Bulk fill resin composite properties: a literature review





Composite Resins; Review literature as topic; Polymerization.


Currently, resin composite has become the first choice for restorative treatments, as it has great benefits such as greater reproduction of details, mimicking the tooth structure and enabling minimally invasive and safe procedures. However, the problems resulting from polymerization shrinkage stress are still a challenge regarding the longevity and clinical success of the restoration, being circumvented through the incremental technique. As an alternative and with the purpose of optimizing the clinical time in posterior restorations, resin composites with low shrinkage stress polymerization appeared on the market, which are named bulk fill resins, which enable their use in the form of unique increments with thicknesses greater than 4mm. This material has been widely used in the dental clinic, presenting benefits such as shorter clinical time, greater depth of polymerization, less polymerization shrinkage stress and less polymerization stress generated to the cavity walls. The differences in the properties and composition of this resin occur according to the variations defined by the manufacturer. Therefore, it is essential to know the chemical composition of the material to be used in the clinic, adapting to the indications given by the manufacturer, in order to achieve satisfactory and lasting results. Thus, this article aimed to review the main characteristics and properties of bulk fill composite resin, as well as its indications, advantages and disadvantages.


M ESPE. Filtek Bulk Fill Posterior Restorative. Technical Product Profile. http://multimedia.3m.com/mws/media/976634O/ filtek-bulk-fill-posterior-restorative-technical-product-profile.pdf. Accessed September 2017.

Abbas, G., Fleming, G. J., Harrington, E., Shortall, A. C., & Burke, F. J. (2003). Cuspal movement and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with a packable composite cured in bulk or in increments. J Dent, 31(6), 437-444.

Agência do Clima e Poluição. Revisão das experiências norueguesas com a eliminação progressiva do uso de amálgama dentário. TA 2946, Oslo, Noruega 2012.

Akman, H., & Tosun, G. (2020). Clinical evaluation of bulk-fill resins and glass ionomer restorative materials: A 1-year follow-up randomized clinical trial in children. Niger J Clin Pract, 23(4), 489-497. https://doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_519_19.

Al-Sheikh, R. (2019). Effects of Different Application Techniques on Nanohybrid Composite Restorations Clinical Success. The Open Dentistry Journal, 13, 228-235. https://doi.org/10.2174/1874210601913010228.

Alkurdi, R. M., & Abboud, S. A. (2016). Clinical evaluation of class II composite: Resin restorations placed by two different bulk-fill techniques. J Orofac Sci, 8, 34-9. https://doi.org/10.4103/0975-8844.181926.

Alqudaihi, F. S., Cook, N. B., Diefenderfer, K. E., Bottino, M. C., & Platt, J. A. (2019). Comparison of Internal Adaptation of Bulk-fill and Increment-fill Resin Composite Materials. Oper Dent, 44(1), E32-E44. https://doi.org/10.2341/17-269-L.

Arbildo-Vega, H. I., Lapinska, B., Panda, S., Lamas-Lara, C., Khan, A. S., & Lukomska-Szymanska, M. (2020). Clinical Effectiveness of Bulk-Fill and Conventional Resin Composite Restorations: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Polymers (Basel), 12, 1786. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym12081786.

Arhun, N., Celik, C., & Yamanel, K. (2010). Clinical evaluation of resin-based composites in posterior restorations: two-year results. Oper Dent, 35, 397-404. https://doi.org/10.2341/09-345-C.

Balkaya, H., & Arslan, S. (2020). A Two-year Clinical Comparison of Three Different Restorative Materials in Class II Cavities. Oper Dent, 45, e32-e42. https://doi.org/10.2341/19-078-C.

Balkaya, H., Arslan, S., & Pala, K. (2019). A randomized, prospective clinical study evaluating effectiveness of a bulk-fill composite resin, a conventional composite resin and a reinforced glass ionomer in Class II cavities: one-year results. J Appl Oral Sci, 7, e20180678. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/1678-7757-2018-0678.

Baur, V., & Ilie, N. (2013). Repair of dental resin-based composites. Clin Oral Investig, 17(2), 601-608.

Bayraktar, Y., Ercan, E., Hamidi, M. M., & Çolak, H. (2017). One-year clinical evaluation of different types of bulk-fill composites. J Investig Clin Dent, 8(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/jicd.12210.

Berti, L. S., Turssi, C. P., Amaral, F. L., Basting, R. T., Junqueira, J. L. C., Panzarella, F. K., Reis, A. F., & França, F. M. (2020). Clinical and radiographic evaluation of high viscosity bulk-fill resin composite restorations. Am J Dent, 33, 213-217.

Benetti, A. R., Havndrup-Pedersen, C., Honoré, D., Pedersen, M. K., & Pallesen, U. (2015). Bulk-fill resin composites: polymerization contraction, depth of cure, and gap formation. Oper Dent, 40(2), 190-200.

Bicalho, A. A., Pereira, R. D., Zanatta, R. F., Franco, S. D., Tantbirojn, D., Versluis, A., & Soares, C. J. (2014). Incremental filling technique and composite material--part I: cuspal deformation, bond strength, and physical properties. Oper Dent, 39(2), 71-82.

Boaro, L. C. C., Lopes, D. P., de Souza, A. S. C., Nakano, E. L., Perez, M. D. A., Pfeifer, C. S., & Gonçalves, F. (2019). Clinical performance and chemical-physical properties of bulk fill composites resin - a systematic review and meta-analysis. Dent Mater, 35, e249-e264. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2019.07.007.

Bucuta, S., & Ilie, N. (2014). Light transmittance and micro-mechanical properties of bulk fill vs. conventional resin based composites. Clin Oral Investig, 18(8), 1991-2000.

Canali, G. D., Ignácio, S. A., Rached, R. N., & Souza, E. M. (2019). One-year clinical evaluation of bulk-fill flowable vs. regular nanofilled composite in non-carious cervical lesions. Clin Oral Investig, 23, 889-897. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-018-2509-8.

Chesterman, J., Jowett, A., Gallacher, A., & Nixon, P. (2017). Bulk-fill resin-based composite restorative materials: a review. Br Dent J, 222(5), 337-344.

Corral Núñez C., Vildósola Grez P., Bersezio Miranda C., Alves Dos Campos E., Fernández Godoy E. (2015) Estado da arte dos compósitos à base de resina de enchimento a granel: Uma revisão. Rev. Fac. Odontol, 27: 177–196. https://doi.org/10.17533

Correia, A., Jurema, A., Andrade, M. R., Borges, A., Bresciani, E., & Caneppele, T. (2020). Clinical Evaluation of Noncarious Cervical Lesions of Different Extensions Restored With Bulk-fill or Conventional Resin Composite: Preliminary Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial. Oper Dent, 45, e11-e20. https://doi.org/10.2341/18-256-C.

Czasch, P., & Ilie, N. (2013). In vitro comparison of mechanical properties and degree of cure of bulk fill composites. Clin Oral Investig, 17(1), 227-235.

Demarco, F. F., Corrêa, M. B., Cenci, M. S., Moraes, R. R., & Opdam, N. J. (2012). Longevity of posterior composite restorations: not only a matter of materials. Dent Mater, 28(1), 87-101

Dentsply. Surefil SDR Bulk Fill Flowable. Technical Product Profile. Disponível em: http://www.dentaltown.com/Images/Dentaltown/magimages/0216/http://www.dentaltown.com/Images/Dentaltown/magimages/0216/

Durão, M. A., Andrade, A. K. M., Santos, M. D. C. M. D. S., Montes, M. A. J. R., & Monteiro, G. Q. M. (2020). Clinical Performance of Bulk-Fill Resin Composite Restorations Using the United States Public Health Service and Federation Dentaire Internationale Criteria: A 12-Month Randomized Clinical Trial. Eur J Dent, 26. https://doi.org/10.1055/s-0040-1718639.

Ehlers, V., Gran, K., Callaway, A., Azrak, B., & Ernst, C. P. (2019). One-year Clinical Performance of Flowable Bulk-fill Composite vs Conventional Compomer Restorations in Primary Molars. J Adhes Dent, 21(3), 247-254. https://doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.a42519.

