Medicinal uses of Cannabis sp.

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16930

Keywords:

Cannabis sp.; Medicinal Cannabis; Medical Cannabis; Cannabinoids; Cannabis sativa; Marihuana.

Abstract

The therapeutic properties of Cannabis have been described since antiquity and are of great relevance for the Egyptian, Chinese, Indian, Arab and Latin people. Cannabis-based medicines show several therapeutic purposes, mainly to treat disorders as constipation, some types of pain, epilepsy, anxiety and among others. In addition, the genus Cannabis exhibits great clinical relevance due to its Central Nervous System activities attributed to some phytochemicals compounds, as cannabidiol and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. The interest in the pharmacological properties of Cannabis is growing and several new studies are being carried out to prove its pharmacotherapeutic use which are important to design of novel drugs with different routes of administration and for multiple pathologies resistant to the conventional treatments. In this context, there is a pressure on countries to review the laws that still limit the research development related to medicinal Cannabis purposes. Herein, our aim is to perform an overview about the plant, endocannabinoid system, Cannabis-based medicines and clinical uses, regulatory aspects of Cannabis sp and its chemical compounds of therapeutic interest.

References

Aizpurua-Olaizola, O., Soydaner, U., Öztürk, E., Schibano, D., Simsir, Y., Navarro, P., ... & Usobiaga, A. (2016). Evolution of the cannabinoid and terpene content during the growth of Cannabis sativa plants from different chemotypes. Journal of natural products, 79(2), 324-331.

Akram, H., Mokrysz, C., & Curran, H. V. (2019). What are the psychological effects of using synthetic cannabinoids? A systematic review. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 33(3), 271-283.

Andre, C. M., Hausman, J. F., & Guerriero, G. (2016). Cannabis sativa: the plant of the thousand and one molecules. Frontiers in plant science, 7, 19.

ANVISA, 2017. MEVATYL®: tetraidrocanabinol, canabidiol. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. http://www.anvisa.gov.br/datavisa/fila_bula/frmVisualizarBula.asp?pNuTransacao=23558192017&pIdAnexo=10327854.

Atwood, B. K., & Mackie, K. (2010). CB2: a cannabinoid receptor with an identity crisis. British journal of pharmacology, 160(3), 467-479.

Barnes, M. P. (2006). Sativex®: clinical efficacy and tolerability in the treatment of symptoms of multiple sclerosis and neuropathic pain. Expert opinion on pharmacotherapy, 7(5), 607-615.

Becker, J., & Nardin, J. M. (2011). Utilização de antieméticos no tratamento antineoplásico de pacientes oncológicos. Revista Brasileira de Farmácia Hospitalar e Serviços de Saúde, 2(3), 1-1.

Bedrocan [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://bedrocan.com/products-services/healthcare/cannabis-oil/.

Biehl, J. R., & Burnham, E. L. (2015). Cannabis smoking in 2015: a concern for lung health?.Chest, 148(3), 596-606.

Bonn-Miller, M. O., ElSohly, M. A., Loflin, M. J., Chandra, S., & Vandrey, R. (2018). Cannabis and cannabinoid drug development: evaluating botanical versus single molecule approaches. International Review of Psychiatry, 30(3), 277-284.

Borodovsky, J. T., Crosier, B. S., Lee, D. C., Sargent, J. D., & Budney, A. J. (2016). Smoking, vaping, eating: is legalization impacting the way people use Cannabis?. International Journal of Drug Policy, 36, 141-147.

Carcieri, C., Tomasello, C., Simiele, M., De Nicolò, A., Avataneo, V., Canzoneri, L., ... & D'Avolio, A. (2018). Cannabinoids concentration variability in Cannabis olive oil galenic preparations. Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology, 70(1), 143-149.

Cichewicz, D. L., & McCarthy, E. A. (2003). Antinociceptive synergy between Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and opioids after oral administration. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 304(3), 1010-1015.

Clermont-Gnamien, S., Atlani, S., Attal, N., Le Mercier, F., Guirimand, F., & Brasseur, L. (2002). The therapeutic use of D9-tetrahydrocannabinol (dronabinol) in refractory neuropathic pain. Presse medicale (Paris, France: 1983), 31(39 Pt 1), 1840-1845.

Cranford, J. A., Bohnert, K. M., Perron, B. E., Bourque, C., & Ilgen, M. (2016). Prevalence and correlates of “Vaping” as a route of Cannabis administration in medical Cannabis patients. Drug and alcohol dependence, 169, 41-47.

Crippa, J. A. S., Zuardi, A. W., & Hallak, J. E. (2010). Uso terapêutico dos canabinoides em psiquiatria. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 32, 556-566.

Cunha, J. M. (1980). Carlini EA, Pereira AE, Ramos OL, Pimentel C, Gagliardi R, Sanvito WL, Lander N, Mechoulam R. Chronic administration of cannabidiol to healthy volunteers and epileptic patients. Pharmacology, 21, 175-185.

Den Boon, F. S., Chameau, P., Schaafsma-Zhao, Q., Van Aken, W., Bari, M., Oddi, S., ... & Werkman, T. R. (2012). Excitability of prefrontal cortical pyramidal neurons is modulated by activation of intracellular type-2 cannabinoid receptors. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(9), 3534-3539.

Devane, W. A., Dysarz, F. 3., Johnson, M. R., Melvin, L. S., & Howlett, A. C. (1988). Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain. Molecular pharmacology, 34(5), 605-613.

De Vito, E. L. (2017). Argentina enacts first law on medical use of the Cannabis plant. History and perspectives. Medicina, 77(5), 388-393.

Di Marzo, V., & De Petrocellis, L. (2012). Why do cannabinoid receptors have more than one endogenous ligand?. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 367(1607), 3216-3228.

Di Marzo, V., Stella, N., & Zimmer, A. (2015). Endocannabinoid signalling and the deteriorating brain. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(1), 30-42.

Drugbank. Epidiolex: Cannabidiol. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB09061.

Drugbank. Sativex: Nabiximols. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.drugbank.ca/drugs/DB14011.

Eichler, M., Spinedi, L., Unfer-Grauwiler, S., Bodmer, M., Surber, C., Luedi, M., & Drewe, J. (2012). Heat exposure of Cannabis sativa extracts affects the pharmacokinetic and metabolic profile in healthy male subjects. Planta Medica, 78(07), 686-691.

Fankhauser, M. (2002). History of Cannabis in Western medicine (pp. 37-51). New York: The Haworth Integrative Healing Press.

Fathordoobady, F., Singh, A., Kitts, D. D., & Pratap Singh, A. (2019). Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) extract: Anti-Microbial properties, methods of extraction, and potential oral delivery. Food Reviews International, 35(7), 664-684.

FDA Cesamet [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2006/018677s011lbl.pdfa.

FDA Epidiolex®: canabidiol [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2018/210365lbl.pdfb.

FDA Marinol®: dronabinol. USA: Solvay Pharmaceuticals. U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 2006. [citad 2019 Dec 14].

https://www.accessdata.fda.gov/drugsatfda_docs/label/2005/018651s021lbl.pdf.

Francischetti, E. A., & Abreu, V. G. D. (2006). O sistema endocanabinóide: nova perspectiva no controle de fatores de risco cardiometabólico. Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, 87(4), 548-558.

Glass, M., Faull, R. L. M., & Dragunow, M. (1997). Cannabinoid receptors in the human brain: a detailed anatomical and quantitative autoradiographic study in the fetal, neonatal and adult human brain. Neuroscience, 77(2), 299-318.

Gonsiorek, W., Lunn, C., Fan, X., Narula, S., Lundell, D., & Hipkin, R. W. (2000). Endocannabinoid 2-arachidonyl glycerol is a full agonist through human type 2 cannabinoid receptor: antagonism by anandamide. Molecular pharmacology, 57(5), 1045-1050.

Grant, I., Atkinson, J. H., Gouaux, B., & Wilsey, B. (2012). Medical marijuana: clearing away the smoke. The open neurology journal, 6, 18.

Grof, C. P. (2018). Cannabis, from plant to pill. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 84(11), 2463-2467.

Grotenhermen, F., & Müller-Vahl, K. (2016). Medicinal uses of marijuana and cannabinoids. Critical Reviews in Plant Sciences, 35(5-6), 378-405.

Gw Pharmaceuticals, Sativex®. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.gwpharm.com/healthcare-professionals/sativex/>a.

Gw Pharmaceuticals, Epidiolex®. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.gwpharm.com/healthcare-professionals/epidiolexb.

Hazekamp, A., Ware, M. A., Muller-Vahl, K. R., Abrams, D., & Grotenhermen, F. (2013). The medicinal use of Cannabis and cannabinoids—an international cross-sectional survey on administration forms. Journal of psychoactive drugs, 45(3), 199-210.

Howlett, A. C. (1998). The CB1Cannabinoid Receptor in the Brain. Neurobiology of disease, 5(6), 405-416.

Huestis, M. A. (2007). Human cannabinoid pharmacokinetics. Chemistry & biodiversity, 4(8), 1770.

Hunt, C. A., & Jones, R. T. (1980). Tolerance and disposition of tetrahydrocannabinol in man. Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics, 215(1), 35-44.

Iannotti, F. A., Di Marzo, V., & Petrosino, S. (2016). Endocannabinoids and endocannabinoid-related mediators: targets, metabolism and role in neurological disorders. Progress in lipid research, 62, 107-128.

Lanz, C., Mattsson, J., Soydaner, U., & Brenneisen, R. (2016). Medicinal Cannabis: in vitro validation of vaporizers for the smoke-free inhalation of Cannabis. PLoS One, 11(1), e0147286.

Leghissa, A., Hildenbrand, Z. L., & Schug, K. A. (2018). A review of methods for the chemical characterization of Cannabis natural products. Journal of separation science, 41(1), 398-415.

Lemberger, L., Crabtree, R. E., & Rowe, H. M. (1972). 11-Hydroxy-Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol: pharmacology, disposition, and metabolism of a major metabolite of marihuana in man. Science, 177(4043), 62-64.

Lessa, M. A., Cavalcanti, I. L., & Figueiredo, N. V. (2016). Derivados canabinóides e o tratamento farmacológico da dor. Revista Dor, 17(1), 47-51.

Lewis, M. M., Yang, Y., Wasilewski, E., Clarke, H. A., & Kotra, L. P. (2017). Chemical profiling of medical Cannabis extracts. ACS omega, 2(9), 6091-6103.

Ángeles López, G. E., Brindis, F., Cristians Niizawa, S., & Ventura Martínez, R. (2014). Cannabis sativa L., una planta singular. Revista mexicana de ciencias farmacéuticas, 45(4), 1-6.

Lucas, C. J., Galettis, P., & Schneider, J. (2018). The pharmacokinetics and the pharmacodynamics of cannabinoids. British journal of clinical pharmacology, 84(11), 2477-2482.

Lutz, B., Marsicano, G., Maldonado, R., & Hillard, C. J. (2015). The endocannabinoid system in guarding against fear, anxiety and stress. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(12), 705-718.

Maccarrone, M., Bab, I., Bíró, T., Cabral, G. A., Dey, S. K., Di Marzo, V., ... & Zimmer, A. (2015). Endocannabinoid signaling at the periphery: 50 years after THC. Trends in pharmacological sciences, 36(5), 277-296.

MacCallum, C. A., & Russo, E. B. (2018). Practical considerations in medical Cannabis administration and dosing. European journal of internal medicine, 49, 12-19.

Martin, J. H., Schneider, J., Lucas, C. J., & Galettis, P. (2018). Exogenous cannabinoid efficacy: merely a pharmacokinetic interaction?. Clinical pharmacokinetics, 57(5), 539-545.

Melo, L. A. D., & Santos, A. D. O. (2016). O uso do Canabidiol no Brasil e o posicionamento do órgão regulador.

Mechoulam, R., & Parker, L. A. (2013). The endocannabinoid system and the brain. Annual review of psychology, 64, 21-47.

Mexico, ‘Diario Oficial de la Federación,’ 19 June 2017. http://www.dof.gob.mx/nota_detalle.php?codigo=5487335&fecha=19/06/2017

Morena, M., Patel, S., Bains, J. S., & Hill, M. N. (2016). Neurobiological interactions between stress and the endocannabinoid system. Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(1), 80-102.

Munro, S., Thomas, K. L., & Abu-Shaar, M. (1993). Molecular characterization of a peripheral receptor for cannabinoids. Nature, 365(6441), 61-65.

Newmeyer, M. N., Swortwood, M. J., Andersson, M., Abulseoud, O. A., Scheidweiler, K. B., & Huestis, M. A. (2017). Cannabis edibles: Blood and oral fluid cannabinoid pharmacokinetics and evaluation of oral fluid screening devices for predicting Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in blood and oral fluid following Cannabis brownie administration. Clinical chemistry, 63(3), 647-662.

Nicolussi, S., & Gertsch, J. (2015). Endocannabinoid transport revisited. Vitamins & Hormones, 98, 441-485.

Pain S. A potted history. Nature 2015;525:5–6.

Pamplona, F. A. (2014). Quais são e pra que servem os medicamentos à base de Cannabis. Revista da biologia, 13(1), 28-35.

Parmar, J. R., Forrest, B. D., & Freeman, R. A. (2016). Medical marijuana patient counseling points for health care professionals based on trends in the medical uses, efficacy, and adverse effects of Cannabis-based pharmaceutical drugs. Research in Social and Administrative Pharmacy, 12(4), 638-654.

Parsons, L. H., & Hurd, Y. L. (2015). Endocannabinoid signalling in reward and addiction. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 16(10), 579-594.

Pertwee, R. G. (2010). Receptors and channels targeted by synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists and antagonists. Current medicinal chemistry, 17(14), 1360-1381.

Peru, 2019. Ministerio de Salud. Decreto Supremo N° 005-2019-AS. https://cdn.www.gob.pe/uploads/document/file/297302/Decreto_Supremo_N%C2%BA_005-2019-SA.PDF.

Petrosino, S., & Di Marzo, V. (2010). FAAH and MAGL inhibitors: therapeutic opportunities from regulating endocannabinoid levels. Current opinion in investigational drugs (London, England: 2000), 11(1), 51-62.

Pisanti, S., & Bifulco, M. (2017). Modern history of medical Cannabis: from widespread use to prohibitionism and back. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 38(3), 195-198.

Pollastro, F., Minassi, A., & Fresu, L. G. (2018). Cannabis phenolics and their bioactivities. Current medicinal chemistry, 25(10), 1160-1185.

Ribeiro, J. A. C. (2014). A Cannabis e suas aplicações terapêuticas (Doctoral dissertation, [sn]).

Russell, C., Rueda, S., Room, R., Tyndall, M., & Fischer, B. (2018). Routes of administration for Cannabis use–basic prevalence and related health outcomes: A scoping review and synthesis. International Journal of Drug Policy, 52, 87-96.

Russo, E., & Guy, G. W. (2006). A tale of two cannabinoids: the therapeutic rationale for combining tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol. Medical hypotheses, 66(2), 234-246.

Russo, E. B., Jiang, H. E., Li, X., Sutton, A., Carboni, A., Del Bianco, F., ... & Li, C. S. (2008). Phytochemical and genetic analyses of ancient Cannabis from Central Asia. Journal of experimental botany, 59(15), 4171-4182.

Russo, E. B. (2008). Clinical endocannabinoid deficiency (CECD). Neuroendocrinology Letters, 29(2).

Russo, E. B. (2011). Taming THC: potential Cannabis synergy and phytocannabinoid‐terpenoid entourage effects. British journal of pharmacology, 163(7), 1344-1364.

Russo, E. B. (2016). Beyond Cannabis: Plants and the endocannabinoid system. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences, 37(7), 594-605.

Ryberg, E., Vu, H. K., Larsson, N., Groblewski, T., Hjorth, S., Elebring, T., ... & Greasley, P. J. (2005). Identification and characterisation of a novel splice variant of the human CB1 receptor. FEBS letters, 579(1), 259-264.

Schwope, D. M., Karschner, E. L., Gorelick, D. A., & Huestis, M. A. (2011). Identification of recent Cannabis use: whole-blood and plasma free and glucuronidated cannabinoid pharmacokinetics following controlled smoked Cannabis administration. Clinical chemistry, 57(10), 1406-1414.

Shire, D., Carillon, C., Kaghad, M., Calandra, B., Rinaldi-Carmona, M., Le Fur, G., ... & Ferrara, P. (1995). An amino-terminal variant of the central cannabinoid receptor resulting from alternative splicing. Journal of Biological Chemistry, 270(8), 3726-3731.

Smerp. ACOMPLIA®. 2019. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.smerp.com.br/anvisa/?ac=prodSearch&fastSearch=acomplia#results.

Smerp. MEVATYL®. 2019. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.smerp.com.br/anvisa/?ac=prodSearch&fastSearch=mevatyl#results.

Stella, N. (2009). Endocannabinoid signaling in microglial cells. Neuropharmacology, 56, 244-253.

Mabou Tagne, A., Marino, F., Legnaro, M., Luini, A., Pacchetti, B., & Cosentino, M. (2019). A novel Standardized Cannabis sativa L. extract and its constituent cannabidiol inhibit human polymorphonuclear leukocyte functions. International journal of molecular sciences, 20(8), 1833.

Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA), 2013. Australian public assessment report for nabiximols. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.tga.gov.au/sites/default/files/auspar-nabiximols-130927.pdf.

Turu, G., & Hunyady, L. (2009). Signal transduction of the CB1 cannabinoid receptor. Journal of molecular endocrinology, 44(2), 75-85.

U. S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), 2020. FDA and Cannabis: Research and Drug Approval Process. [cited 2020 Feb 28].

https://www.fda.gov/news-events/public-health-focus/fda-and-cannabis-research-and-drug-approval-process

Valvassori, S. S., Elias, G., de Souza, B., Petronilho, F., Dal-Pizzol, F., Kapczinski, F., ... & Crippa, J. A. (2011). Effects of cannabidiol on amphetamine-induced oxidative stress generation in an animal model of mania. Journal of Psychopharmacology, 25(2), 274-280.

Wei, D., Allsop, S., Tye, K., & Piomelli, D. (2017). Endocannabinoid signaling in the control of social behavior. Trends in neurosciences, 40(7), 385-396.

WHO, 2015. Update of Cannabis and its medical use. [citad 2019 Dec 14]. https://www.who.int/medicines/access/controlled-substances/6_2_cannabis_update.pdf.

Zlas, J., Stark, H., Seligman, J., Levy, R., Werker, E., Breuer, A., & Mechoulam, R. (1993). Early medical use of Cannabis. Nature, 363(6426), 215-215.

Zou, S., & Kumar, U. (2018). Cannabinoid receptors and the endocannabinoid system: signaling and function in the central nervous system. International journal of molecular sciences, 19(3), 833.

Downloads

Published

25/06/2021

How to Cite

SOUZA, A. A. F. de; SILVA , A. F. M. da .; ABREU , L. R. de .; SILVA, T. F. da .; GRECO, G. .; SANTOS, S. da S. .; GONZAGA, R. V. Medicinal uses of Cannabis sp. . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 7, p. e58010716930, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i7.16930. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/16930. Acesso em: 21 sep. 2021.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences