Fetal hydropsia: challenges in etiologies

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i13.21259

Keywords:

Fetal; Hydrop; Etiologies.

Abstract

Introduction: Fetal hydrops is defined as the presence of abnormal fluid collections in two or more extravascular   fetal compartments and body cavities. There are about 150 different underlying causes known today potentially leading to this fetal alteration. Objective: To analyze the etiologies involved in the occurrence of cases of fetal hydrops. Methods: A systematic literature review was carried out using the MedLine, Pubmed and Scielo databases, from 2015 to 2021, using the expressions: "fetal, hydrop, etiologies." Discussion: Fetal hydrops is divided into immune and non-immune. Immune results from anemia secondary to erythroblastosis by alloimmunization, so when there is maternal exposure to fetal antigens, it generates an immune response that results in the production of antibodies. History of blood transfusions, previous births, trauma and a history of alloimmunization are characterized as risk factors. Thus, immunoprophylaxis with anti-D immunoglobulin is indicated for all RhD negative pregnant women, with RhD positive male partner, with abundant fetal maternal hemorrhage during childbirth or events with potential sensitizer in the prenatal period. Conclusion: For an effective treatment, it is essential to identify the type of fetal hydrops in the patient and then the etiology of the disease, which is quite variable in Non-Immune Fetal Hydrops.

References

ABCMED, 2020. Hidropsia fetal - causas, diagnóstico, tratamento, evolução www.abc.med.br/p/saude-da-crianca/1359993/hidropsia-fetal-causas-diagnostico-tratamento-evolucao.htm

Alpman A., Cogulu O., Akgul M., et al. (2009) Síndrome de Turner com diagnóstico pré-natal e higroma cístico: incidência e motivos de encaminhamentos. Fetal Diagn Ther 2009; 25: 58-61 (Nível II-2)

Bellini C., Hennekam R. C., Fulcheri E., et al. (2009) Etiologia da hidropisia fetal não imune: uma revisão sistemática. Am J Med Genet; 149A: 844-51 (Nível I)

Bellini, C., & Hennekam, R. C. (2012). Non-immune hydrops fetalis: a short review of etiology and pathophysiology. American journal of medical genetics. Part A, 158A(3), 597–605. doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.34438

Bellini, C., Donarini, G., Paladini, D., Calevo, M. G., Bellini, T., Ramenghi, L. A., & Hennekam, R. C. (2015). Etiology of non-immune hydrops fetalis: An update. American journal of medical genetics. Part A, 167A(5), 1082–1088. doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.36988

Brock, W. W., & Bradshaw, W. T. (2016). Congenital Chylothorax: A Unique Presentation of Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis in a Preterm Infant. Advances in neonatal care : official journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses, 16(2), 114–123. doi.org/10.1097/ANC.0000000000000257

Cavoretto P., Molina F., Poggi S., Davenport M., & Nicolaides K. H. (2008). Diagnóstico pré-natal e evolução das lesões pulmonares fetais ecogênicas. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol; 32: 769-83 (Nível II-2)

Désilets, V., Audibert, F., & Society of Obstetrician and Gynaecologists of Canada (2013). Investigation and management of non-immune fetal hydrops. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology Canada : JOGC, 35(10), 923–938. doi.org/10.1016/s1701-2163(15)30816-1

Ek, S., & Rosenborg, S. (2017). Mesalazine as a cause of fetal anemia and hydrops fetalis: A case report. Medicine, 96(50), e9277. doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000009277

Hartge, D. R., Weichert, J., Gembicki, M., & Krapp, M. (2015). Confirmation of etiology in fetal hydrops by sonographic evaluation of fluid allocation patterns. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology. Volume 195. 128-132. doi.org/10.1016/j.ejogrb.2015.09.006.

Lee, H. H., Mak, A. S., Kou, K. O., Poon, C. F., Wong, W. S., Chiu, K. H., Au, P. K., Chan, K. Y., Kan, A. S., Tang, M. H., & Leung, K. Y. (2016). An Unusual Hydrops Fetalis Associated with Compound Heterozygosity for Krüppel-like Factor 1 mutations. Hemoglobin, 40(6), 431–434. doi.org/10.1080/03630269.2016.1267017

Malin, G. L., Kilby, M. D., & Velangi, M. (2010). Transient Abnormal Myelopoiesis Associated with Down Syndrome Presenting as Severe Hydrops Fetalis: A Case Report. Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy, 27(3), 171–173. 10.1159/000284928

Mardy, A. H., Chetty, S. P., Norton, M. E., & Sparks, T. N. (2019). A system-based approach to the genetic etiologies of non-immune hydrops fetalis. Prenatal diagnosis, 39(9), 732–750. doi.org/10.1002/pd.5479

Mauad Filho, F., et al. (2002). Tumor placentário diagnosticado durante a gravidez: relato de caso. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia [online]. 24(7), 485-489. doi.org/10.1590/S0100-72032002000700009.

Oztunc, F., Ugan Atik, S., & Koka, A. (2016). A case with right atrial appendage aneurysm and hydrops foetalis. Journal of obstetrics and gynaecology : the journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 36(7), 850–851. doi.org/10.3109/01443615.2016.1174198

Poeschmann, R. P., Verheijen, R. H., & Van Dongen, P. W. (1991). Differential diagnosis and causes of nonimmunological hydrops fetalis: a review. Obstetrical & gynecological survey, 46(4), 223–231. doi.org/10.1097/00006254-199104000-00015

Randenberg A. L. (2010). Hidropisia fetal não imune parte II: a etiologia emfluência da mortalidade? Neonatal Netw; 29: 367-80 (Nível III).

Sanders, R. C. (2002). Structural Fetal Abnormalities, Mosby, Second Edition.

Silva, A. R. A. et al. (2005). Hidropisia fetal: análise de 80 casos. Revista Brasileira de Ginecologia e Obstetrícia [online]. 27(3), 143-148. doi.org/10.1590/S0100-72032005000300008>.

Society for Maternal-Fetal Medicine (SMFM), Norton, M. E., Chauhan, S. P., & Dashe, J. S. (2015). Society for maternal-fetal medicine (SMFM) clinical guideline #7: nonimmune hydrops fetalis. American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 212(2), 127–139. doi.org/10.1016/j.ajog.2014.12.018

Songdej, D., Babbs, C., & Higgs D. R.; in collaboration with the BHFS International Consortium (2017), An international registry of survivors with Hb Bart's hydrops fetalis syndrome. Blood; 129 (10): 1251–1259. doi.org/10.1182/blood-2016-08-697110

Steurer, M. A., Peyvandi, S., Baer, R. J., MacKenzie, T., Li, B. C., Norton, M. E., Jelliffe-Pawlowski, L. L., & Moon-Grady, A. J. (2017). Epidemiology of Live Born Infants with Nonimmune Hydrops Fetalis-Insights from a Population-Based Dataset. The Journal of pediatrics, 187, 182–188.e3. doi.org/10.1016/j.jpeds.2017.04.025

Van Den Wijngaard J. P., Ross M. G., &Van Gemert M. J. (2007). Modelagem de síndrome de transfusão de gêmeos. Ann NY Acad Sci; 1101: 215-34 (Nível III)

Whybra, C., Mengel, E., Russo, A., et al. Lysosomal storage disorder in non-immunological hydrops fetalis (NIHF) - more common than assumed? Report of four cases with transient NIHF and a review of the literature. Orphanet J Rare Dis 7, 86 (2012). doi.org/10.1186/1750-1172-7-86

Yuan S. M. (2017). Cardiac Etiologies of Hydrops Fetalis. Zeitschrift fur Geburtshilfe und Neonatologie, 221(2), 67–72. doi.org/10.1055/s-0042-123825

Downloads

Published

10/10/2021

How to Cite

DANTAS, R. F. de A. .; SANTOS, T. R.; CANO, M. E. B. .; CHAVES, M. E. B. C. .; SILVA, A. C. B. da . Fetal hydropsia: challenges in etiologies. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 13, p. e247101321259, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i13.21259. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/21259. Acesso em: 2 dec. 2021.

Issue

Section

Review Article