3D printer nozzle modification to obtain scaffolds for use in regenerative medicine
Keywords:Hot melt extrusion technology; Tissue scaffolds; Regenerative medicine; Tissue engineering; Printing, three-dimensional.
Use biological or synthetic scaffolds to conduct cellular events of the regenerative process constitute one of the major strategies in regenerative medicine area. Customized scaffolds built by additive manufacturing prove to be a great solution to this problem. Two desired features that aid in scaffold’s biocompatibility are the surface roughness and the geometric characteristic of the topography, usually achieved by a chemical procedure performed after printing. This research presented a modification on a 3D printer nozzle for directly generating an external topography in the extruded filaments, eliminating the need for an additional post-processing step. Cell morphology and viability on supports printed by the proposed and conventional method were evaluated in in vitro experiments and the new nozzle proved to be efficient in generating printed filaments with a degree of cytocompatibility superior to those obtained by conventional filaments.
Abdal-hay, A., Sheikh, F. A., Gómez-Cerezo, N., Alneairi, A., Luqman, M., Pant, H. R., & Ivanovski, S. (2022). A review of protein adsorption and bioactivity characteristics of poly ε-caprolactone scaffolds in regenerative medicine. European Polymer Journal, 162, 110892.
Bakhru, H., Bizios, R., Ricci, J. L., & Supronowicz, P. S. (1996). Analysis of osteoblast mineral deposits on three-dimensional, porous, polylactic acid scaffolds. Trans Annu Meet Soc Biomater Int Biomater Symp, 2: 848.
Bartolo, P., Kruth, J. P., Silva, J., Levy, G., Malshe, A., Rajurkar, K., ... & Leu, M. (2012). Biomedical production of implants by additive electro-chemical and physical processes. CIRP annals, 61(2), 635-655.
Carvalho, R. A. D., Rocha Junior, V. V., Carvalho, A. J. F., Araújo, H. S. S. D., Iemma, M. R. C., Trovatti, E., & Amaral, A. C. (2021). Poly-(lactic acid) and fibrin bioactive cellularized scaffold for use in bone regenerative medicine: Proof of concept. Journal of Bioactive and Compatible Polymers, 36(3), 171-184.
Chaubey, A., Ross, K. J., Leadbetter, R. M., & Burg, K. J. (2008). Surface patterning: tool to modulate stem cell differentiation in an adipose system. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part B: Applied Biomaterials, 84(1), 70-78.
Cheung, H. Y., Lau, K. T., Lu, T. P., & Hui, D. (2007). A critical review on polymer-based bio-engineered materials for scaffold development. Composites Part B: Engineering, 38(3), 291-300.
Designtech. (2018). How Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) Printers Work. https://www.designtechsys.com/articles/working-fdm-3d-printers.
Hollister, S. J. (2005). Porous scaffold design for tissue engineering. Nature materials, 4(7), 518-524.
Liu, F., Wang, W., Mirihanage, W., Hinduja, S., & Bartolo, P. J. (2018). A plasma-assisted bioextrusion system for tissue engineering. CIRP Annals, 67(1), 229-232.
Lucon, E. (2013). Effect of Electrical Discharge Machining (EDM) on charpy test results from miniaturized steel specimens. Journal of Testing and Evaluation, 41(1), 1-9.
Machado, J. L. M. (2007). Desenvolvimento de Cimento Ósseo de Fosfato de Cálcio como Suporte para Crescimento de Tecidos, 1–161.
Malekian, M., Mostofa, M. G., Park, S. S., & Jun, M. B. G. (2012). Modeling of minimum uncut chip thickness in micro machining of aluminum. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 212(3), 553-559.
Mason, C., & Dunnill, P. (2012). A brief definition of regenerative medicine. Regen Med [Internet], 3(1):1–5.
Mosmann, T. (1983). Rapid colorimetric assay for cellular growth and survival: application to proliferation and cytotoxicity assays. Journal of immunological methods, 65(1-2), 55-63.
Ponciano, R. C. de O., Costa, A. C. F. de M., Barbosa, R. C., Fook, M. V. L., & Ponciano, J. J. (2021). Scaffolds de quitosana e hidroxiapatita com amoxicilina para reparação óssea. Research, Society and Development, 10(5), e13410514790.
Pawar, R., U Tekale, S., U Shisodia, S., T Totre, J., & J Domb, A. (2014). Biomedical applications of poly (lactic acid). Recent patents on regenerative medicine, 4(1), 40-51.
Sampogna, G., Guraya, S. Y., & Forgione, A. (2015). Regenerative medicine: Historical roots and potential strategies in modern medicine. Journal of Microscopy and Ultrastructure, 3(3), 101-107.
Serra, T., Mateos-Timoneda, M. A., Planell, J. A., & Navarro, M. (2013). 3D printed PLA-based scaffolds: a versatile tool in regenerative medicine. Organogenesis, 9(4), 239-244.
Stratasys. (2018). Tecnologia FDM. http://www.stratasys.com/br/impressoras-3d/technologies/fdm-technology
Turner, N.; Strong, B.R. & Gold, A. S. (2014). A review of melt extrusion additive manufacturing processes: I. Process design and modeling. Rapid Prototyping Journal. 20(3), 192-204.
Zhang, H. X., Du, G. H., & Zhang, J. T. (2004). Assay of mitochondrial functions by resazurin in vitro. Acta Pharmacologica Sinica, 25(3), 385-389.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Franco Henrique Moro; Renata Aquino de Carvalho; Hernane da Silva Barud; André Capaldo Amaral; Eraldo Jannone da Silva
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.