Enzootic pneumonia in pigs: Review





Respiratory diseases; Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae; Pig farming; Sanity.


Swine Enzootic Pneumonia (PES) is an endemic disease in swine producing countries and can be found all over the world. Its etiological agent is the bacterium Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae, which is one of the main respiratory diseases in pigs. It plays an important role in animal health and is extremely important in swine production, especially in the growing and finishing phases, it is considered a factor of great damage with the condemnation of carcasses, increased use of medicines and decreased production performance, generating significant economic losses to the swine industry worldwide. Considering the importance of infection, the present work carried out a literature review on the main factors that favor infection, aiming to understand its biological, pathogenic, diagnostic, treatment and prophylaxis aspects. Knowledge of the forms of transmission is essential to understand its forms of dissemination, appropriate diagnostic techniques and disease prevention. Thus, it is extremely important to carry out research in order to reduce economic losses, through the correction of risk factors, therapeutic and immunoprophylactic measures.


Alberton, G. C., & Mores, M. A. Z. (2008). Interpretação de lesões no abate como ferramenta de diagnóstico das doenças respiratórias dos suínos. Acta Scientiae Veterinariae, 36(Supl 1), 95–99.

Bai, F. F., Ni, B., Wei, Y., Liu, M. J., Feng, Z. X., Xiong, Q. Y., & Shao, G. Q. (2015). Apoptosis induced by lipid-associated membrane proteins from Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in a porcine lung epithelial cell line with the involvement of caspase 3 and the MAPK pathway. Genetics and Molecular Research, 14(3), 11429–11443. https://doi.org/10.4238/2015.September.25.10

Baptista, R. I. A. de A., Bertani, G. R., & Barbosa, C. N. (2011). Indicadores do bem-estar em suínos. Ciencia Rural, 41(10), 1823–1830. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782011005000133

Borjigin, L., Shimazu, T., Katayama, Y., Watanabe, K., Kitazawa, H., Roh, S. G., & Suzuki, K. (2016). Mycoplasma pneumonia of swine (MPS) resistance and immune characteristics of pig lines generated by crossing an MPS pulmonary lesion selected Landrace line and a highly immune capacity selected Large White line. Animal Science Journal = Nihon Chikusan Gakkaiho, 87(8), 972–981. https://doi.org/10.1111/asj.12529

Chernov, V. M., Chernova, O. A., Sanchez-Vega, J. T., Kolpakov, A. I., & Ilinskaya, O. N. (2014). Mycoplasma contamination of cell cultures: Vesicular traffic in bacteria and control over infectious agents. Acta Naturae, 6(22), 41–51. https://doi.org/10.32607/20758251-2014-6-3-41-51

Conceição, F. R., & Dellagostin, O. A. (2006). Etiopatogenia e imunoprofilaxia da pneumonia enzoótica suína. Ciencia Rural, 36(3), 1034–1042. https://doi.org/10.1590/S0103-84782006000300052

de Jong, A., Youala, M., Klein, U., El Garch, F., Moyaert, H., Simjee, S., & Ayling, R. D. (2021). Antimicrobial susceptibility monitoring of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolated from seven European countries during 2015–2016. Veterinary Microbiology, 253(November 2019). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2020.108973

Desrosiers, R. (2001). A review of some aspects of the epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 9(5), 233–237.

dos Santos, L. F., Sreevatsan, S., Torremorell, M., Moreira, M. A. S., Sibila, M., & Pieters, M. (2015). Genotype distribution of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in swine herds from different geographical regions. Veterinary Microbiology, 175(2–4), 374–381. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.11.018

Eduardo Fano, Carlos Pijoan, S. D. (2005). Dynamics and persistence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in pigs. The Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, v.69, p.223-228,.

Emilio, D., Neves, S., Borowski, S. M., & Bonfanti, N. (2008). Relationship between environment , management and respiratory diseases in pigs. Acta Scientiae Veterinareae, 36(Supl 1), 87–94.

Ferraz, M. E. S., Almeida, H. M. S., Storino, G. Y., Sonálio, K., Souza, M. R., Moura, C. A. A., & de Oliveira, L. G. (2020). Lung consolidation caused by Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae has a negative effect on productive performance and economic revenue in finishing pigs. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 182(January), 105091. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2020.105091

Fraile, L., Alegre, A., López-Jiménez, R., Nofrarías, M., & Segalés, J. (2010). Risk factors associated with pleuritis and cranio-ventral pulmonary consolidation in slaughter-aged pigs. Veterinary Journal, 184(3), 326–333. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.03.029

Hansen, M. S., Pors, S. E., Jensen, H. E., Bille-Hansen, V., Bisgaard, M., Flachs, E. M., & Nielsen, O. L. (2010). An investigation of the pathology and pathogens associated with porcine respiratory disease complex in Denmark. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 143(2–3), 120–131. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2010.01.012

Hillen, S., von Berg, S., Köhler, K., Reinacher, M., Willems, H., & Reiner, G. (2014). Occurrence and severity of lung lesions in slaughter pigs vaccinated against Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae with different strategies. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 113(4), 580–588. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2013.12.012

Kwon, D., Choi, C., & Chae, C. (2002). Chronologic Localization of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in Experimentally Infected Pigs. Veterinary Pathology, 39(5), 584–587. https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.39-5-584

Leal Zimmer, F. M. A., Moura, H., Barr, J. R., & Ferreira, H. B. (2019). Intracellular changes of a swine tracheal cell line infected with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae pathogenic strain. Microbial Pathogenesis, 137(June), 103717. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.micpath.2019.103717

Lorenzo, H., Quesada, Ó., Assunçao, P., Castro, A., & Rodríguez, F. (2006). Cytokine expression in porcine lungs experimentally infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Veterinary Immunology and Immunopathology, 109(3–4), 199–207. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2005.07.021

Maes, D., Segales, J., Meyns, T., Sibila, M., Pieters, M., & Haesebrouck, F. (2008). Control of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 126(4), 297–309. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2007.09.008

Maes, D., Sibila, M., Kuhnert, P., Segalés, J., Haesebrouck, F., & Pieters, M. (2018). Update on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infections in pigs: Knowledge gaps for improved disease control. Transboundary and Emerging Diseases, 65(March 2017), 110–124. https://doi.org/10.1111/tbed.12677

Marois, C., Dory, D., Fablet, C., Madec, F., & Kobisch, M. (2010). Development of a quantitative Real-Time TaqMan PCR assay for determination of the minimal dose of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae strain 116 required to induce pneumonia in SPF pigs. Journal of Applied Microbiology, 108(5), 1523–1533. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04556.x

Marois, C., Le Carrou, J., Kobisch, M., & Gautier-Bouchardon, A. V. (2007). Isolation of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae from different sampling sites in experimentally infected and contact SPF piglets. Veterinary Microbiology, 120(1–2), 96–104. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.10.015

Martelli, P., Saleri, R., Cavalli, V., De Angelis, E., Ferrari, L., Benetti, M., & Borghetti, P. (2014). Systemic and local immune response in pigs intradermally and intramuscularly injected with inactivated mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccines. Veterinary Microbiology, 168(2–4), 357–364. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.11.025

Meyns, T., Maes, D., Calus, D., Ribbens, S., Dewulf, J., Chiers, K., & Haesebrouck, F. (2007). Interactions of highly and low virulent Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae isolates with the respiratory tract of pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 120(1–2), 87–95. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.10.010

Meyns, Tom, Maes, D., Dewulf, J., Vicca, J., Haesebrouck, F., & Kruif, A. De. (2004). Quantification of the spread of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in nursery pigs using transmission experiments. Preventive Veterinary Medicine, 66(1–4), 265–275. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.prevetmed.2004.10.001

Opriessnig, T., Giménez-Lirola, L. G., & Halbur, P. G. (2011). Polymicrobial respiratory disease in pigs. Animal Health Research Reviews / Conference of Research Workers in Animal Diseases, 12(2), 133–148. https://doi.org/10.1017/s1466252311000120

Pepovich, R., Nikolov, B., Sirakov, I., Genova, K., Hristov, K., Nikolova, E., & Beltova, B. (2015). Clinical testing of combined vaccine against enzootic pneumonia in industrial pig farming in Bulgaria. Macedonian Veterinary Review, 38(2), i–vii. https://doi.org/10.14432/j.macvetrev.2015.07.051

Pieters, M., Pijoan, C., Fano, E., & Dee, S. (2009). An assessment of the duration of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in an experimentally infected population of pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 134(3–4), 261–266. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2008.08.016

Quinn, P. J. et al. (2004). The Mycoplasmas (Class: Mollicutes). In: Clinical Veterinary Microbiology. Philadelphia: Elsevier, cap.35, p.320-326.

Rodríguez, F., Batista, M., Hernández, J. N., Afonso, A. M., & Poveda, J. B. (2016). Relationship Between Expression of Interleukin-5 and Interleukin-13 by Epithelial Cells and Bronchiolar Changes in Pigs Infected with Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Journal of Comparative Pathology, 154(2–3), 165–168. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jcpa.2016.01.007

Roos, L. R., Fano, E., Homwong, N., Payne, B., & Pieters, M. (2016). A model to investigate the optimal seeder-to-naïve ratio for successful natural Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae gilt exposure prior to entering the breeding herd. Veterinary Microbiology, 184, 51–58. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.01.008

Rottem, S. (2003). Interaction of mycoplasmas with host cells. Physiological Reviews, 83(2), 417–432. https://doi.org/10.1152/physrev.00030.2002

Sibila, M., Nofrarías, M., López-Soria, S., Segalés, J., Riera, P., Llopart, D., & Calsamiglia, M. (2007). Exploratory field study on Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection in suckling pigs. Veterinary Microbiology, 121(3–4), 352–356. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2006.12.028

Sibila, Marina, Calsamiglia, M., Segalés, J., Blanchard, P., Badiella, L., Le Dimma, M., & Domingo, M. (2004). Use of a polymerase chain reaction assay and an ELISA to monitor porcine circovirus type 2 infection in pigs from farms with and without postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome. American Journal of Veterinary Research, 65(1), 88–92. https://doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.2004.65.88

Sibila, Marina, Pieters, M., Molitor, T., Maes, D., Haesebrouck, F., & Segalés, J. (2009). Current perspectives on the diagnosis and epidemiology of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae infection. Veterinary Journal, 181(3), 221–231. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2008.02.020

Simionatto, S., Marchioro, S. B., Maes, D., & Dellagostin, O. A. Ô. (2013). Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae: From disease to vaccine development. Veterinary Microbiology, 165(3–4), 234–242. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2013.04.019

Thacker, E. L. (2004). Diagnosis of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. Journal of Swine Health and Production, 12(5), 252–254. https://doi.org/10.1079/ahr200491

Vangroenweghe, F., Karriker, L., Main, R., Christianson, E., Marsteller, T., Hammen, K., & Crawford, K. (2015). Assessment of litter prevalence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae in preweaned piglets utilizing an antemortem tracheobronchial mucus collection technique and a real-time polymerase chain reaction assay. Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation, 27(5), 606–610. https://doi.org/10.1177/1040638715595062

Vicca, J., Stakenborg, T., Maes, D., Butaye, P., Peeters, J., De Kruif, A., & Haesebrouck, F. (2003). Evaluation of virulence of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates. Veterinary Microbiology, 97(3–4), 177–190. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2003.08.008

Vicca, J., Stakenborg, T., Maes, D., Butaye, P., Peeters, J., De Kruif, A., & Haesebrouck, F. (2004). In vitro susceptibilities of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae field isolates. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, 48(11), 4470–4472. https://doi.org/10.1128/AAC.48.11.4470-4472.2004



How to Cite

BORGES, R. J. da F. .; PEREIRA, M. .; CERON, M. S. .; AMARAL, P. I. S. .; GARCIA, J. A. D. . Enzootic pneumonia in pigs: Review . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 16, p. e411101623677, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i16.23677. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/23677. Acesso em: 27 jan. 2023.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences