Race and Mental Health in Higher Education: A systematic review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i9.18369

Keywords:

Black people; Mental health; Students; Teaching.

Abstract

Objective: To present the results of a systematic review of the scientific literature that deals with how race/skin color stigmas influence the mental health of black university students. Methodology: The search was carried out in SciELO, Lilacs and PubMed databases; the descriptors used were: “mental health”, “students” and “race”, in the SciELO and Lilacs databases, and “mental health”, “students” and “race” in the PubMed database. The filters used were: articles in Portuguese and English, full text, published in the year 2015 until 2020. Results: After the search, a Brazilian study and 12 North Americans answered the proposed guiding question and were selected for analysis. Most studies (08) were quantitative cross-sectional, using questionnaires in the proposed investigation. In addition to these, a qualitative interpretive meta-synthesis was identified; a cross-sectional study based on semi-structured interviews; and three longitudinal studies. Conclusion: The rarity of articles that include the variable race in the analyzes of mental health among university students becomes evident in this research; this denotes neglect of the specificities faced by the black student due to racism. The perceived scarcity motivates further studies on the dimension of the problem and on possible solutions for inclusion and training of better professionals.

References

Barnett, T. M., McFarland, A., Miller, J. W., Lowe, V. & Hatcher, S. S. (2019) Physical and Mental Health Experiences among African American College Students, Soc Work Public Health. 34(2), 145-157. http://doi.org/10.1080/19371918.2019.1575308.

Barry, A. E. Jackson, Z. Watkins, D. C. Goodwill, J. R. & Hunte, H. E R. (2017) Alcohol Use and Mental Health Conditions Among Black College Males: Do Those Attending Postsecondary Minority Institutions Fare Better Than Those at Primarily White Institutions? American Journal of Men’s Health, 11(4), 962-968. https://doi.org/10.1177/1557988316674840.

Batista, W. M. (2018) A inferiorização dos negros a partir do racismo estrutural. Rev. Direito Práx., 9(4), 2581-2589. https://doi.org/10.1590/2179-8966/2018/36867.

Bernardino-Costa, J. (206) A prece de Frantz Fanon: Oh, meu corpo, faça sempre de mim um homem que questiona! Civitas, Rev. Ciênc. Soc. 16(3), 504-521.

Braga, P. R. S., & Milani, C. R. S. (2019). Direitos humanos e política externa no Brasil e na África do Sul: o mito da democracia racial, o apartheid e as narrativas da redemocratização. Rev. Bras. Ciênc. Polít. 29, 7-44. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-335220192901.

BRASIL, Ministério da Saúde, Secretaria de Gestão Estratégica e Participativa. (2016). Temático Saúde da População Negra. 7.

Brittian, A. S., Kim, S. Y., Armenta, B. E., Lee, R. M., Umaña-Taylor, A. J., Schwartz, S. J., Villalta, I. K., Zamboanga, B. L., Weisskirch, R. S., Juang, L. P., Castillo, L. G., & Hudson, M. (2015). Do dimensions of ethnic identity mediate the association between perceived ethnic group discrimination and depressive symptoms? Cultural diversity & ethnic minority psychology 21(1), 41-53. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0037531.

Bronoski, B. (2020). Pouco mais de um terço da população do Paraná é formada por negros, e governo estadual não tem Políticas Públicas específicas. https://g1.globo.com/pr/parana/noticia/2020/07/21/pouco-mais-de-um-terco-da-populacao-do-parana-e-formada-por-negros-e-governo-estadual-nao-tem-politicas-publicas-especificas.ghtml

Bührer, B. E., Tomiyoshi, A. C., Furtado, M. D., & Nishida, F. S. (2019). Análise da Qualidade e Estilo de Vida entre Acadêmicos de Medicina de uma Instituição do Norte do Paraná. Rev. bras. educ. med., 43(1), 39-46. https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-52712015v43n1RB20170143.

CENSUS – United States Census Bureau (2020). QuickFacts. < https://www.census.gov/quickfacts/fact/table/CA,US/>.

Chen, J. A., Stevens, C., Wong, S. H. M. & Liu, C. H. (2019). Psychiatric Symptoms and Diagnoses Among U.S. College Students: A Comparison by Race and Ethnicity. Psychiatric services., 70(6), 442-449. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201800388.

Clair JS. (2005) A new model of tracheostomy care: closing the research–practice gap. In: Henriksen, K., Battles, J. B., Marks, E. S., Lewin, D. Advances in patient safety: from research to implementation (Vol. 3: Implementation Issues). Rockville (MD): Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality.

Donato, D. & Donato, M. (2019). Stages for Undertaking a Systematic Review. Acta Médica Portuguesa. 32(3), 227-235. https://doi.org/10.20344/amp.11923.

