Factors associated with the occurrence of postpartum depression: a systematic review

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i3.26858

Keywords:

Depression, Postpartum; Risk Factors; Social support.

Abstract

Objective: To analyze the main factors associated with the occurrence of postpartum depression. Methodology: A systematic review of the literature based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) method, carried out in the electronic databases Pubmed, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science, using the following descriptors: “postpartum depression”, “postnatal depression”, “maternity blues”, “puerperal depressive symptom”, “after birth depression”, “risk factors” and “dangerous factors”. Full articles, available in Portuguese, English or Spanish, published between 2016 and 2021 were included. Results: 12 articles made up the final sample of this study. It was found that five axes of factors associated with postpartum depression were identified: sociodemographic, psychological, social, hormonal and obstetric. Most of these factors are interrelated and associated with the woman's lifestyle, especially social factors such as low social and family support, marital conflict and dissatisfaction, and exposure to intimate partner violence during pregnancy. The most frequently listed risk factors were physical, ranging from a history of premenstrual syndrome to obstetric issues such as multiparity, morbidity during pregnancy, unplanned pregnancy, history of miscarriage, cesarean delivery, preeclampsia, placenta previa, placental abruption, premature delivery, hyperemesis gravidarum, gestational hypertension and gestational diabetes. Conclusion: It was found that the factors associated with postpartum depression can be sociodemographic, psychological, social, hormonal and obstetric. Therefore, prevention programs for this clinical condition, such as psychological prenatal care, need to focus on the interpersonal relationships of the individuals involved, in addition to social factors and lifestyle and the physical health conditions of these women.

Author Biographies

José William Araújo do Nascimento, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco

Enfermeiro pela Universidade Católica de Pernambuco, especialista em Anatomia Humana pelo Centro Universitário Internacional (Uninter) e mestrando em Informática Médica pela Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (Cin-UFPE).

Dário César de Oliveira Conceição, Faculdade Santíssima Trindade

Graduado e Mestre em Química pela Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco (UFRPE), Doutorando em Ciências de Materiais pela Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE). Atualmente é Professor Formador na Gerência Regional de Educação (GRE Mata Norte) e Professor dos cursos de Farmácia e Enfermagem da Faculdade Santíssima Trindade (FAST - Nazaré da Mata – PE).

Aprigio Tavares Pessôa Filho, Faculdade Santíssima Trindade

Farmacêutico pela Faculdade Santíssima Trindade (FAST), Nazaré da Mata – PE.

Carlos Alberto Vieira da Silva, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Acadêmico em Enfermagem pela Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (Unicap)

Josafá Silva de Araújo, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Acadêmico em Fonoaudiologia pela Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (Unicap)

Carolinne Santana de Morais Mota, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Enfermeira pela Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (Unicap)

Francielle Rafaela dos Santos Silva, Centro Universitário São Miguel

Acadêmica de Enfermagem pelo Centro Universitário São Miguel (UNISÃOMIGUEL)

Jéssyca Francyane Pereira Almeida, Centro Universitário São Miguel

Acadêmica de Enfermagem pelo Centro Universitário São Miguel (UNISÃOMIGUEL)

Maria Eduarda Rodrigues Romão da Silveira, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Enfermeira pela Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (Unicap)

Aline Lucia de Souza, Universidade Católica de Pernambuco

Acadêmica em Enfermagem pela Universidade Católica de Pernambuco (Unicap)

References

Abdollahi, F. & Zarghami, M. (2018). Effect of postpartum depression on women’s mental and physical health four years after childbirth. East. Mediterr. Health J. 24(10), 1002-1009.

Aswathi, A., Rajendiren, S., Nimesh, A., Philip, R. R., Kattimani, S., Jayalakshmi, D., et al. (2015). High serum testosterone levels during postpartum period are associated with postpartum depression. Asian J Psychiatr. 17, 85–8.

Buttner, M. M., Mott, S. L., Pearlstein, T., Stuart, S., Zlotnick, C. & O'Hara, M. W. (2013). Examination of premenstrual symptoms as a risk factor for depression in postpartum women. Arch Womens Ment Health. 16(3), 219-225.

Brasil. Ministério da Saúde (MS). (1998). Lei no 9.610, de 19 de fevereiro de 1998, que altera, atualiza e consolida a legislação sobre direitos autorais e dá outras providências. Diário Oficial da União. Brasília: Ministério da Saúde. Recuperado de http://www.planalto.gov.br/ccivil_03/leis/l9610.htm

Brasil. Ministério da Saúde (MS). (2006). Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde. Departamento de Ações Programáticas Estratégicas. Área Técnica de Saúde da Mulher. Pré-natal e Puerpério: atenção qualificada e humanizada – manual técnico/Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção à Saúde, Departamento de Ações Programáticas Estratégicas – Brasília: Ministério da Saúde, 163.

Chang, H.-P., Chen, J.-Y., Huang, Y.-H., Yeh, C.-J., Huang, J.-Y., Su P-H, et al. (2016). Factors associated with post-traumatic symptoms in mothers of preterm infants. Arch. Psychiatr. Nurs. 30(1), 96-101.

Corwin, E. J., Pajer, K., Paul, S., Lowe, N., Weber, M. & McCarthy, D.O. Bidirectional psychoneuroimmune interactions in the early postpartum period influence risk of postpartum depression. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity. 49, 86-93.

Cunningham, F. G., Leveno, K. J., Bloom, S. L., Spong, C. Y., Dashe, J. S., Hoffman, B. L., et al. (2014). Williams Obstetrics. (24a ed.), McGraw-Hill Education, Columbus.

Dakov, T. & Dimitrova, V. (2014). Pregnancy and delivery in women above the age of 35. Akush Ginekol (Sofiia). 53(1), 13-20.

Falana, S. D. & Carrington, J. M. (2019). Postpartum Depression: are You Listening? Nurs. Clin. North Am. 54(4), 561-567.

Fantahun. A., Cherie, A. & Deribe, L. (2018). Prevalence and Factors Associated with Postpartum Depression Among Mothers Attending Public Health Centers of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia, 2016. Clin Pract Epidemiol Ment Health. 14, 196-206.

Farias-Antunez, S., Xavier, M. O. & Santos, I. S. (2018). Effect of maternal postpartum depression on offspring’s growth. J. Affect. Disord. 228, 143-152.

Gajaria, A. & Ravindran, A. V. (2018). Interventions for perinatal depression in low and middle-income countries: a systematic review. Asian J. Psychiatr. 37, 112-120.

González-González, A., Casado-Mendez, P., Molero-Segrera, M. & López-Sánchez. et al. (2019). Associated factors for postpartum depression. Revista Archivo Médico de Camagüey; 23(6), 770-779.

Goweda, R. & Metwally, T. (2020). Prevalence and associated risk factors of postpartum depression: a cross sectional study. Arc. Clin. Psychiatr. 47(4), 106-109.

Grant, K. A., McMahon, C. & Austin, M. P. (2008). Maternal anxiety during the transition to parenthood: a prospective study. J. Affect. Disord. 108, 101-111.

Gress-Smith, J. L., Luecken, L. J., Lemery-Chalfant, K. & Howe, R. (2012). Postpartum depression prevalence and impact on infant health, weight, and sleep in low-income and ethnic minority women and infants. Matern. Child Health J. 16, 887-893.

Inthaphatha, S., Yamamoto, E., Louangpradith, V., Takahashi, Y., Phengsavanh, J., Kariya, T., et al. (2020). Factors associated with postpartum depression among women in Vientiane Capital, Lao People’s Democratic Republic: A cross-sectional study. Plos One; 15(12), e0243463.

Koutra, K., Vassilaki, M., Georgiou, V., Koutis, A., Bitsios, P., Kogevinas, M., et al. (2016). Pregnancy, perinatal and postpartum complications as determinants of postpartum depression: the Rhea mother-child cohort in Crete, Greece. Epidemiol. Psychiatr. Sci. 27(3), 1-12.

Lancaster, C. A., Gold, K. J., Flynn, H. A., Yoo, H., Marcus, S. M. & Davis, M. M. (2010). Risk factors for depressive symptoms during pregnancy: A systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 202(1), 5–14.

Liu, S., Yan, Y., Gao, X., Xiang, S., Sha, T., Zeng, G., et al. (2017). Risk factors for postpartum depression among Chinese women: path model analysis. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 17, 133.

Maliszewska, K., Bidzan, M., Świątkowska-Freund, M. & Krzysztof, P. (2017). Screening for maternal postpartum depression, and associations with personality traits and social support. A Polish follow-up study 4 weeks and 3 months after delivery. Psychiatr. Pol., 51(5), 889-898.

Mathisen, S. E., Glavin, K., Lien, L. & Lagerløv, P. (2013). Prevalence and risk factors for postpartum depressive symptoms in Argentina: a cross-sectional study. Int J Womens Health. 5, 787-93.

Meltzer-Brody, S., Maegbaek, M. L., Medland, S. E., Miller, W. C., Sullivan, P. & Munk-Olsen, T. (2017). Obstetrical, pregnancy and socio-economic predictors for new-onset severe postpartum psychiatric disorders in primiparous women. Psychol Med. 47(8), 1427–1441.

Moher, D., Shamseer, L., Clarke, M.; Ghersi, D., Liberati, A., Petticrew, M., et al (2015). Preferred reporting items for systematic review and meta-analysis protocols (PRISMA-P) 2015 statement. Syst. Rev. 4(1), 1-9.

Myo, T., Hong, S. A., Thepthien, B. O. & Hongkrailert, N. (2021). Prevalence and Factors Associated with Postpartum Depression in Primary Healthcare Centres in Yangon, Myanmar. Malays J Med Sci; 28(4), 71-86.

Nascimento, J. W. A., Santos, R. S., Santos, T. M. R., Silva, A. L. B., Rodrigues, L. D. C., Silva, V. W., et al. (2021). Complications associated with intimate partner violence in pregnant women: a systematic review. Int. J. Dev. Res. 11(7), 48924-48928.

Norhayati, M. N., Hazlina, N. H., Asrenee, A. R. & Emilin, W. M. (2015). Magnitude and risk factors for postpartum symptoms: a literature review. J. Affect. Disord. 175, 34-52.

O’Hara, M. W. & Mc Cabe, J. E. (2013). Postpartum depression: current status and future directions. Annu. Rev. Clin. Psychol. 9, 379-407.

Pataky. E. A. & Ehlert, U. (2020). Longitudinal assessment of symptoms of postpartum mood disorder in women with and without a history of depression. Arch Womens Ment Health; 23(3), 391-399.

Roomruangwong, C., Withayavanitchai, S. & Maes, M. (2016). Antenatal and postnatal risk factors of postpartum depression symptoms in Thai women: A case-control study. Sex Reprod Healthc. 10, 25-31.

Sadat, Z., Abedzadeh-Kalahroudi, M., Kafaei Atrian, M., Karimian, Z. & Sooki, Z. (2014). The impact of postpartum depression on quality of life in women after child’s birth. Iran. Red Crescent Med. J. 16(2), e14995.

Sanjuan, J., Martin-Santos, R., Garcia-Esteve, L., Carot, J. M., Guillamat, R., Gutierrez-Zotes, A., et al. (2008). Mood changes after delivery: role of the serotonin transporter gene. Br J Psychiatry. 193(5), 383-388.

Santos, I. S., Munhoz, T. N., Blumenberg, C., Barcelos, R., Bortolotto, C. C., Matijasevich, A., et al. (2021). Post-partum depression: a cross-sectional study of women enrolled in a conditional cash transfer program in 30 Brazilian cities. J Affect Disord; 281, 510-516.

Silverman, M. E., Reichenberg, A., Savitz, D. A., Cnattingius, S., Lichtenstein, P., Hultman, C. M., et al. (2017). The risk factors for postpartum depression: a population-based study. Depress Anxiety. 34(2), 178-187.

Souza, N. K. P., Magalhães, E. Q. & Rodrigues Junior, O. M. (2021). A prevalência da depressão pós-parto e suas consequências em mulheres no Brasil. Research, Society and Development. 10(15), e597101523272.

Stillwell, S., Fineout-Overholt, E., Melnyk, B. M. & Wiliamson, K. M. (2010). Evidence– based practice: step by step. Am J Nurs; 110(5), 41-47.

Stute, P., Bodmer, C., Ehlert, U., Eltbogen, R., Ging, A., Streuli, I., et al. (2017). Interdisciplinary consensus on management of premenstrual disorders in Switzerland. Gynecological Endocrinology. 33(5), 342-348.

Vanya, M., Szili, K., Devosa, I. & Bartfai, G. (2015). Risk of maternal and fetal disease among women older than 40 years. Orv. Hetil. 156(49), 1987-1990.

World Health Organization (WHO). (2009). United Nations Population Fund. Mental health aspects of women's reproductive health. A global review of the literature. Geneva: WHO Press.

Youn, H., Lee, S., Han, S. W., Kim, L. Y., Lee, T. S., Oh, M. J., et al. (2017). Obstetric risk factors for depression during the postpartum period in South Korea: a nationwide study. J Psychosom Res. 102, 15–20.

Published

02/03/2022

How to Cite

NASCIMENTO, J. W. A. do; CONCEIÇÃO, D. C. de O.; PESSÔA FILHO, A. T.; SILVA, C. A. V. da; ARAÚJO, J. S. de; MOTA, C. S. de M.; SILVA, F. R. dos S.; ALMEIDA, J. F. P.; SILVEIRA, M. E. R. R. da; SOUZA, A. L. de. Factors associated with the occurrence of postpartum depression: a systematic review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 3, p. e43811326858, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i3.26858. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/26858. Acesso em: 14 jun. 2024.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences