Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Savant Syndrome: A real paradox between cognitive deficit and genius

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i9.18107

Keywords:

Autistic spectrum disorder; Savant Syndrome; Skills; Talent.

Abstract

Introduction: The Autistic Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is expressed in childhood, its characteristic being a delay in the individual's development, anomalous social interactions, and an intellectual disability may still be present. This disorder may include Savant Syndrome, characterized by remarkable talent in one or more domains, such as memory, music, art, mathematics. Objective: To address the relationship between ASD and Savant Syndrome, a rare situation in which a person with intellectual deficit has a great degree of genius and wisdom, having many abilities through his extraordinary memory. Methodology: This is a descriptive research of the integrative literature review type, which seeks evidence on the relationship between ASD and Savant Syndrome. The search was performed using PubMed, MEDLINE, Scielo, CDSR, Google Scholar, BVS and EBSCO databases, from 2000 to 2021. Thus, 21 scientific productions were totaled for the integrative literature review. Results: There is no consensus on exactly how wise skills are used in ASD patients. Some studies show that savants have no difference in standard intelligence compared to other individuals with ASD. Therefore, it may be that your skills develop simply through many hours of prolonged practice. Conclusion: The skills "savants" themselves may not be as relevant, given that the behavior is performed repetitively. It is important to explore further how these factors can influence how different skills can be an important next step in understanding wise skills.

References

Ataíde, B. D. G., Lima, B. M. Y., Oliveira, I. A., Marques, F. F & Borges, T. (2017). Síndrome de Savant: um relato de caso da habilidade intelectual fascinante associada a um déficit de inteligência. Revista Educação em Saúde. 5 (1).

Bölte, S. & Poustka, F. (2004). Escala de observação diagnóstica para transtornos autistas: resultados iniciais de confiabilidade e validade. Z Kinder Jugendpsychiatr Psychother. 32 (1), 45-50. https://doi.org/10.1024 / 1422-4917.32.1.45.

Bosa, C. & Calias, M. (2000) Autismo: breve revisão de diferentes abordagens. Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, 13 (1), 167-177. https://doi.org/10.1590/S010279722000000100017.

Dohn, A., Garza-Villarreal, E. A., Heaton, P., & Vuust, P. (2012). Do musicians with perfect pitch have more autism traits than musicians without perfect pitch? an empirical study. PLoS ONE, 7 (5), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0037961

Efstratopoulou, M. (2017) The Enigma of Autism: Genius, Disorder or just different? Nova Sciences Publishers.

Eissa, N., Al-Houqani, M., Sadeq, A., Ojha, S. K., Sasse, A., & Sadek, B. (2018). Current enlightenment about etiology and pharmacological treatment of autismo spectrum disorder. Frontiers in Neuroscience, 12 (304). https://doi.org/10.3389/fnins.2018.00304

Fabricius, T. (2010). The Savant Hypothesis: Is autism a signal-processing problem? Medical Hypotheses. 75 (1), 257-265. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2010.02.034.

Hermelin, B. (2001). Bright splinters of the mind: a personal story of research with autistic savants. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.

Howlin P., Goode S., Hutton J. & Rutter M. (2004). Adult outcome for children with autism. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 45 (2), 212-229. https://doi.org/ 10.1111 / j.1469-7610.2004.00215.

Hughues, J. E. A., Ward, J., Gruffydd, E., Cohen, S. B., Smith, P., Allison, C. & Simner, J. (2018). Savant syndrome has a distinct psychological profile in autism. Molecular autism. 9 (53). https://doi.org/10.1186/s13229-018-0237-1

Iavarone, A., Patruno, M., Galeone, F., Chieffi, S. & Carlomagno, S. (2007). Breve relatório: padrão de erro em uma calculadora de calendário autista savant. J. Autism Dev. Desordem. 37 (1), 775–779. https://doi.org/10.1007 / s10803-006-0190-2

Klin, A. (2006). Autismo e síndrome de Asperger: uma visão geral. Rev Bras Psiquiatr, 28 (1), 3-11.

Martino, G. (2017). Autismo y fundamentalismo cognitivo: el Síndrome Savant. Revista Pediátrica Elizalde, 8 (1), 13-19.

Miller, B. & Hou, C. (2004). Retratos de autistas. Arch Neurol. 61 (1), 842–844.

Mottron, L., Dawson, M., Soulières, I., Hubert, B. & Burack, J. (2006). Enhanced Perceptual Functioning in Autism: An Update, and Eight Principles of Autistic Perception. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders. 36 (1). 27-43. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-005-0040-7.

Mu, D. Q., Jaworski, J., Menold, M. M., Donnelly, S., Abramson, R. K., Whright, H> H., Delong, G. R., Gilbert, J. R., Vance, M. A, P. & Cuccaro M. L. (2005). Ordered-Subset Analysis of Savant Skills in Autism for 15q11-q13. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part B (Neuropsychiatric Genetics). 135 (1), 38-41.

Oblak, A., Gibbs T. T. & Blatt G. J (2009). Decreased GABA A receptors and benzodiazepine locais de ligação no córtex cingulado anterior no autismo. Autism Res. 2 (4), 205-219. https://doi.org/10.1002/aur.88

Rodrigues, V., Nascimento, S. & Maia, L. Transtorno do espectro autista e Síndrome de Savant. Psicologia, Saúde e Doenças. 21 (2), 387-394. http://dx.doi.org/10.15309/20psd210213

Snyder, A. (2009). Explaining and inducing savant skills: privileged access to lower level, less-processed information. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 27 (364), 1399-1405. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0290.

Song, J., Yang, X., Zhou, Y., Zhang, X., Liu, Z., Niu, W., Zhan, N., Fan, X., Khan, A. A., Kuang, Y., Song, L & Li, W. (2019). Dysregulation of neuron differentiation in an autistic savant with exceptional memory. Molecular Brain. 12 (91), 2-12. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13041-019-0507-7

Subramanyam, A. A., Mukherjee, A., Dave, M. & Chavda, K. (2019). Clinical Practice Guidelines for Autism Spectrum Disorders. Indian J Psychiatry, 61 (2), 254‐269. https://doi.org/10.3389 / fnins.2018.00304

Treffert, D. A. (2009). The savant syndrome: An extraordinary condition. A synopsis: Past, present, future. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 364 (1522), 1351–1357. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2008.0326

Treffert, D. A. (2014). Savant syndrome: Realities, myths and misconceptions. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 44 (3), 564–571. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10803-013-1906-8

Yunta, J. A. M., Alonso, T. O., Lucas, A. F., Maestú, F. & Baduell, M. P. (2003). El síndrome de savant: o idiot savant. Rev Neurol. 36 (1), 157-161.

Published

25/07/2021

How to Cite

FIGUEIREDO, B. Q. de; RICARDO NETO, A. .; PRESOT, I. Q.; OLIVEIRA, I. P.; PERES, M. L. A.; MEDEIROS, V. L. O.; OLIVEIRA, R. C. Autistic Spectrum Disorder and Savant Syndrome: A real paradox between cognitive deficit and genius. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 9, p. e26310918107, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i9.18107. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/18107. Acesso em: 20 sep. 2021.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences