Chlamydia spp. in free-living domestic pigeons
Keywords:Animal health; Chlamydiosis; Columbidae.
Free-living Columbidae are considered the second largest reservoir of Chlamydia psittaci, transmitting the agent to humans and other animals. The present study aimed to identify the presence of Chlamydia spp. in samples of lung and stool collected from free-living domestic pigeons (Columba livia domestica) captured at the Mangal das Garças Naturalistic Park in Belém, Pará, Brazil, using semi-nested polymerase chain reaction, and also correlate the clinical and post-mortem findings of animals positive for Chlamydia spp. Among the 45 animals analyzed, 10 (22.2%) were positive for Chlamydia spp.; the positive findings originated from 5 (50%) lung samples and 5 (50%) stool samples, with no overlap between animals and samples. None of the animals evaluated in this study showed clinical signs of chlamydiosis; rather, these were only found during necropsy of positive animals, mainly through pulmonary, hepatic, splenic, and intestinal changes. These findings demonstrate that free-living pigeons can be reservoirs of Chlamydia spp. and transmit the agent silently to humans and animals, which is concerning for public and animal health, since these birds are easily found in urban areas cohabitating with humans, other species of birds, and other animals.
Altman, R. B., Clubb, S. L., Dorrestein, G. M., & Quesenberry, K. (1997). Avian Medicine and Surgery. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company.
Burt, S. A., Röring, R. E., & Heijne, M. (2018). Chlamydia psittaci and C. avium in feral pigeon (Columba livia domestica) droppings in two cities in the Netherlands. Veterinary Quarterly, 38(1), 63-66.
Buxton, D., Rae, A. G., Maley, S. W., Thomson, K. M., Livingstone, M., Jones, G. E., & Herring, A. J. (1996). Pathogenesis of Chlamydia psittaci infection in sheep: detection of the organism in a serial study of the lymph node. Journal of comparative pathology, 114(3), 221-230.
Bougiouklis, P., Papaioannou, N., Georgopoulou, I., Iordanidis, P., Vlemmas, I., Lekkas, S., & Siarkou, V. (2000). Chlamydia-induced bilateral ectropion of the inferior eyelids in pigeons. Avian diseases, 372-378.
Fontenelle, J. H., & Barros, L. A. (2014). Ciconiiformes, Pelacaniformes, Griuformes e Carianiformes (Maguari, Tuiuiu, Garça, Socó, Guará, Colhereiro, Jacamina, Saracura, Frango d’água, Grou e Siriema). In: CUBAS, Z.S. et al. Tratado de animais selvagens. São Paulo: Roca, 2014. Cap. 24. p. 441-445.
Geigenfeind, I., Vanrompay, D., & Haag-Wackernagel, D. (2012). Prevalence of Chlamydia psittaci in the feral pigeon population of Basel, Switzerland. Journal of medical microbiology, 61(2), 261-265.
Haag-Wackernagel, D., & Moch, H. (2004). Health hazards posed by feral pigeons. Journal of Infection, 48(4), 307-313.
Harkinezhad, T., Geens, T., & Vanrompay, D. (2009). Chlamydophila psittaci infections in birds: a review with emphasis on zoonotic consequences. Veterinary microbiology, 135(1-2), 68-77.
Jeong, J., An, I., Oem, J. K., Wang, S. J., Kim, Y., Shin, J. H., & Jheong, W. (2017). Molecular prevalence and genotyping of Chlamydia spp. in wild birds from South Korea. Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 16-0516.
Knittler, M. R., & Sachse, K. (2015). Chlamydia psittaci: update on an underestimated zoonotic agent. Pathogens and disease, 73(1), 1-15.
Raso, T. F. (2014). Clamidiose- novas abordagens diagnósticas e terapêuticas. In: Cubas, Z. S., Silva, J. C. R., Catão-Dias, J. L. Tratado de animais selvagens. São Paulo: Roca, 2014. Cap. 67. p. 1369-1381.
Raso, T.F., Seixas, G. H. F., Guedes, N. M. R., & Pinto, A. A. (2006). Chlamydophila psittaci in free-living Blue-fronted Amazon parrots (Amazona aestiva) and Hyacinth macaws (Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus) in the Pantanal of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil. Veterinary Microbiology, 117(2-4), 235-241.
Sachse, K., Kuehlewind, S., Ruettger, A., Schubert, E., & Rohde, G. (2012). More than classical Chlamydia psittaci in urban pigeons. Veterinary microbiology, 157(3-4), 476-480.
Salinas, J., Caro, M. R., & Cuello, F. (1993). Antibody prevalence and isolation of Chlamydia psittaci from pigeons (Columba livia). Avian diseases, 523-527.
Vanrompay, D., Ducatelle, R., & Haesebrouck, F. (1995). Chlamydia psittaci infections: a review with emphasis on avian chlamydiosis. Veterinary microbiology, 45(2-3), 93-119.
Wang, X., Zhang, N. Z., Ma, C. F., Zhang, X. X., Zhao, Q., & Ni, H. B. (2018). Epidemiological investigation and genotype of Chlamydia exposure in pigeons in three provinces in northern China. Vector-borne and Zoonotic Diseases, 18(3), 181-184.
Zhang, Q., Wu, Z., Sun, R., Chu, J., Han, E., Zhang, Y., & Ni, P. (2015). Whole-genome sequences of Chlamydia psittaci strain HJ, isolated from meat pigeons with severe respiratory distress and high mortality. Genome announcements, 3(2), e00035-15.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Kelly Cristiny Gomes da Paixão Albuquerque; Bruna Alves Ramos; Andrea Viana Cruz; Sandro Patroca da Silva; Livia Medeiros Neves Casseb; Jannifer Oliveira Chiang; Thamillys Rayssa Marques Monteiro; Barbara Wilka Leal Silva; Camila de Cássia dos Santos; Keila Feitosa Valente; Pedro Henrique Marques Barrozo; Caroliny do Socorro Brito dos Santos; Pâmela Talita de Aguiar e Silva; Elem Cristina Macedo Barra; Fernanda Monik Silva Martins; Andréa Maria Góes Negrão; Alexandre do Rosário Casseb
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.