Griggs, S. & Crawford, SL. (2019) Differences in Hope, Core Self-Evaluations, Emotional Well-Being, and Health Risk Behaviors in Freshman University Students. Nursing Forum, 54(4), 505-512.https://doi.org/10.1111/nuf.12364.

Haynes, T. F., Cheney, A. M., Sullivan, J. G., Bryant, K., Curran, J. M., Olson, M., Cottoms, N. & Reaves, C.(2017) Addressing Mental Health Needs: Perspectives of African Americans Living in the Rural South. Psychiatr Serv. 68(6), 573-578. https://doi.org/10.1176/appi.ps.201600208.

IBGE, Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2019) Coordenação de População e Indicadores Sociais. Desigualdades sociais por cor ou raça no Brasil. 41. Disponível em: <https://biblioteca.ibge.gov.br/index.php/biblioteca-catalogo?view=detalhes&id=2101681>. Acesso em: 15 de julho de 2020.

IBGE. Instituto Brasileiro de Geografia e Estatística. (2020) Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílios Contínua trimestral, Tabela 6403 - População, por cor ou raça. <https://sidra.ibge.gov.br/tabela/6403>.

Jochman, J. C., Jacob E. Cheadle, J. E., Goosby, B. J., Tomaso, C., Kozikowski, C. & Nelson, T. (2019) Mental Health Outcomes of Discrimination among College Students on a Predominately White Campus: A Prospective Study. Socius. 5. https://doi.org/10.1177/2378023119842728.

Madeira, Z. & Gomes, DDO. (2018) Persistentes desigualdades raciais e resistências negras no Brasil contemporâneo. Serv. Soc. Soc. 133, 463-479. https://doi.org/10.1590/0101-6628.154.

McGinley, M. Wolff, J. M., Rospenda, K. M., Liu, L. & Richman, J. A. (2016). “Risk factors and outcomes of chronic sexual harassment during the transition to college: Examination of a two-part growth mixture model.” Social science research. 60: 297-310. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ssresearch.2016.04.002.

Moher D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff J. & Altman D. G. (2009) PRISMA Group. Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Med.;6(7), e1000097. http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed.1000097.

Oliveira, B. M. C. & Kubiak, F. (2019) Racismo institucional e a saúde da mulher negra: uma análise da produção científica brasileira. Saúde debate, 43(122), 939-948. https://doi.org/10.1590/0103-1104201912222.

Paveltchuk, F. O. & Borsa, J. C. (2020). A teoria do estresse de minoria em lésbicas, gays e bissexuais. Rev. SPAGESP, 21(2), 41-54.

Portal Bem Paraná. (2019). No Paraná, apenas 9% dos alunos de Medicina são negros. https://www.bemparana.com.br/noticia/no-parana-apenas-9-dos-alunos-de-medicina-sao-negros#.X63ar2VKjIV>.

Silva, N. N., Favacho, V. B. C., Boska, G. A., Andrade, E. C., Merces, N. P. & Oliveira, N. A. F. (2020). Access of the black population to health services: integrative review. Rev. Bras. Enferm., 73(4), e20180834. https://doi.org/10.1590/0034-7167-2018-0834.

Smolen, J. R. & Araújo, E. M. (2017). Raça/cor da pele e transtornos mentais no Brasil: uma revisão sistemática. Ciênc. saúde coletiva, 22(12), 4021-4030. https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-812320172212.19782016

Sumstine, S., Cruz, S., Schroeder, C., Takeda, S. & Bavarian, N. (2018) Racial/ethnic variation in mental health correlates of substance use among college students. Journal of Ethnicity in Substance Abuse, 17(2), 94-107. https://doi.org/10.1080/15332640.2017.1300554.

Swift, J. K., Callahan, J. L., Tompkins, K. A., Connor, D. R., & Dunn, R. (2015) A delay-discounting measure of preference for racial/ethnic matching in psychotherapy. Psychotherapy (Chic). 52(3), 315-20. https://doi.org/10.1037/pst0000019.

Ta Park, V. M. et al. (2020) Promising Results from the Use of a Korean Drama to Address Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behaviors on School Bullying and Mental Health among Asian American College-Aged Students. International journal of environmental research and public health, 17(5), 1637. https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17051637

Tikhonov, A. A., Espinosa, A., Huynh, Q.-L., & Anglin, D. M. (2019). Bicultural Identity Harmony and American Identity Are Associated With Positive Mental Health in U.S. Racial and Ethnic Minority Immigrants. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/cdp0000268

Published

31/07/2021

How to Cite

CARVALHO, R. F. .; SAMPAIO, S. S. .; SENA, Y. S. .; COSTA, I. L. de O. F. .; REIS, A. P. O. .; LIMA, S. B. de A.; FERREIRA, I. P. Race and Mental Health in Higher Education: A systematic review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 9, p. e47710918369, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i9.18369. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/18369. Acesso em: 20 sep. 2021.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences