Study of the properties of gray cast iron with added niobium for hot work

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i13.20112

Keywords:

Gray cast iron; Niobium; Molybdenum; Break discs.

Abstract

One of the main materials used in the production of automobile parts is gray cast iron. This material is widely used in the production of brake discs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical and physical behavior of four pearlitic gray cast iron alloys. For this purpose, four alloys named: base alloy, base alloy + 0.10% Nb, base alloy + 0.20% Nb and base alloy + 0.15% Mo, were cast and subsequently evaluated for: chemical composition, tensile strength at temperatures of 22°C, 380°C, 480°C, 580°C and 680°C, hardness, microstructure and thermal diffusivity. In tensile strength tests at temperatures from 22°C to 680°C, it was observed that when added to the base alloy, the elements niobium and molybdenum increase the strength limit of gray cast iron, as they form carbides and promote the refining of perlite. The addition of Nb or Mo also increased the hardness of the alloys in relation to the base alloy. Regarding the microstructure, it was also possible to observe that the alloys with the addition of Nb or Mo had slightly more refined graphite. Diffusivity tests showed that the base cast iron + 0.10% Nb has better diffusivity results at all tested temperatures (380°C, 480°C, 580°C, and 680°C). This fact may be associated with the increased amount of graphite and the addition of 0.10% niobium content.

References

ABNT (1981) NBR.8583. Peças em Ferro Fundido Cinzento Classificadas Conforme a Dureza Brinell (NBR)

ABNT (1986) NBR.6589. Peças em Ferro Fundido Cinzento Classificadas Conforme a Resistência à Tração (NBR)

ASTM (2017) A 247. Test Method for Evaluating the Microstructure of Graphite in Iron Castings (ASTM)

ASTM (2016) A 48/A48M. Standard Specification for Gray Iron Castings (ASTM).

ASTM (2011) E1019:2011. Standard Test Methods for Determination of Carbon, Sulfur, Nitrogen, and Oxygen in Steel, Iron, Nickel, and Cobalt Alloys by Various Combustion and Fusion Techniques (ASTM).

Bertoli, C.; Rohrig, K. (1981). Seleção e Efeitos Gerais de Elemento de Liga em Ferros Fundidos Cinzentos e Nodulares. Revista Fundição.

Callister Júnior. W. D. (2002). Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais: Uma Introdução. 5. ed. Rio de Janeiro; LTC.

Chen, X., XU, J., HU, H., MOHRBACHER, H., KANG, M., ZHANG, W., GUO, A.& ZHAI, Q. (2017). Effects of Niobium Addition on Microstructure and Tensile Behavior of as Cast Ductile Iron. Revista Materials Science and Engineering.

Chen, H. X., Chang, Z. C, LU, J. C & Lin, H. T. (1993) Effect of Niobium on Wear Resistance of 15% Cr White Cast Iron. Wear.

Chiaverini. V. (2015). Aços e Ferros Fundidos: Ferro Fundido. 7. ed. rev. São Paulo: ABM.

Chiaverini, V. (1986). V. Tecnologia Mecânica. 2. ed. São Paulo: McGraw-Hill Ltda.

Colpaert, H. (1983). Metalografia dos Produtos Siderúrgicos Comuns: Ferros Fundidos comuns. 3. ed. rev. São Paulo: Blucher.

Founding grey cast iron EN 1561 (1997). British Standard. This document specifies the characterizing properties of grey cast irons, thickness, tensile strength, hardness, thermal conductivity, electrical resistivity, coercivity, permeability, Brinell hardness measurement, symbols, grades (quality) (DIN).

Gasparin, H. D. et al. (2014). Propriedades Mecânicas a Altas Temperaturas de Ferros Fundidos Cinzentos Aplicados a Cabeçotes de Motor a Diesel. In: 69º CONGRESSO ANUAL DA ABM, 2014, São Paulo. Anais do Congresso Anual da ABM, São Paulo, 69 (69).

Guesser, W. L., Krause, W.& Pieske, (1984). A. A Fragilização Intergranular de Ferros Fundidos de Alta Ductilidade., 40 (322), Revista ABM.

Guesser, W. L., Masiero, I., Melleras, E. & Cabezas, C. (2004). Fatigue Strength of Gray Iron and Compacted Graphite Iron Used for Engine Cylinder Blocks. SAE Brasil, São Paulo.

Guesser, W. L.& Hilário, D. G. (1999). Ferros Fundidos Nodulares Perlíticos. Contribuição ao CONAF 99, ABIFA, São Paulo, out.

Guesser, W. L. (2009). Propriedades Mecânicas dos Ferros Fundidos. 1. ed. São Paulo: Blücher.

