Influence of Virtual and Increased Reality in the treatment of ghost member pain: Integrative review




Virtual reality therapy; Virtual Reality Therapy. Augmented reality. Phantom Limb.; Augmented reality; Phantom limb.


Objective: To evaluate virtual and augmented technology treatments in the management of phantom limb pain. Methodology: The search for scientific literature was carried out in the databases Pubmed, Scielo, Lilacs, Web of Science, Scopus and CINAHL, of primary studies published in the period from 2015 to 2020, with individuals diagnosed with phantom limb pain. 380 articles were identified, which after the eligibility criteria resulted in 16 studies. Results: Studies with the referred realities showed a decrease in the intensity and perception of pain in the limb, based on the pain questionnaire and the researches associated with the augmented reality, the individuals improved in their daily activities as well as in the quality of sleep. Conclusion: Virtual and augmented reality presents itself as an efficient treatment strategy, however, studies with samples and more time are needed to verify long-term efficiency.


.Akbulut, A.; Asci, G.; Tarakci, E.; Aydin, M.A.; Zaim, A. (2018). A Wearable Device for Virtual Cyber Therapy of Phantom Limb Pain.

Akbulut, A.; Güngör, F.; Tarakcı, E.; Çabuk, A.; Aydin, M.A. (2019). Immersive Virtual Reality Games for Rehabilitation of Phantom Limb Pain. Medical Technologies Congress (TIPTEKNO).

Ambron, E.; Miller, A.; Kuchenbecker, K.J.; Buxbaum, L.J.; Coslett, H.B. (2018). Immersive Low-Cost Virtual Reality Treatment for Phantom Limb Pain: Evidence from Two Cases. Front Neurol. 9:67.

Arango, J.E.; Mazo, J.C.; Palacio, A.P. (2013). Sistema para Rehabilitación del Síndrome del Miembro Fantasma utilizando Interfaz Cerebro-Computador y Realidad Aumentada %J RISTI - Revista Ibérica de Sistemas e Tecnologias de Informação. 93-106.

Ayoub, A.; Pulijala Y. (2019). The application of virtual reality and augmented reality in Oral & Maxillofacial Surgery. BMC oral health. 19(1):238.

Brodie, E.E.; Whyte, A.; Niven, C.A. (2007). Analgesia through the looking-glass? A randomized controlled trial investigating the effect of viewing a 'virtual' limb upon phantom limb pain, sensation and movement. Eur J Pain. 11(4):428-36.

Cao, C.; Cerfolio, R.J. (2019). Virtual or Augmented Reality to Enhance Surgical Education and Surgical Planning. Thoracic surgery clinics. 29(3):329-37.

Cole, J.; Crowle, S.; Austwick, G.; Slater, D.H. (2009). Exploratory findings with virtual reality for phantom limb pain; from stump motion to agency and analgesia. Disability and rehabilitation. 31(10):846-54.

Craig, D.M.; Emma, P.; Stephen, P.; Toby, H.; Fabrice, C.; Jai, K. et al.(2006). Investigating the efficacy of a virtual mirror box in treating phantom limb pain in a sample of chronic sufferers. International Journal on Disability and Human Development. 5(3):227-34.

Demidoff, A.O.; Pacheco, F.G.; Sholl-Franco, A. (2007). Membro-fantasma: o que os olhos não vêem, o cérebro sente. J Ciências & Cognição. 12:234-9.

Henriksen, B.; Nielsen, R.; Kraus, M.; Geng, B. (2017). A virtual reality system for treatment of phantom limb pain using game training and tactile feedback. Virtual Reality International Conference - Laval Virtual, VRIC 2017; Association for Computing Machinery.

Ichinose, A.; Sano, Y.; Osumi, M.; Sumitani, M.; Kumagaya, S.; Kuniyoshi, Y. (2017). Somatosensory Feedback to the Cheek During Virtual Visual Feedback Therapy Enhances Pain Alleviation for Phantom Arms. Neurorehabilitation & Neural Repair. 31(8):717-25.

Kim, Y.; Kim, H.; Kim, Y.O. (2017). Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality in Plastic Surgery: A Review. Arch Plast Surg. 44(3):179-87.

Kulkarni, J.; Pettifer, S.; Turner, S.; Richardson, C. (2020). An investigation into the effects of a virtual reality system on phantom limb pain: a pilot study. Br J Pain. 14(2):92-7.

Lendaro, E.; Middleton, A.; Brown, S.; Ortiz-Catalan, M. (2020). Out of the Clinic, into the Home: The in-Home Use of Phantom Motor Execution Aided by Machine Learning and Augmented Reality for the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain. J Pain Res. p. 195-209.

Mercier, C.; Sirigu, A. (2009). Training with virtual visual feedback to alleviate phantom limb pain. Neurorehabilitation and neural repair. 23(6):587-94.

Nissler, C.; Nowak, M.; Connan, M.; Büttner, S.; Vogel, J.; Kossyk, I. et al. (2019). VITA - An everyday virtual reality setup for prosthetics and upper-limb rehabilitation. J Neural Eng. 16(2).

Nunzio, A.M.; Schweisfurth, M.A.; Ge, N.; Falla, D.; Hahne, J.; Gödecke, K. et al. (2018). Relieving phantom limb pain with multimodal sensory-motor training. J Neural Eng. 2018;15(6):066022.

Nunzio, A.M.; Schweisfurth, M.A.; Ge, N.; Fella, D.; Hahne, J.; Godecke, K. et al. (2018). Relieving phantom limb pain with multimodal sensory-motor training. J Neural Eng. 15(6):16.

Ortiz-Catalan, M.; Guðmundsdóttir, R.A.; Kristoffersen, M.B.; Zepeda-Echavarria, A.; Caine-Winterberger, K.; Kulbacka-Ortiz, K. et al. (2016). Phantom motor execution facilitated by machine learning and augmented reality as treatment for phantom limb pain: a single group, clinical trial in patients with chronic intractable phantom limb pain. Lancet. 388(10062):2885-94.

Ortiz-Catalan, M.; Sander, N.; Kristoffersen, M.B.; Håkansson, B.; Brånemark, R. (2014). Treatment of phantom limb pain (PLP) based on augmented reality and gaming controlled by myoelectric pattern recognition: a case study of a chronic PLP patient. Front Neurosci. 8:24.

Osumi, M.; Ichinose, A.; Sumitani, M.; Wake, N.; Sano, Y.; Yozu, A. et al.(2017). Restoring movement representation and alleviating phantom limb pain through short-term neurorehabilitation with a virtual reality system. Eur J Pain. 21(1):140-7.

Osumi, M.; Inomata, K.; Inoue, Y.; Otake, Y.; Morioka, S.; Sumitani, M. (2019). Characteristics of Phantom Limb Pain Alleviated with Virtual Reality Rehabilitation. Pain Med. 20(5):1038-46.

Osumi, M.; Sano, Y.; Ichinose, A.; Wake, N.; Yozu, A.; Kumagaya, S.I. et al. (2020). Direct evidence of EEG coherence in alleviating phantom limb pain by virtual referred sensation: Case report. Neurocase. 26(1):55-9.

Perry, B.N.; Alphonso, A.L.; Tsao, J.W.; Pasquina, P.F.; Armiger, R.S.; Moran, C.W. (2013). A Virtual Integrated Environment for phantom limb pain treatment and Modular Prosthetic Limb training. 2013 International Conference on Virtual Rehabilitation (ICVR). 26-29.

Perry, B.N.; Armiger, R.S.; Wolde, M.; McFarland, K.A.; Alphonso, A.L.; Monson, B.T. et al.(2018). Clinical Trial of the Virtual Integration Environment to Treat Phantom Limb Pain With Upper Extremity Amputation. Front Neurol. 9:770.

Rothgangel, A.; Braun, S.; Winkens, B.; Beurskens, A.; Smeets, R. (2018). Traditional and augmented reality mirror therapy for patients with chronic phantom limb pain (PACT study): results of a three-group, multicentre single-blind randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 32(12):1591-608.

Rutledge, T.; Velez, D.; Depp, C.; McQuaid, J.R.; Wong, G.; Jones, R.C.W. et al. (2019). A Virtual Reality Intervention for the Treatment of Phantom Limb Pain: Development and Feasibility Results. Pain Medicine. 20(10):2051-9.

Snow, P.W.; Sedki, I.; Sinisi, M.; Comley, R.; Loureiro, R.C.V. (2017). Robotic Therapy for Phantom Limb Pain in Upper Limb Amputees. In: Amirabdollahian F, Burdet E, Masia L, editors. 2017 International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics. International Conference on Rehabilitation Robotics ICORR. New York. p. 1019-24.

Uzun, M. (2019). Augmented Reality in Cardiology. The Anatolian Journal of Cardiology. 22.

Wake, N.; Sano, Y.; Oya, R.; Sumitani, M.; Kumagaya, S.; Kuniyoshi, Y. et al. (2015). Multimodal Virtual Reality Platform for the Rehabilitation of Phantom Limb Pain. 7th International Ieee/Embs Conference on Neural Engineering. International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering. New York. p. 787-90.

Wareham, A.P.; Sparkes, V. (2020). Effect of one session of mirror therapy on phantom limb pain and recognition of limb laterality in military traumatic lower limb amputees: a pilot study. BMJ military health. 166(3):146-50.

Wittkopf, P.G.; Johnson, M.I. (2017). Mirror therapy: A potential intervention for pain management %J Revista da Associação Médica Brasileira. 63:1000-5.



How to Cite

FERNANDES, E. C.; NASCIMENTO JÚNIOR, M. B. do .; SOUZA, F. E. S. de .; FARIAS, B. R. F. de .; NASCIMENTO, E. G. C. do .; MELO, V. de P. . Influence of Virtual and Increased Reality in the treatment of ghost member pain: Integrative review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 9, p. e5610917660, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i9.17660. Disponível em: Acesso em: 20 sep. 2021.



Health Sciences