El-Safty S, Akhtar R, Silikas N, Watts DC. Nanomechanical properties of dental resin-composites. (2012). Dent Mater. Dec;28(12):1292-300. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2012.09.007.

Ferracane, J. L., & Hilton, T. J. (2016). Polymerization stress--is it clinically meaningful?. Dent Mater, 32, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2015.06.020.

Fu J, Aregawi WA, Fok ASL. (2020) Mechanical manifestation of the C-factor in relation to photopolymerization of dental resin composites. Dent Mater, 36(8), 1108-1114. https://doi.org//10.1016/j.dental.2020.05.004.

Fleming, G. J., Hall, D. P., Shortall, A. C., & Burke, F. J. (2005). Cuspal movement and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with posterior filling materials of varying reported volumetric shrinkage values. J Dent, 33(2), 139-146.

Flury, S., Peutzfeldt, A. & Lussi, A. (2014). Influence of increment thickness on microhardness and dentin bond strength of bulk fill resin composites. Dent Mater, 30(10), 1104-1112. https://doi: 10.1016/j.dental.2014.07.001.

Fronza, B. M., Ayres, A., Pacheco, R. R., Rueggeberg, F. A., Dias, C., & Giannini, M. (2017). Characterization of Inorganic Filler Content, Mechanical Properties, and Light Transmission of Bulk-fill Resin Composites. Oper Dent, 42(4), 445-455. https://doi.org/10.2341/16-024-L.

Galvão, M. R., Caldas, S. G., Bagnato, V. S., de Souza Rastelli, A. N., de Andrade, M. F. (2013). Evaluation of degree of conversion and hardness of dental composites photo-activated with different light guide tips. Eur J Dent. 7(1), 86-93.

Gamarra, V. S. S., Borges, G. A., Júnior, L. H. B., & Spohr, A. M. (2018). Marginal adaptation and microleakage of a bulk-fill composite resin photopolymerized with different techniques. Odontology, 106(1), 56-63. doi: 10.1007/s10266-017-0294-5.9 Jan-Feb;16(1):69-77. https://doi.org/10.18502/fid.v16i1.1112.

Gan, J. K., Yap, A. U., Cheong, J. W., Arista, N., & Tan, C. (2018). Bulk-Fill Composites: Effectiveness of Cure With Poly- and Monowave Curing Lights and Modes. Oper Dent, 43, 136-143. https://doi.org/10.2341/16-304-L.

Geerts, S., Bolette, A., Seidel, L., & Gueders, A. (2012). An in vitro evaluation of leakage of two etch and rinse and two self-etch adhesives after thermocycling. Int J Dent, 12, 1–7.

Gregor, L., Bortolotto, T., Feilzer, A. J., & Krejci, I. (2013). Shrinkage kenetics of a methacrylate- and a silorane-based resin composite: effect on marginal integrity. J Adhes Dent, 15, 245–50.

Grigoletto, J. C., Oliveira, A. S., Muñoz, S. I. S., Alberguini, L. B. A., & Takayanagui, A. M. M. (2008). Occupational risk due to use of mercury in dentistry: a bibliographic review. Ciências saúde coletiva, 13(2), 533-542. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1413-81232008000200029.

Guney, T., & Yazici, A. R. (2020). 24-Month Clinical Evaluation of Different Bulk-Fill Restorative Resins in Class II Restorations. Oper Dent, 45, 123-133. https://doi.org/10.2341/18-144-C.

Hamano, N., Ino, S., Fukuyama, T., Hickel, R., & Kunzelmann, K.H. (2013). Repair of silorane-based composites: microtensile bond strength of silorane-based composites repaired with methacrylate-based composites. Dent Mater J, 32(5), 695-701.

Heck, K., Manhart, J., Hickel, R., & Diegritz, C. (2018). Clinical evaluation of the bulk fill composite QuiXfil in molar class I and II cavities: 10-year results of a RCT. Dent Mater, 34, e138-e147. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2018.03.023.

Hirata, R., Kabbach, W., de Andrade, O. S., Bonfante, E. A., Giannini, M., & Coelho, P. G. (2015). Bulk Fill Composites: An Anatomic Sculpting Technique. J Esthet Restor Dent, 27(6), 335-43. https://doi.org/10.1111/jerd.12159.

Hoshino, I. A. E., Bachega, M. de O., Santos, P. H. dos., Briso, A. L., & Anchieta , R. B. (2021). Influence of increment thickness on microhardness and bond strength in composite resins. Research, Society and Development, 10(9), e32810917974. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i9.17974.

Ilie, N., Bucuta, S., & Draenert, M. (2013). Bulk-fill resin-based composites: an in vitro assessment of their mechanical performance. Oper Dent, 38(6), 618-625.

Ilie, N., & Hickel, R. (2011). Investigations on a methacrylate-based flowable composite based on the SDR technology. Dent Mater, 27(4), 348–355.

Kim EH, Jung KH, Son SA, Hur B, Kwon YH, Park JK. Effect of resin thickness on the microhardness and optical properties of bulk-fill resin composites. (2015). Restor Dent Endod, 40(2), 128-35. https://doi.org/10.5395/rde.2015.40.2.128.

Kleverlaan, C. J., & Feilzer, A. J. (2005). Polymerization shrinkage and contraction stress of dental resin composites. Dent Mater, 21(12), 1150-1157.

Kruly, P. C., Giannini, M., Pascotto, R. C., Tokubo, L. M., Suga, U. S. G., Marques, A. C. R., & Terada, R. S. S. (2018). Meta-analysis of the clinical behavior of posterior direct resin restorations: Low polymerization shrinkage resin in comparison to methacrylate composite resin. Plos One, 13, e0191942. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0191942.

Laegreid, T., Gjerdet, N. R., Johansson, A., & Johansson, A. K. (2014). Clinical decision making on extensive molar restorations. Oper Dent, 39(6), 231-240.

Leprince, J. G., Palin, W. M., Hadis, M. A., Devaux, J., & Leloup, G. (2013). Progress in dimethacrylate-based dental composite technology and curing efficiency. Dent Mater, 29, 139–156. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2012.11.005.

Lima, R. B. W., Troconis, C. C. M., Moreno, M. B. P., Murillo-Gómez, F., & de Goes, M. F. (2018). Depth of cure of bulk fill resin composites: A systematic review. J Esthet Restor Dent, 30(6), 492-501.

Lins, R. B. E., Aristilde, S., Osório, J. H., Cordeiro, C. M. B., Yanikian, C. R. F., Bicalho, A. A., Stape, T. H. S., Soares, C. J., & Martins, L. R. M. (2019a). Biomechanical behaviour of bulk-fill resin composites in class II restorations. J Mech Behav Biomed Mater, 98, 255-261. doi: 10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.06.032.

Lins, R., Vinagre, A., Alberto, N., Domingues, M. F., Messias, A., Martins, L. R., Nogueira, R., & Ramos, J. C. (2019b). Polymerization Shrinkage Evaluation of Restorative Resin-Based Composites Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors. Polymers (Basel), 11(5), 859. https://doi.org/10.3390/polym11050859.

Manhart, J., Chen, H. Y., & Hickel, R. (2010). Clinical evaluation of the posterior composite Quixfil in class I and II cavities: 4-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial. J Adhes Dent, 12, 237-43. https://doi.org/10.3290/j.jad.a17551.

Mahmoud, S. H., Ali, A. K., & Hegazi, H. A. (2014). A three-year prospective randomized study of silorane- and methacrylate-based composite restorative systems in class II restorations. J Adhes Dent, 16(3), 285-292.

Monterubbianesi, R., Orsini, G., Tosi, G., Conti, C., Librando, V., Procaccini, M., & Putignano, A. (2016). Spectroscopic and Mechanical Properties of a New Generation of Bulk Fill Composites. Front Physiol, 7:652.

Moorthy, A., Hogg, C. H., Dowling, A. H., Grufferty, B. F., Benetti, A. R., & Fleming, G. J. (2012). Cuspal deflection and microleakage in premolar teeth restored with bulk-fill flowable resin-based composite base materials. J Dent, 40(6), 500-5.

Mosharrafian, S., Shafizadeh, M., & Sharifi, Z. (2019). Fracture Resistance of a Bulk-Fill and a Conventional Composite and the Combination of Both for Coronal Restoration of Severely Damaged Primary Anterior Teeth. Front Dent, 16(1), 69-77. https://doi.org/10.18502/fid.v16i1.1112.

Rueggeberg, F. A., Giannini, M., Arrais, C. A. G., & Price, R. B. T. (2017). Light curing in dentistry and clinical implications: a literature review. Braz Oral Res, 28, e61. https://doi.org/10.1590/1807-3107bor-2017.vol31.0061.

Rodrigues, L. D., Costa, I. A., Rabelo, Z. H., Oliveira, L. L., Monteiro, R. M. F., Sá, H. C., Estellita, M. C. A., Lima, K. E. R., Lemos, M. V. S., Fontes, N. M., Silva, R. A. D. A., Isaias, P. H. C., Mendes, T. A. D., & Sales, E. M. A. (2021). Composite resin innovations: a literatura review. Research, Society and Development, 10(3), 1-14. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i3.13099

Santos, D. T., Dias, K. R., & Santos, M. P. (2016). Dental amalgam and its role in current dentistry. Revista Brasileira de Odontologia, 73(1), 64-68.

Sebold, M., Lins, R. B. E., André, C. B., Martins, L. R. M., & Giannini, M. (2020). Flowable and Regular Bulk-Fill Composites: A Comprehensive Report on Restorative Treatment. Int J Periodontics Restorative Dent, 40(2), 293-300. https://doi.org/10.11607/prd.3932.

Tarle, Z., Attin, T., Marovic, D., Andermatt, L., Ristic, M., Tauböck, TT. (2015). Influence of irradiation time on subsurface degree of conversion and microhardness of high-viscosity bulk-fill resin composites. Clin Oral Investig, 19(4), 831-840. https://doi: 10.1007/s00784-014-1302-6.

Türkün LS, Aktener BO, Ateş M. Clinical evaluation of different posterior resin composite materials: a 7-year report. (2003) Quintessence Int. Jun;34(6):418-26. PMID: 12859086.

Veloso, S. R. M., Lemos, C. A. A., de Moraes, S. L. D., do Egito Vasconcelos, B. C., Pellizzer, E. P., & de Melo Monteiro, G. Q. (2019). Clinical performance of bulk-fill and conventional resin composite restorations in posterior teeth: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Clin Oral Investig, 23, 221-233. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-018-2429-7.

Vildósola, P., Nakouzi, J., Rodriguez, S., Reyes, A., Reyes, J., & Conejeros, C. (2019). Six month follow-up of two Bulk-fill composites in non-carious cervical lesions: Double blind randomized clinical trial. J Oral Res, 8, 210-219. https://doi.org/10.17126/joralres.2019.032.

Yazici, A. R., Antonson, S. A., Kutuk, Z. B., & Ergin, E. (2017). Thirty-Six-Month Clinical Comparison of Bulk Fill and Nanofill Composite Restorations. Oper Dent, 42, 478-485. https://doi.org/10.2341/16-220-C.

Yoshikawa, T., Sano, H., Burrow, M. F., Tagami, J., & Pashley, D. H. (1999). Effects of dentin depth and cavity configuration on bond strength. J Dent Res, 78, 898-905. https://doi.org/10.1177/00220345990780041001.

Zorzin, J., Maier, E., Harre, S., Fey, T., Belli, R., Lohbauer, U., Petschelt, A., & Taschner, M. (2015). Bulk-fill resin composites: polymerization properties and extended light curing. Dent. Mater, 31, 293–301. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dental.2014.12.010.



How to Cite

RODRIGUES, B. B. .; SILVA, L. J. T. .; SILVA, G. C. B. da .; VIEIRA, H. S. .; CAMPOS, F. .; LINS, R. B. E. . Bulk fill resin composite properties: a literature review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 13, p. e136101320852, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i13.20852. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/20852. Acesso em: 2 dec. 2021.



Review Article