Guesser, W. L., Masiero, I., Melleras, E.& Cabezas, C. S. (2005). Thermal Conductivity of Gray Iron and Compacted Graphite Iron Used for Cylinder Heads, Revista Matéria.,10 (2).

Huang, W, Qiang, G., Yanan, Z., Yaning, Z., Haibo, L., Haonan, R., Yamei, Z. & Xuefei, H. (2020) Influence of Sn and Nb Additions on the Microstructure and Wear Characteristics of a Gray Cast Iron. Revista Materials Science & Processing

Hasse, S. (1996). Duktiles Gusseisen. Berlin: Schiele & Schon

ISO 185:2019 (2019). Grey Cast Iron Classification. This Document Specifies the Characterizing Properties of Grey Cast Irons (ISO)

Kanno, T. (2005). Effect of Alloying Elements on the Eutectic Temperatures in Cast Iron. AFS, 113.

Maluf, O. (2017) Fadiga Termomecânica em Ligas de Ferro Fundido Cinzento para Discos de Freios Automotivos. Tese (Doutorado). USP São Carlos,

Maluf, O. et al. (2009). Effects of Alloying Elements on Thermal Diffusivity of Gray Cast Iron Used in Automotive Break Disks. Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance, 18 (7).

Medeiros, M. A. (2010). Elemento Químico Ferro. Química Nova, 32.

Milan, M. T., Maluf, O., Spinelli, D. & Bose Filho, W. W. (2004). Metais: Uma Visão Objetiva. São Carlos: Suprema.

Mohrbacher, H. (2007). Grain Size Control by Niobium Microalloying in Gear Steel during High Temperature Carburizing. NiobelCon, Belgium.

Mohrbacher, H. & Zhai, Q. (2011) Niobium Alloying in Gray Cast Iron for Vehicle Brake Discs. In: AIST Steel Properties and Applications, Materials Science and Technology, 137-148.

Pieske, A., Chaves Filho, L. M. & Reimer, J. F.(1980). Ferros Fundidos Cinzentos de Alta Qualidade. 3. ed. Joinville.

Pieske, A, Chaves Filho, L.M. & GruhL, A. (1975). As variáveis metalúrgicas e o controle da estrutura de ferros fundidos cinzentos, Revista Metalurgia ABM,

Relatório Senai sistema fiemg cetec. (2020) Avaliação de Ferro Fundido Cinzento Eutético com Adição de Nióbio para Trabalho a Quente.

Rosario, A. M. (2012). Estudo dos Efeitos de Elementos de Liga na Solidificação de um Ferro Fundido Cinzento Via Análise Térmica. Tese (Doutorado). Universidade Estadual de Ponta Grossa.

Santos, A. B. S., Castelo, B. C. H. (1991) Metalurgia dos Ferros Fundidos Cinzentos e Nodulares. São Paulo: IPT.

Santos, A. B. S.; Branco, C. H. C. (1989). Metalurgia dos ferros fundidos cinzentos e nodulares. São Paulo, IPT.

Sinatora, A.; Santos, A. B. S. (1976). Efeito da porcentagem de Fe-Si utilizado como inoculante na estrutura e propriedades de ferro nodular, Metalurgia.

Turnbull, G. K., Wallace, J. F. (1959). Molybdenum Effect on Gray Iron Elevated Temperature. AFS, 67.

Unisociesc. Ferro Fundido Cinzento. (2017). Apostila. Pós-graduação em Metalurgia, Sociedade Educacional de Santa Catarina - UNISOCIESC, Joinville.

Van vlack, L. H. (2000). Princípio de Ciências dos Materiais. 13. ed. rev. São Paulo: Blucher.

ZHAI Q., ZHOU W., ZHU H., ZHENG D., ZHENG H. & HUA Q. (2011). Niobium Alloying Effect in High Carbon Equivalent Grey Cast Iron., 8 (1), Revista China Foundry.

Wang, H. (1999). The Effect of Graphite Flake Morphology on the Thermal Diffusivity of Gray Cast Irons Set for Automotive Brake Discs, Revista Materials Science.

Zhang, J. T.& REN, F. Z (2013). Study on the Influences on Microstructure and Properties of High-Strength Grey Cast Iron in Addition to Alloying Elements Nb, Revista Materials Research, 221-224.

Zhong, L., XU, Y. & YE, F (2012). In Situ NbC Particulate-Reinforced Iron Matrix Composite: Microstructure and Abrasive Wear Characteristics. Tribology Letters, 47 (2).

Published

04/10/2021

How to Cite

MEIRA, M. P.; LIMA, E. A. P. de; NASCIMENTO , F. M. P. do. Study of the properties of gray cast iron with added niobium for hot work. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 13, p. e68101320112, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i13.20112. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/20112. Acesso em: 7 dec. 2021.

Issue

Section

Engineerings