Radiographic aspects of dogs exposed to tobacco smoke
Keywords:Canines; Radiography; Lung; Smoking.
Knowledge of the deleterious effects of passive smoking in dogs is inconclusive and scarce. The present study investigated pulmonary radiographic aspects of dogs exposed to cigarette smoke daily. Thirty dogs were used (15 from households where smoking was reported and 15 dogs from households where there was no smoking), older than two years, regardless of sex, race, skull composition and clinical signs from september 2014 and june 2015. Chest X-rays were taken in all dogs to characterize possible lung lesions with analysis performed in a double-blind study and a questionnaire was applied to the tutors. The analysis of these data provided that 33.33% of passive smoking dogs showed clinical signs like those observed in passive smokers, although there was no significant association between the risk factors. Lung injuries were observed in all passive smoking dogs. The link between dogs, their smoking guardians and respiratory diseases is difficult. This study demonstrates pulmonary radiographic alterations suggestive of bronchial pulmonary disease were observed in 100% of passive smoking dogs. Thus, we can conclude that, regardless of the time of exposure to smoke, living with smokers' guardians is a risk to the health of animals. Our results suggest the harmful action of exposure to cigarette smoke as a risk factor for lung health in dogs.
Abebe, S., Gebru, G., Amenu, D., Mekonnen, Z., & Dube, L. (2021). Risk factors associated with congenital anomalies among newborns in southwestern Ethiopia: A case-control study. PLoS One, 16(1), e0245915. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0245915
Auerbach O., Hammond, C. E, Apanha, D., & Garfinkel, E. U. (1967). Enfisema produzido em cães pelo tabagismo. Jama,199(4), 241-246.
Balansky R, Ganchev G, Iltcheva M, Dimitrova E, Micale RT, La Maestra S, De Flora S. Carcinogenic response and other histopathological alterations in mice exposed to cigarette smoke for varying time periods after birth. Carcinogenesis. 2018 Apr 5;39(4):580-587. doi: 10.1093/carcin/bgy013. PMID: 29370344.
Berry, C. R., Graham, J. P. & Thrall, D. E. (2010). Diagnóstico de radiologia veterinária. In: D. E. Thrall. Diagnóstico de radiologia veterinária, (5a ed.), Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier, 462-485.
De Martin, B. W., & Iwasaki, M. (1976). Noções de radiodiagnóstico veterinário. [s.n.], São Paulo, 50.
Galvin, J. R., Frazier, A. A., & Franks, T. J. (2010). Collaborative radiologic and histopathologic assessment of fibrotic lung disease. Radiology, 255(3), 255-63.
Hawkins, E. C., Clay, L. D., Bradley, J. M., & Davidian, M. (2010). Demographic and historical findings, including exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, in dogs with chronic cough. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine, 24, 825-831.
Hori, M., Tanaka, H., Wakai, K., Sasazuki, S., & Katanoda, K. (2016). Secondhand smoke exposure and risk of lung cancer in Japan: a systematic review and meta-analysis of epidemiologic studies. Japanese Journal of Clinical Oncology, 46(10), 942-951.
INCA. Instituto Nacional do Câncer. Ministério da Saúde. Tabagismo passivo (2018). Disponível em: https://www.inca.gov.br/tabagismo/tabagismo-passivo. Acesso 09 junho 2019.
Jayes, L., Haslam, PL, Gratziou, CG, Powell, P., Britton, J., Vardavas, C., . . . De Grada Orive, J. I. (2016). SmokeHaz: Systematic reviews and meta-analyses of the effects of smoking on respiratory health. Chest Journal, 150(1), 164-179.
Jethwa AR, Khariwala SS. Tobacco-related carcinogenesis in head and neck cancer. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 2017 Sep;36(3):411-423. doi: 10.1007/s10555-017-9689-6. PMID: 28801840; PMCID: PMC5709040.
Kealy, J. & McAllister, H. (2005). Radiologia e ultrassonografia do cão e gato, (3a ed.), Barueri: Manole, 373.
Kealy, J. K., McAllister, H., & Graham, J. P. (2012). Respiratory System. In: Diagnostic radiology and ultrassonography of the dog and cat, (5a ed.), Elsevier, St. Louis, 600.
Kondo, T., Nakano, Y., Adachi, S., & Murohara, T. (2019). Effects of tobacco smoking on cardiovascular disease. Circulation Journal, 83, 1980-1985.
Öberg, M., Jaakkola, M. S., Woodward, A., Peruga, A., & Prüss-Ustün. (2011). Worldwide burden of disease from exposure to second-hand smoke: a retrospective analysis of data from 192 countries. The Lancet, 377, 139-146.
Park, S. S., Kikkawa, Y., Goldring, I. P., Daly, M. M., Zelefsky M., Shim C., . . . Morita, T. (1977). An animal model of cigarette smoking in beagle dogs: Correlative evaluation of effects on pulmonary function, defense and morphology. The American Review of Respiratory Disease, 115(6), 971-979.
Pavelski1, M., Amaral, D. V. K., Vieira, G. P., Warth, J. F. G., Dittrich, R. L., Dornbusch, P. T., & Froes, T. R. (2017). Comparative analyses of thoracic radiographs and bronchoalveolar lavage of dogs and cats with chronic bronchial diseases. Semina: Ciências Agrárias, 38(3), 1403-1416.
Pichini, S., Alteiri, I., Pellegrini, M., Pacifici, R., & Zuccaro, P. (1997). The analysis of nicotine in infants hair for measuring exposure to environmental tobacco smoke. Forensic Science International, 84, 253-258.
Reif, J. S., Bruns, C., & Lower, K. S. (1998). Cancer of the nasal cavity and paranasal sinuses and exposure to environmental tobacco smoke in pet dogs. American Journal of Epidemiology, 147(5), 488–492.
Reif, J. S., Dunn, K., Ogilvie, G. K., & Harris, C. K. (1992). Passive smoking and canine lung cancer risk. American Journal of Epidemiology, 135(3), 234–239.
Roza, M. R., & Viegas, C. A. A. (2007). The dog as a passive smoker: effects of exposure to environmental cigarette smoke on domestic dogs. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(11), 1171-1176.
Thandra, K. C., Barsouk, A., Saginala, K., Aluru, J. S., & Barsouk, A. (2021). Epidemiology of lung cancer. Contemporary oncology (Poznan, Poland), 25(1), 45–52. https://doi.org/10.5114/wo.2021.103829
Thrall, D. E. (2015). Princípios de Interpretação Radiográfica do Tórax. In: Diagnóstico de radiologia veterinária, (5a ed.), Elsevier, Rio de Janeiro, 474-487.
WHO. World Health Organization. Tobacco (2019). Disponível em: https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/tobacco. Acesso 19 junho 2019.
Wipfli, H., Avila-Tang, E., Navas-Acien, A., Kim, S., Onicescu, G., Yuan, J., . . . Samet, J. M. (2008) Secondhand smoke exposure among women and children: evidence from 31 countries. American Journal of Public Health, 98, 672-679
Yamaya, Y., Sugiya, H., & Watari, T. (2014). Tobacco exposure increased airway limitation in dogs with chronic cough. Veterinary Record, e174-18.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Alexandre Redson Soares da Silva; Ana Amélia Domingues Gomes; Ana Paula Abreu Mendonça; Thalita da Silva Marinho e Silva; Dielson da Silva Vieira; Pedro Miguel Ocampos Pedroso; Maria Jaqueline Mamprim; Maerle Oliveira Maia; Thais Rabelo dos Santos-Doni
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.