Impact of body truck’s microclimate on pig skin temperature during pre-slaughter logistics

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i13.21077

Keywords:

Animal welfare; Livestock; Thermal comfort; Truck microenvironment.

Abstract

Handling of pigs under hot weather conditions face a critical challenge in meeting thermal comfort and animal welfare standards. Moreover, climate variation affects production and pre-slaughter logistics. This study assesses the thermal comfort of pigs during pre-slaughter procedures under different weather conditions. The case study was conducted at two commercial pig farms in Southeastern Brazil. The bioclimatic index more accurately indicated the pigs' thermal comfort than the temperature-humidity index. The length of the transportation journey critically affected the pigs' thermal comfort, as shown by the rise in pigs' skin temperature (1.56 °C and 1.64 °C on pigs from Farm 2 and Farm 1, respectively). The pigs reached the critical upper limit of the thermoneutral zone under hot weather conditions. Adequate microclimate control during the pre-slaughter management procedures might improve pig welfare. To increase the animals' thermal comfort, both farms should reschedule their transportation to a cooler time of the day. Both farms should also improve their pre-slaughter management processes by training workers to comply with animal welfare requirements and reduce loss.

References

Banzatto, D. A & Kronka, S. N. (2006). Experimentação agrícola [Agricultural Experimentation]. FUNEP.

Barbari, M. & Conti, L. (2009). Use of different cooling systems by pregnant sows in the experimental pen. Biosystems Engineering, 103 (2), 239-244.

Brown-Brandl, T. M., Eigenberg, R.A. & Purswell, J. L. (2012). Determining heat tolerance in finishing pigs using thermal imaging. In: Cambra-Lopez, M., Wheeler, E. F., Moura, D. J., Janni, K. & Gates, R. S. (2012). Proceedings of the 9th International Livestock Environment Symposium (ILES IX), Paper 39. ASABE, 2012 July 8-12, Valencia (Spain).

Correa, J. A., Gonyou, H., Torrey, S., Widowski, T., Bergeron, R., Crowe, T., Laforest, J-P. & Faucitano, L. (2014). Welfare of pigs being transported over long distances using a pot-belly trailer during winter and summer. Animals, 4 (2), 200-213.

Dalla Costa, F.A., Lopes, L.S. & Dalla Costa, O.A. (2017). Effects of the truck suspension system on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality traits in pigs. Animals, 7 (1), 5–18.

Dalla Costa, F. A., Dalla Costa, O. A., Coldebella, A., de Lima, G. J. M. M. & Ferraudo, A. S. (2019a). How do season, on-farm fasting interval and lairage period affect swine welfare, carcass and meat quality traits? International Journal of Biometeorology, 63, 1497–1505

Dalla Costa, O. A., Dalla Costa, F. A., Feddern, V., dos Santos, L. L., Coldebella, A., Gregory, N. G. & de Lima, G. J. M. M. (2019b). Risk factors associated with pig pre-slaughtering losses. Meat Science, 155, 61-68.

Dias, A. C., Carraro, B. Z., Dallanora, D., Coser, F. J., Machado, G. S., Machado, I. P., Pinheiro, R. & Rohr, S. A. (2011). Manual brasileiro de boas práticas agropecuária na produção de suínos [Best-Practices in Brazilian agricultural and production of pigs]. Brasília: ABCS, MAPA, EMBRAPA Suínos e Aves.

EMBRAPA, Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuária. (2015). Condições meteorológicas [Meteorological conditions]. http://www.cppse.embrapa.br/dados-meteorologicos

FAWC, Farm Animal Welfare Council. (2009). Farm animal welfare in Great Britain: past, present and future. https://www.gov.uk

Ferguson, D.M. & Warner, R. D. (2008). Have we underestimated the impact of pre-slaughter stress on meat quality in ruminants? Meat Science, 80 (1), 12-19.

Fox, J., Widowski, T., Torrey, S., Nannoni, E., Bergeron, R., Gonyou, H. W., Brown, J. A., Crowe, T., Mainau, E. & Faucitano, L. (2014). Water sprinkling market pigs in a stationary trailer. 1. Effects on pig behavior, gastrointestinal tract temperature and trailer micro-climate. Livestock Science, 160, 113-123.

Haley, C., Dewey, C. E., Widowski, T., Poljak, Z. & Friendship, R (2008). Factors associated with in-transit losses of market hogs in Ontario in 2001. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 72 (5), 377-384.

Hakansson, N., Flisberg, P., Algers, B., Jonsson, A., Rönnqvist, M. & Wennergren, U. (2016). Improvement of animal welfare by strategic analysis and logistic optimisation of animal slaughter transportation. Animal Welfare, 25 (2), 255-263.

INMET, Instituto Nacional de Meteorologia. (2015). Anomalias de temperaturas medias mensais [Monthly average temperature anomalies]. http://www.inmet.gov.br/portal/index.php?r=clima/anomaliaTempMediaMensal

Ludtke, C. B., Silveira, E. T. F., Bertoloni, W., Andrade, J. C., Buzelli, M. L., Bessa, L. R. & Soares, G. J. D. (2010). Bem-estar e qualidade de carne de suíno submetidos a diferentes técnicas de manejo pré-abate [Welfare and meat quality of pigs submitted to differentt pre-slaughter handling techniques]. Revista Brasileira de Saúde e Produção Animal, 11 (1), 231-241.

Kephart, R., Johnson, A., Sapkota, A., Stalder, K. & Mcglone, J. (2014a). Establishing sprinkling requirements on trailers transporting market weight pigs in warm and hot weather. Animals, 4 (2), 164-183.

Kephart, R., Johnson, A., Sapkota, A., Stalder, K. & Mcglone, J. (2014b). Establishing bedding requirements on trailers transporting market weight pigs in warm weather. Animals, 4 (2), 476-493.

Marahrens, M., Kleinschmidt, N., Di Nardo, A., Velarde, A., Fuentes, C., Truar, A., Otero, J. L., Di Fede, E. & Dalla Villa, P. (2011). Risk assessment in animal welfare–especially referring to animal transport. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 102 (2), 157-163.

Martins, R. A. (2012). Abordagens quantitativa e qualitativa [Quantitative and Qualitative Approaches]. In: Miguel, P. A. C. (Org.). Metodologia de pesquisa para engenharia de produção e gestão de operações (47-63). Rio de Janeiro: Elsevier.

McGlone, J., Johnson, A., Sapkota, A. & Kephart, R. (2014). Establishing Bedding Requirements during Transport and Monitoring Skin Temperature during Cold and Mild Seasons after Transport for Finishing Pigs. Animals, 4 (2), 241-253.

Naas, I. A., Romanini, C. E. B., Salgado, D. D’A., Lima, K. A. O., Vale, M. M., Labigalini, M. R., Souza, S. R. L., Menezes, A. G. & Moura, D. J. (2010). Impact of global warming on beef cattle production cost in Brazil. Scientia Agricola, 67 (1), 1-8.

Renaudeau, D., Gourdine, J. L. & ST-Pierre, N. R. (2011). A meta-analysis of the effects of high ambient temperature on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs. Journal of Animal Science, 89 (7), 2220-2230.

Renaudeau, D., Collin, A., Yahav, S., Basilio, V., Gourdine, J. L. & Collier, R. J. (2012). Adaptation to hot climate and strategies to alleviate heat stress in livestock production. Animal, 6 (5), 707-728.

Triel-Ht. (2016). Carroceira metálica para transporte suínos-abate [Truck with metal body for pig-slaughter transport]. http://pt.trielht.com.br/logistica-agroindustrial/produtos

INCAPER, Instituto Capixaba de Pesquisa, Assistência Técnica e Extensão Rural. (2020). Programa de assistência técnica e extensão rural [Technical assistance and rural extension program]. Cachoeiro de Itapemirim: MAPA.

Roller, W. L. & Goldman, R. F. (1969). Response of swine to acute heat exposure. T. ASABE, 12, 164-169.

Sarubbi, J., Rossi, L. A., Moura, D. J., Oliveira, R. A. & Maia, A. P. A. (2012). Nocturnal thermal comfort in facilities for growing swines. Engenharia Agrícola, 32 (6), 1034-1040.

Schwartzkopf-Genswein, K. S., Faucitano, L., Dadgar, S., Shand, P., Gonzáles, L. A. & Crowe, T. G. (2012). Road transport of cattle, swine and poultry in North America and its impact on animal welfare, carcass and meat quality: a review. Meat Science, 92 (3), 227-243.

Texier, C., De la Farge, B. & Granier, R. (1979). Influence des variations des principaux facters de l’ambiance en porcherie d’engraissement [Influence of variations of the main factors of the environment in fattening house]. Jounées de la Recherche Porcine en France, 153-164.

Trienekens, J. & Wognum, N. (2013). Requirements of supply chain management in differentiating European pork chains. Meat Science, 95 (3), 719-726.

Downloads

Published

06/10/2021

How to Cite

MACHADO, S. T.; NÄÄS, I. de A.; REIS, J. G. M. dos; COSTA NETO, P. L. de O.; TOLOI, R. C.; SANTOS, R. C.; VENDRAMETTO, O.; SANCHES, A. C. Impact of body truck’s microclimate on pig skin temperature during pre-slaughter logistics. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 13, p. e115101321077, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i13.21077. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/21077. Acesso em: 2 dec. 2021.

Issue

Section

Agrarian and Biological Sciences