brazil
Keywords:Incidence; HIV-1; Recent infection; Epidemiology; MSM.
The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) Brazil epidemic had shown an increase in heterosexual transmission and decrease in vertical transmission. However, its incidence has increased among men who have sex with men. Serological screening of patients at a voluntary counselling and testing center in Cabo de Santo Agostinho city, Pernambuco province, Northeast Brazil, was performed to determine the HIV-1 prevalence and incidence. The HIV-1 incidence in the frozen serum aliquots obtained from 2006-2009 was determined using BED-capture enzyme immunoassay. This study evaluated 23,862 individuals, who were serologically tested for HIV-1. HIV-1 infection was diagnosed in 318 individuals (1.33%). MSM showed a higher prevalence of infection (6.8%; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.9-9.5) as compared to heterosexual men (2.8%; 95% CI: 2.35-3.36) and women (0.9%; 95% CI: 0.76-1.0) (p < 0.0001). MSM also showed a higher rate of incidence with 3.93 per 100 people/year. Early diagnosis and preventive measures can reduce the pandemic spread.
de Castro, C. A. V., Grinsztejn, B., Veloso, V. G., Bastos, F. I., Pilotto, J. H., & Morgado, M. G. (2010). Prevalence, estimated HIV-1 incidence and viral diversity among people seeking voluntary counselling and testing services in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. BMC Infect Dis., 10(1):224. 10.1186 / 1471-2334-10-224
Dobbs, T., Kennedy, S., Pau, C. P., McDougal, J. S., & Parekh, B. S. (2004). Performance characteristics of the immunoglobulin G-capture BED-enzyme immunoassay, an assay to detect recent human immunodeficiency virus type 1 seroconversion. J Clin Microbiol., 42(6):2623-8. 10.1128 / JCM.42.6.2623-2628.
Girardi, S. B., Barreto, A. M. E. de C., Barreto, C. C., Proietti, A. B., Carvalho, S. M. F., Loureiro, P., & Sabino, E. C. (2012). Evaluation of rapid tests for human immunodeficiency virus as a tool to detect recent seroconversion. Braz J Infect Dis, 16(5):452-6. 10.1016 / j.bjid.2012.08.013
HIV/AIDS Epidemiological Bulletin (2019). Department of Chronic Conditions and Sexually Transmitted Infections. http://www.aids.gov.br/pt-br/pub/2019/boletim-epidemiologico-de-hivaids-2019
Lima, K. O., Salustiano, D. M., Coêlho, M. R. C. D., Cavalcanti, A. M. S., Diaz, R. S., & Lacerda, H. R. (2012). Incidence of recent human immunodeficiency virus infection at two voluntary counselling testing centres in Pernambuco, Brazil, from 2006 to 2009. J Clin Microbiol., 50(6):2145-6. 10.1128 / JCM.05107-11
Lima, K. O., Salustiano, D. M., Cavalcanti, A. M. S., de Souza Leal, É., & Lacerda, H. R. (2015). Incidence of HIV-1 in people assisted, including pregnant women, in a Testing and Counseling Center in Pernambuco, Northeast Brazil. Cad Saude Publica., 31(6):1327-31. 10.1590 / 0102-311X00186813
Mangal, T. D., Pascom, A. R. P., Vesga, J. F., Meireles, M. V., Benzaken, A. S., & Hallett, T. B. (2019). Estimating HIV incidence from surveillance data indicates the second wave of infections in Brazil. Epidemics., 27:77-85. 10.1016 / j.epidem.2019.02.002
McDougal, J. S., Parekh, B. S., Peterson, M. L., Branson, B. M., Dobbs, T., Ackers, M., & Gurwith, M. (2006). Comparison of HIV type 1 incidence observed during longitudinal follow-up with incidence estimated by cross-sectional analysis using the BED capture enzyme immunoassay. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses., 22(10):945-52. 10.1089 / aid.2006.22.945
Robinson, E., Moran, J., O'Donnell, K., et al. (2019). Integration of a recent infection testing algorithm into HIV surveillance in Ireland: Improving HIV knowledge to target prevention. Epidemiol Infect.,147: e136. 10.1017 / S0950268819000244
Statistics. (2020). UNAIDS Brasil. https://unaids.org.br/estatisticas/
Szwarcwald, C. L., Ferreira, O. da C., Brito, A. M de., et al. (2016). Estimation of HIV incidence in two Brazilian municipalities, 2013. Rev Saude Publica., 50:55. 10.1590 / S1518-8787.2016050006310
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Kledoaldo de Oliveira Lima; Joana Julia Maria Menezes; Daniela Medeiros Salustiano; Viviane Martha Santos de Morais; Heloísa Ramos Lacerda
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.