Effect of extended application time of universal adhesives on bond strength of brackets and enamel integrity





Orthodontic brackets; Dental bonding; Orthodontics.


The objective of this study to evaluate the effect of universal adhesives application time to enamel through shear bond strength (SBS), adhesive remnant index (ARI), and morphological enamel integrity. Bovine incisors were divided into four groups according to bonding system protocol (n=20): (1) conventional etch-and-rise adhesive – Transbond XT Primer (P-XT); (2) one-step self-etching adhesive –­ Transbond Self Etching Primer (T-SEP); (3) one universal adhesive – Single Bond Universal, which were rubbed for 20s (SBU-20) or (4) 40s (SBU-40). Transbond XT composite was used to bond the brackets to enamel. SBS was evaluated in a universal test machine at 0.5mm/minute. ARI was determined under x12.5 magnification and enamel damage was evaluated through scanning electron microscope (SEM) after debonding (n=10). SBS data were compared using one-way ANOVA and Tukey’s test. The Kruskal–Wallis test was used to compare the ARI scores (α =0.05). The P-XT and T-SEP groups showed significantly higher bond strength than SBU-20 and SBU-40 (p<0.05). The ARI was similar for all groups (p>0.05). SEM showed enamel damage only in T-SEP and P-XT groups. Conventional ‘etch and rinse’ and ‘self-etch’ adhesives had the highest shear bond strength, but they were associated with more enamel damage compared to universal adhesives. The application of universal adhesives with the time recommended by the manufacturer — ensure satisfactory bond strength and enamel integrity.


Almosa, N. & Zafar, H. (2018). Incidence of orthodontic brackets detachment during orthodontic treatment: A systematic review. Pak J Med Sci, 34(3), 744-750.

Alshahrani, I., Abdelaziz, K., Asiry, M. A., AlShikh, A. J. A., AlGhamdi, W., & Mansour, H. A. (2018). Effects of Different Stain Removal Protocols on Bonding Orthodontic Brackets to Enamel. J Contemp Dent Pract, 19(7), 762-767.

Artun, J., & Bergland, S. (1984). Clinical trials with crystal growth conditioning as an alternative to acid-etch enamel pretreatment. Am J Orthod, 85(4), 333-340.

Bayar, B. H., & Çokakoğlu, S. (2020). Effects of one-step orthodontic adhesive on microleakage and bracket bond strength: An in vitro comparative study. Int Orthod, 18(2), 366-373.

Bosco, E., Potrubacz, M. I., Arrizza, L., Chimenti, C., & Tepedino, M. (2020). Enamel preservation during composite removal after orthodontic debonding comparing hydroabrasion with rotary instruments. Dent Mater J, 39(3), 367-374.

Cardenas, A. M., Siqueira, F., Rocha, J., Szesz, A. L., Anwar, M., El-Askary, F., Reis, A., Loguercio, A. (2016). Influence of Conditioning Time of Universal Adhesives on Adhesive Properties and Enamel-Etching Pattern. Oper Dent, 41(5), 481-490.

Carrilho, E., Cardoso, M., Marques, F. M., Marto, C. M., Paula, A., & Coelho, A. S. (2019). 10-MDP Based Dental Adhesives: Adhesive Interface Characterization and Adhesive Stability-A Systematic Review. Materials (Basel), 12(5), 790.

Cehreli, Z. C., Kecik, D., & Kocadereli, I. (2005). Effect of self-etching primer and adhesive formulations on the shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop, 127(5), 573-626.

Ciocan, D. I., Stanciu, D., Popescu, M. A., Miculescu, F., Plotog, I., Vărzaru, G., Ciocan, L. T. (2014). Electron microscopy analysis of different orthodontic brackets and their adhesion to the tooth enamel. Rom J Morphol Embryol, 55(2), 591-596.

Cruz-González, A. C., & Delgado-Mejía, E. (2020). Experimental study of brackets adhesion with a novel enamel-protective material compared with conventional etching. Saudi Dent J, 32(1), 36-42.

Di Hipólito, V., de Goes, M. F., Carrilho, M. R., Chan, D. C., Daronch, M., Sinhoreti, M. A. (2005). SEM evaluation of contemporary self-etching primers applied to ground and unground enamel. J Adhes Dent, 7(3), 203-211.

Ibrahim, A. I., Al-Hasani, N. R., Thompson, V. P., & Deb, S. (2020). In vitro bond strengths post thermal and fatigue load cycling of sapphire brackets bonded with self-etch primer and evaluation of enamel damage. J Clin Exp Dent, 12(1), e22-e30.

Jacker-Guhr, S., Sander, J., & Luehrs, A. K. (2019). How "Universal" is Adhesion? Shear Bond Strength of Multi-mode Adhesives to Enamel and Dentin. J Adhes Dent, 21(1), 87-95.

Kimmes, N. S., Barkmeier, W. W., Erickson, R. L., & Latta, M. A. (2010). Adhesive bond strengths to enamel and dentin using recommended and extended treatment times. Oper Dent, 35(1), 112-119.

Lamper, T., Ilie, N., Huth, K. C., Rudzki, I., Wichelhaus, A., & Paschos, E. (2014). Self-etch adhesives for the bonding of orthodontic brackets: faster, stronger, safer? Clin Oral Investig, 18(1), 313-319.

Loguercio, A. D., Muñoz, M. A., Luque-Martinez, I., Hass, V., Reis, A., & Perdigão, J. (2015). Does active application of universal adhesives to enamel in self-etch mode improve their performance? J Dent, 43(9), 1060-1070.

Meeran NA. (2013). Iatrogenic possibilities of orthodontic treatment and modalities of prevention. J Orthod Sci, 2(3), 73-86.

Mohammadi, A., Pourkhameneh, S., & Sadrhaghighi, A. H. (2018). The effect of different force magnitudes for placement of orthodontic brackets on shear bond strength, in three adhesive systems. J Clin Exp Dent, 10(6), 548-554.

Perdigão, J., & Swift, E. J.Jr. (2015). Universal Adhesives. J Esthet Restor Dent, 27(6), 331-334.

Rodríguez-Chávez, J. A., Arenas-Alatorre, J., & Belio-Reyes, I. A. (2017). Comparative study of dental enamel loss after debonding braces by analytical scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Microsc Res Tech, 80(7), 680-686.

Seeliger, J. H., Botzenhart, U. U., Gedrange, T., Kozak, K., Stepien, L., & Machoy, M. (2017). Enamel shear bond strength of different primers combined with an orthodontic adhesive paste. Biomed Tech (Berl), 62(4), 415-420.

Shafiei, F., Sardarian, A., Fekrazad, R., Farjood, A. (2019). Comparison of shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with a universal adhesive using different etching methods. Dental Press J Orthod, 24(4), 33-33.

Tian, F. C., Wang, X. Y., Huang, Q., Niu, L. N., Mitchell, J., Zhang, Z. Y., Prananik, C., Zhang, L., Chen, J. H., Breschi, L., Pashley, D. H., & Tay, F. R. (2016). Effect of nanolayering of calcium salts of phosphoric acid ester monomers on the durability of resin-dentin bonds. Acta Biomater, 38, 190-200.

Van Meerbeek, B., Yoshihara, K., Yoshida, Y., Mine, A., De Munck, J., & Van Landuyt, K. L. (2011). State of the art of self-etch adhesives. Dent Mater, 27(1), 17-28.

Velasquez, L. M., Sergent, R. S., Burgess, J. O., & Mercante, D. E. (2006). Effect of placement agitation and placement time on the shear bond strength of 3 self-etching adhesives. Oper Dent, 31(4), 426-430.

Yadala, C., Gaddam, R., Arya, S., Baburamreddy, K. V., Raju, V. R., & Varma, P. K. (2015). Comparison of Shear Bond Strength of Three Self-etching Adhesives: An In-Vitro Study. J Int Oral Health, 7(7), 53-57.




How to Cite

FRAGA, M. A. A.; LAIGNIER, D. F. R. K. de S. .; GARFIAS, C. S. Y.; CORRER, A. B. .; TEIXEIRA , L. P.; MALACARNE-ZANON, J. . Effect of extended application time of universal adhesives on bond strength of brackets and enamel integrity. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 13, p. e199101320832, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i13.20832. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/20832. Acesso em: 2 dec. 2021.



Health Sciences