Conditions associated with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among community-dwelling older people

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i14.22205

Keywords:

Aging; Muscle mass; Physical activity.

Abstract

Objective: to investigate the factors associated with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity (SO) in community-dwelling older people. Methods: This was a cross-sectional community-based study. Sarcopenia was diagnosed according to the cutoff points of hand grip strength (HGS), and SO was identified through a low HGS concomitant with a high body fat percentage, according to sex, determined using electrical bioimpedance. Calorie and protein intake was estimated using a 24-hour recall. Socio-demographic data were obtained by means of an interview and the level of physical activity was assessed using a specific instrument. Results: Prevalence of 43% and 19.6% were observed for sarcopenia and SO, respectively. Older people aged ≥ 70 years have a significantly higher risk for sarcopenia in 183% (PR = 2.83; 95% CI = [1.62 to 4.96]; p value < 0.001) compared to those aged 60 to 69 years. The prevalence of sarcopenia was higher in males, among those who contribute to family support, present comorbidities and are less physically active. The prevalence of SO and sarcopenia was high, but this study did not allow us to observe statistically significant associations. Calorie and protein intakes were predominantly inadequate throughout the sample, however, there was no association with sarcopenia and SO. Conclusion: Advance years of life was shown to be a factor associated with sarcopenia, and with SO. Contributing to family support and insufficient physical activity were determining conditions for the occurrence of sarcopenia.

References

Alexandre, T. D. S., Duarte, Y. A. D. O., Santos, J. L. F., & Lebrão, M. L. (2019). Prevalence and associated factors of sarcopenia, dynapenia, and sarcodynapenia in community-dwelling elderly in São Paulo- SABE Study. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 21. 10.1590/1980-549720180009.supl.2.

Batsis, J. A., Mackenzie, T. A., Barre, L. K., Lopez-Jimenez, F., & Bartels, S. J. (2014). Sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and mortality in older adults: results from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 68(9), 1001-1007. 10.1038/ejcn.2014.117.

Baumgartner, R. N., Wayne, S. J., Waters, D. L., Janssen, I., Gallagher, D., & Morley, J. E. (2004). Sarcopenic obesity predicts instrumental activities of daily living disability in the elderly. Obesity Research, 12(12), 1995-2004. 10.1038/oby.2004.250.

Beasley, J. M., Shikany, J. M., & Thomson, C. A. (2013). The role of dietary protein intake in the prevention of sarcopenia of aging. Nutrition in Clinical Practice, 28(6), 684- 690. 10.1177/0884533613507607.

Buford, T. W., Anton, S. D., Judge, A. R., Marzetti, E., Wohlgemuth, S. E., Carter, C. S., & Manini, T. M. (2010). Models of accelerated sarcopenia: critical pieces for solving the puzzle of age-related muscle atrophy. Ageing Research Reviews, 9(4), 369-383. 10.1016/j.arr.2010.04.004.

Carriquiry A. L. (1999). Assessing the prevalence of nutrient inadequacy. Public health nutrition, 2(1), 23–33. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1368980099000038

Choi, K. M. (2016). Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity. The Korean Journal of Internal Medicine, 31(6), 1054-1060. 10.3904/kjim.2016.193.

Chung, J. Y., Kang, H. T., Lee, D. C., Lee, H. R., & Lee, Y. J. (2013). Body composition and its association with cardiometabolic risk factors in the elderly: a focus on sarcopenic obesity. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 56(1), 270-278. 10.1016/j.archger.2012.09.007.

Confortin, S. C., Ono, L. M., Barbosa, A. R., & d’Orsi, E. (2018). Sarcopenia e sua associação com mudanças nos fatores socioeconômicos, comportamentais e de saúde: Estudo EpiFloripa Idoso. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 34. 10.1590/0102- 311X00164917.

Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Baeyens, J. P., Bauer, J. M., Boirie, Y., Cederholm, T., Landi, F., & Zamboni, M. (2010). Sarcopenia: European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Report of the European Working Group on Sarcopenia in Older. Age and Ageing, 39(4), 412-423. 10.1093/ageing/afq034.

Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Landi, F., Schneider, S. M., Zúñiga, C., Arai, H., Boirie, Y., & Cederholm, T. (2014). Prevalence of and interventions for sarcopenia in ageing adults: a systematic review. Report of the International Sarcopenia Initiative (EWGSOP and IWGS). Age and Ageing, 43(6), 748–759. https://doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afu115.

Dent, E., Morley, J. E., Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Arai, H., Kritchevsky, S. B., Guralnik, J., & Vellas, B. (2018). International clinical practice guidelines for sarcopenia (ICFSR): screening, diagnosis and management. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 22(10), 1148-1161. 10.1007/s12603-018-1139-9.

Donini, L. M., Scardella, P., Piombo, L., Neri, B., Asprino, R., Proietti, A. R., & Morrone, A. (2013). Malnutrition in elderly: social and economic determinants. The Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging, 17(1), 9-15. 10.1007/s12603-012-0374-8.

Folstein, M. F., Folstein, S. E., & McHugh, P. R. (1975). “Mini-mental state”. A practical method for grading the cognitive state of patients for the clinician. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 12(3), 189–198. https://doi.org/10.1016/0022-3956(75)90026-6.

Guenther, P. M., Kott, P. S., & Carriquiry, A. L. (1997). Development of an approach for estimating usual nutrient intake distributions at the population level. The Journal of Nutrition, 127(6), 1106-1112. https://doi.org/10.1093/jn/127.6.1106.

Hai, S., Wang, H., Cao, L., Liu, P., Zhou, J., Yang, Y., & Dong, B. (2017). Association between sarcopenia with lifestyle and family function among community-dwelling Chinese aged 60 years and older. BMC Geriatrics, 17(1), 1-7. 10.1186/s12877-017- 0587-0.

Houston, D. K., Nicklas, B. J., Ding, J., Harris, T. B., Tylavsky, F. A., Newman, A. B., & Health ABC Study. (2008). Dietary protein intake is associated with lean mass change in older, community-dwelling adults: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition (Health ABC) Study. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 87(1), 150-155. 10.1093/ajcn/87.1.150.

Hughes, V. A., Frontera, W. R., Wood, M., Evans, W. J., Dallal, G. E., Roubenoff, R., & Singh, M. A. F. (2001). Longitudinal muscle strength changes in older adults: influence of muscle mass, physical activity, and health. The Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 56(5), B209-B217. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/56.5.b209.

Hwang, B., Lim, J. Y., Lee, J., Choi, N. K., Ahn, Y. O., & Park, B. J. (2012). Prevalence rate and associated factors of sarcopenic obesity in Korean elderly population. Journal of Korean Medical Science, 27(7), 748-755. 10.3346/jkms.2012.27.7.748.

Janssen, I. (2011). The epidemiology of sarcopenia. Clinics in Geriatric Medicine, 27(3), 355-363. 10.1016/j.cger.2011.03.004.

Janssen, I., Heymsfield, S. B., Baumgartner, R. N., & Ross, R. (2000). Estimation of skeletal muscle mass by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(2), 465-471. 10.1152/jappl.2000.89.2.465.

Kamen, C., Cosgrove, V., McKellar, J., Cronkite, R., & Moos, R. (2011). Family support and depressive symptoms: a 23‐year follow‐up. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 215-223. 10.1002/jclp.20765.

Kim, H., Hirano, H., Edahiro, A., Ohara, Y., Watanabe, Y., Kojima, N., & Shinkai, S. (2016). Sarcopenia: Prevalence and associated factors based on different suggested definitions in community‐dwelling older adults. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 16, 110-122. 10.1111/ggi.12723.

Kim, J. S., Wilson, J. M., & Lee, S. R. (2010). Dietary implications on mechanisms of sarcopenia: roles of protein, amino acids and antioxidants. The Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 21(1), 1-13. 10.1016/j.jnutbio.2009.06.014.

Kyle, U. G., Bosaeus, I., De Lorenzo, A. D., Deurenberg, P., Elia, M., Gómez, J. M., & Pichard, C. (2004). Bioelectrical impedance analysis—part II: utilization in clinical practice. Clinical Nutrition, 23(6), 1430-1453. 10.1016/j.clnu.2004.09.012.

Larsson, L., Degens, H., Li, M., Salviati, L., Lee, Y. I., Thompson, W., Kirkland, J. L., & Sandri, M. (2019). Sarcopenia: Aging-Related Loss of Muscle Mass and Function. Physiological Reviews, 99(1), 427–511. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00061.2017.

LeBlanc, E. S., Wang, P. Y., Lee, C. G., Barrett-Connor, E., Cauley, J. A., Hoffman, A. R., & Orwoll, E. S. (2011). Higher testosterone levels are associated with less loss of lean body mass in older men. The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 96(12), 3855–3863. https://doi.org/10.1210/jc.2011-0312.

Lombardo, M., Boaria, A., Aulisa, G., Padua, E., Annino, G., Pratesi, A., & Bellia, A. (2019). Sarcopenic obesity: etiology and lifestyle therapy. European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences, 23(16), 7152-62. 10.26355/eurrev_201908_18761.

Mithal, A., Bonjour, J. P., Boonen, S., Burckhardt, P., Degens, H., Fuleihan, G. E. H., & Dawson-Hughes, B. (2013). Impact of nutrition on muscle mass, strength, and performance in older adults. Osteoporosis International, 24(5), 1555-1566. 10.1007/s00198-012-2236-y.

