Control of olive oil adulterated by soybean oil in a population where low olive oil consumption is an issue. A case study in Brazil
Keywords:Correspondence Analysis; Multiple comparison test; Principal component analysis; Sensory Analysis; Spectroscopy techniques.
The objectives of this work were to evaluate the ability of spectroscopic techniques to distinguish unadulterated and adulterated olive oil (OL) and to investigate consumers perception of adulterated OL samples by sensory tests in a population with low OL consumption. The adulterated OL samples were prepared with the addition of soybean oil (SO) in varying concentrations of 5 to 50% (v v-1). Samples were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and ultraviolet-visible (UV–visible) absorption spectroscopy. The capability of spectroscopy techniques to distinguish unadulterated and adulterated OL was evaluated by using a chemometric tool, principal component analysis (PCA). A questionnaire about the frequency of OL consumption was used. Multiple comparison and hedonic tests were used to discriminate and evaluate the acceptance of the adulterated OL samples. FTIR and UV–visible spectroscopy coupled with PCA proved to be good instruments to be used to distinguish OL samples intentionally adulterated with the addition of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, and 50% SO, and have great potential for classification of adulteration involving OL. The results confirmed that this group of Brazilian consumers has low OL consumption. Consequently, there was low discrimination of adulterated OL and they had the same acceptance as unadulterated and adulterated OL.
Alves, F. C. G. B. S., Coqueiro, A., Março, P. H., & Valderrama, P. (2019). Evaluation of olive oils from the Mediterranean region by UV–Vis spectroscopy and Independent Component Analysis. Food Chemistry, 273, 124–129.
Amit, Jamwal, R., Kumari, S., Dhaulaniya, A. S., Balan, B., & Singh, D. K. (2020). Application of ATR-FTIR spectroscopy along with regression modelling for the detection of adulteration of virgin coconut oil with paraffin oil. Lwt, 118, 108754.
Aued-Pimentel, S., Separovic, L., Silvestre, L. G. G. R., Kus-Yamashita, M. M. M., & Takemoto, E. (2017). Fraude em azeites de oliva do comércio brasileiro: avaliação pelo perfil de ácidos graxos, diferença do ECN 42 e parâmetros de qualidade. Vigilância Sanitária Em Debate, 5(3), 84.
Bellaloui, N., & Gillen, A. M. (2010). Soybean seed protein, oil, fatty acids, N, and S partitioning as affected by node position and cultivar differences. Agricultural Sciences, 01(03), 110–118.
Beltrán, G., del Rio, C., Sánchez, S., & Martínez, L. (2004). Influence of Harvest Date and Crop Yield on the Fatty Acid Composition of Virgin Olive Oils from Cv. Picual. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 52(11), 3434–3440.
Borato, C. E., Leite, F. L., Oliveira, O. N., & Mattoso, L. H. C. (2006). Efficient Taste Sensors Made of Bare Metal Electrodes. Sensor Letters, 4(2), 155–159.
da Silveira, R., Vágula, J. M., de Lima Figueiredo, I., Claus, T., Galuch, M. B., Santos Junior, O. O., & Visentainer, J. V. (2017). Rapid methodology via mass spectrometry to quantify addition of soybean oil in extra virgin olive oil: A comparison with traditional methods adopted by food industry to identify fraud. Food Research International, 102, 43–50.
Dais, P., & Hatzakis, E. (2013). Quality assessment and authentication of virgin olive oil by NMR spectroscopy: A critical review. Analytica Chimica Acta, 765, 1–27.
Delgado, C., & Guinard, J. X. (2012). Internal and External Quality Mapping as a New Approach to the Evaluation of Sensory Quality - a Case Study with Olive Oil. Journal of Sensory Studies, 27(5), 332–343.
Deubler, G., Swaney-Stueve, M., Jepsen, T., & Su-Fern, B. P. (2020). The K-State emoji scale. Journal of Sensory Studies, 35(1), 1–9.
Drira, M., Kelebek, H., Guclu, G., Jabeur, H., Selli, S., & Bouaziz, M. (2020). Targeted analysis for detection the adulteration in extra virgin olive oil’s using LC-DAD/ESI–MS/MS and combined with chemometrics tools. European Food Research and Technology, 246(8), 1661–1677.
Fasciotti, M., & Pereira Netto, A. D. (2010). Optimization and application of methods of triacylglycerol evaluation for characterization of olive oil adulteration by soybean oil with HPLC-APCI-MS-MS. Talanta, 81(3), 1116–1125.
Fernandes, G. D., Ellis, A. C., Gámbaro, A., & Barrera-Arellano, D. (2018). Sensory evaluation of high-quality virgin olive oil: panel analysis versus consumer perception. Current Opinion in Food Science, 21, 66–71.
Foscolou, A., Critselis, E., & Panagiotakos, D. (2018). Olive oil consumption and human health: A narrative review. Maturitas, 118, 60–66.
Giacomelli, L. M., Mattea, M., & Ceballos, C. D. (2006). Analysis and characterization of edible oils by chemometric methods. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 83(4), 303–308.
Gok, S., Severcan, M., Goormaghtigh, E., Kandemir, I., & Severcan, F. (2015). Differentiation of Anatolian honey samples from different botanical origins by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy using multivariate analysis. Food Chemistry, 170, 234–240.
Gonçalves, W. F., Antunes, B. da F., Sampaio, P. H. de O., Crepaldi, G. A., Azevedo, M. L., & Jacques, A. C. (2022). Ação da temperatura e luminosidade sobre a qualidade de azeite de oliva extravirgem produzido no Rio Grande do Sul. Research, Society and Development, 11(2), e31311225685.
Guasch-Ferré, M., Liu, G., Li, Y., Sampson, L., Manson, J. A. E., Salas-Salvadó, J., Martínez-González, M. A., Stampfer, M. J., Willett, W. C., Sun, Q., & Hu, F. B. (2020). Olive Oil Consumption and Cardiovascular Risk in U.S. Adults. Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 75(15), 1729–1739.
Guimet, F., Ferré, J., & Boqué, R. (2005). Rapid detection of olive–pomace oil adulteration in extra virgin olive oils from the protected denomination of origin “Siurana” using excitation–emission fluorescence spectroscopy and three-way methods of analysis. Analytica Chimica Acta, 544(1–2), 143–152.
Guzmán, E., Baeten, V., Pierna, J. A. F., & García-Mesa, J. A. (2015). Evaluation of the overall quality of olive oil using fluorescence spectroscopy. Food Chemistry, 173, 927–934.
Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., Babin, B. J., Anderson, R. E., & Tatham, R. L. (2009). Análise multivariada de dados. (6 ed). Bookman Editora.
Jackson, J. (1991). A user’s guide to principal components. John Willey Sons Inc.
Jiménez-Carvelo, A. M., Osorio, M. T., Koidis, A., González-Casado, A., & Cuadros-Rodríguez, L. (2017). Chemometric classification and quantification of olive oil in blends with any edible vegetable oils using FTIR-ATR and Raman spectroscopy. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 86, 174–184.
Johnson, R. (2014). Food fraud and “Economically motivated adulteration” of food and food ingredients. Food Fraud and Adulterated Ingredients: Background, Issues, and Federal Action, 1–56.
Karunathilaka, S. R., Kia, A.-R. F., Srigley, C., Chung, J. K., & Mossoba, M. M. (2016). Nontargeted, Rapid Screening of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Products for Authenticity Using Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in Combination with Conformity Index and Multivariate Statistical Analyses. Journal of Food Science, 81(10), C2390–C2397.
Kemsley, E. K. (1996). Discriminant analysis of high-dimensional data: a comparison of principal components analysis and partial least squares data reduction methods. Chemometrics and Intelligent Laboratory Systems, 33(1), 47–61.
Li, Y., Fang, T., Zhu, S., Huang, F., Chen, Z., & Wang, Y. (2018). Detection of olive oil adulteration with waste cooking oil via Raman spectroscopy combined with iPLS and SiPLS. Spectrochimica Acta - Part A: Molecular and Biomolecular Spectroscopy, 189, 37–43.
Lukić, I., Horvat, I., Godena, S., Krapac, M., Lukić, M., Vrhovsek, U., & Brkić Bubola, K. (2018). Towards understanding the varietal typicity of virgin olive oil by correlating sensory and compositional analysis data: a case study. Food Research International, 112, 78–89.
Meenu, M., Cai, Q., & Xu, B. (2019). A critical review on analytical techniques to detect adulteration of extra virgin olive oil. Trends in Food Science and Technology, 91, 391–408.
Mendes, T. O., da Rocha, R. A., Porto, B. L. S., de Oliveira, M. A. L., dos Anjos, V. de C., & Bell, M. J. V. (2015). Quantification of Extra-virgin Olive Oil Adulteration with Soybean Oil: a Comparative Study of NIR, MIR, and Raman Spectroscopy Associated with Chemometric Approaches. Food Analytical Methods, 8(9), 2339–2346.
Milanez, K. D. T. M., Nóbrega, T. C. A., Nascimento, D. S., Insausti, M., Band, B. S. F., & Pontes, M. J. C. (2017). Multivariate modeling for detecting adulteration of extra virgin olive oil with soybean oil using fluorescence and UV–Vis spectroscopies: A preliminary approach. Lwt, 85, 9–15.
Minuceli, F. da S., Silva, J. M. da, Silveira, R. da, & Santos, O. O. (2021). Metodologia UV-VIS visando a quantificação de óleo vegetal em azeite adulterado. Research, Society and Development, 10(6), e50210612822.
Mitterer Daltoé, M. L., Breda, L. S., Belusso, A. C., Nogueira, B. A., Rodrigues, D. P., Fiszman, S., & Varela, P. (2017). Projective mapping with food stickers: A good tool for better understanding perception of fish in children of different ages. Food Quality and Preference, 57, 87–96.
Moyano, M. J., Heredia, F. J., & Meléndez-Martínez, A. J. (2010). The Color of Olive Oils: The Pigments and Their Likely Health Benefits and Visual and Instrumental Methods of Analysis. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 9(3), 278–291.
Naranjo, E., & Baliga, S. (2012). Early detection of combustible gas leaks using open path infrared (IR) gas detectors. 83660V.
Óǧüçü, M., & Yilmaz, E. (2009). Comparison of the virgin olive oils produced in different regions of turkey. Journal of Sensory Studies, 24(3), 332–353.
Philippidis, A., Poulakis, E., Papadaki, A., & Velegrakis, M. (2017). Comparative Study using Raman and Visible Spectroscopy of Cretan Extra Virgin Olive Oil Adulteration with Sunflower Oil. Analytical Letters, 50(7), 1182–1195.
Quintanilla-Casas, B., Bustamante, J., Guardiola, F., García-González, D. L., Barbieri, S., Bendini, A., Toschi, T. G., Vichi, S., & Tres, A. (2020). Virgin olive oil volatile fingerprint and chemometrics: Towards an instrumental screening tool to grade the sensory quality. Lwt, 121, 108936.
Rohman, A., & Man, Y. B. C. (2010). Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy for analysis of extra virgin olive oil adulterated with palm oil. Food Research International, 43(3), 886–892.
Shen, M., Zhao, S., Zhang, F., Huang, M., & Xie, J. (2021). Characterization and authentication of olive, camellia and other vegetable oils by combination of chromatographic and chemometric techniques: role of fatty acids, tocopherols, sterols and squalene. European Food Research and Technology, 247(2), 411–426.
Tay, A., Singh, R. K., Krishnan, S. S., & Gore, J. P. (2002). Authentication of olive oil adulterated with vegetable oils using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. LWT - Food Science and Technology, 35(1), 99–103.
Tfouni, S. A. V., Reis, R. M., Amaro, N. de P. L., Pascoal, C. R., de Camargo, M. C. R., Baggio, S. R., Rauen-Miguel, A. M., & Furlani, R. P. Z. (2017). Adulteration and Presence of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Extra Virgin Olive Oil Sold on the Brazilian Market. JAOCS, Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, 94(11), 1351–1359.
Tibola, C. S., da Silva, S. A., Dossa, A. A., & Patrício, D. I. (2018). Economically Motivated Food Fraud and Adulteration in Brazil: Incidents and Alternatives to Minimize Occurrence. Journal of Food Science, 83(8), 2028–2038.
Vázquez-León, L. A., Páramo-Calderón, D. E., Robles-Olvera, V. J., Valdés-Rodríguez, O. A., Pérez-Vázquez, A., García-Alvarado, M. A., & Rodríguez-Jimenes, G. C. (2017). Variation in bioactive compounds and antiradical activity of Moringa oleifera leaves: influence of climatic factors, tree age, and soil parameters. European Food Research and Technology, 243(9), 1593–1608.
Wood, W., & Neal, D. T. (2009). The habitual consumer. Journal of Consumer Psychology, 19(4), 579–592.
Yan, J., Erasmus, S. W., Aguilera Toro, M., Huang, H., & van Ruth, S. M. (2020). Food fraud: Assessing fraud vulnerability in the extra virgin olive oil supply chain. Food Control, 111, 107081.
Zhang, X., Qi, X., Zou, M., & Liu, F. (2011). Rapid Authentication of Olive Oil by Raman Spectroscopy Using Principal Component Analysis. Analytical Letters, 44(12), 2209–2220.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Larissa Macedo dos Santos-Tonial; Samara Paula Petkovicz; Marina Leite Mitterer Daltoé
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.