Morley, J. E., Abbatecola, A. M., Argiles, J. M., Baracos, V., Bauer, J., Bhasin, S., & Society on Sarcopenia, Cachexia and Wasting Disorders Trialist Workshop (2011). Sarcopenia with limited mobility: an international consensus. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 12(6),403–409. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2011.04.014.

Murphy, R. A., Ip, E. H., Zhang, Q., Boudreau, R. M., Cawthon, P. M., Newman, A. B., & Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. (2014). Transition to sarcopenia and determinants of transitions in older adults: a population-based study. Journals of Gerontology Series A: Biomedical Sciences and Medical Sciences, 69(6), 751-758. 2014;69(6):751-8. 10.1093/gerona/glt131.

Nicastro, H., Artioli, G. G., dos Santos Costa, A., Solis, M. Y., Da Luz, C. R., Blachier, F., & Lancha, A. H. (2011). An overview of the therapeutic effects of leucine supplementation on skeletal muscle under atrophic conditions. Amino Acids, 40(2), 287- 300. 10.1007/s00726-010-0636-x.

Oliveira, R. J. D., Bottaro, M., Júnior, J. T., Farinatti, P. T. V., Bezerra, L. A., & Lima, R. M. (2011). Identification of sarcopenic obesity in postmenopausal women: a cutoff proposal. Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 44, 1171-1176. 10.1590/S0100-879X2011007500135.

Oliveira, S. C., Pavarini, S. C. I., Orlandi, F. D. S., & de Mendiondo, M. S. Z. (2014). Family functionality: a study of Brazilian institutionalized elderly individuals. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 58(1), 170-176. 10.1016/j.archger.2013.07.003.

Polyzos, S. A., Margioris, A. N. (2018). Sarcopenic obesity. Hormones, 17(3), 321–331. 10.1007/s42000-018-0049-x.

Rauchbach, R., & Wendling, N. M. (2009). Evolução da construção de um instrumento de avaliação do nível de atividade física para idosos curitibativa. FIEP Bull, 79, 543-547.

Safonova, J. A., & Glazunova, G. M. (2020). Diagnostic Criteria and Prevalence of Sarcopenia in the Elderly. Advances in Gerontology, 10(3), 228-233.

Santos, E. P., Gadelha, A. B., Safons, M. P., Nóbrega, O. T., Oliveira, R. J., & Lima, R. M. (2014). Sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity classifications and cardiometabolic risks in older women. Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 59(1), 56-61. 10.1016/j.archger.2014.03.012.

Santos, V. R. D., Gomes, I. C., Bueno, D. R., Christofaro, D. G. D., Freitas, I. F., & Gobbo, L. A. (2017). Obesity, sarcopenia, sarcopenic obesity and reduced mobility in Brazilian older people aged 80 years and over. Einstein (São Paulo), 15, 435-440. 10.1590/S1679-45082017AO4058.

Silva, A. O., Karnikowski, M. G. O., Funghetto, S. S., Stival, M. M., Lima, R. M., de Souza, J. C., & Prestes, J. (2013). Association of body composition with sarcopenic obesity in elderly women. International Journal of General Medicine, 6, 25. 10.2147/IJGM.S36279.

Tian, S., & Xu, Y. (2016). Association of sarcopenic obesity with the risk of all‐cause mortality: a meta‐analysis of prospective cohort studies. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 16(2), 155-166. 10.1111/ggi.12579.

Trumbo, P., Schlicker, S., Yates, A. A., & Poos, M. (2002). Food and Nutrition Board of the Institute of Medicine, The National Academies. Dietary reference intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein and amino acids. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 102(11), 1621-1630.

Waters, D. L., Hale, L., Grant, A. M., Herbison, P., & Goulding, A. (2010). Osteoporosis and gait and balance disturbances in older sarcopenic obese New Zealanders. Osteoporosis International, 21(2), 351-357. 10.1007/s00198-009-0947-5.

Yoshida, D., Suzuki, T., Shimada, H., Park, H., Makizako, H., Doi, T., & Lee, S. (2014). Using two different algorithms to determine the prevalence of sarcopenia. Geriatrics & Gerontology International, 14, 46–51. 10.1111/ggi.12210.

Zhang, X., Xie, X., Dou, Q., Liu, C., Zhang, W., Yang, Y., & Cheng, A. S. (2019). Association of sarcopenic obesity with the risk of all-cause mortality among adults over a broad range of different settings: a updated meta-analysis. BMC Geriatrics, 19(1), https://doi.org/10.1186/s12877-019-1195-y.

Downloads

Published

01/11/2021

How to Cite

LIRA, R. de C. da S. A. .; VIANA, A. C. C. .; ARAÚJO, A. C. de P. .; TADDEI, U.; SANTOS, A. C. O. dos . Conditions associated with sarcopenia and sarcopenic obesity among community-dwelling older people. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 14, p. e279101422205, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i14.22205. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/22205. Acesso em: 15 jun. 2024.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences