Relationship between hematological and biochemical tests and senility in dogs
Keywords:Biochemistry; Dogs; Elderly; Geriatric; Hematology.
Morphological and functional changes during senility give rise to changes to organs and tissues. Even in healthy dogs, laboratory parameters may differ, thus making preventive treatment difficult. The aim of this study was to evaluate hematological and biochemical parameters in elderly and geriatric dogs and to compare them for follow-up and possible worsening of prognosis. Thirty-four apparently healthy dogs living in the city of Ribeirão Pires, SP, were included in this study, divided into two groups: elderly (8-11,9 years) and geriatric (12 years or more). Two blood samples were taken with an interval of 20 days between them, to determine blood counts and urea, creatinine, alkaline phosphatase, alanine aminotransferase and blood glucose levels. The statistical analysis showed that this was a homogeneous group, since the only difference found between the elderly and geriatric dogs was in urea values (elderly > geriatric, p = 0.010), while in the hematological tests there were no differences between the groups or collection times. Even so, changes in test results occurred: 53% in hematological tests and 74% in biochemical tests, respectively. This highlights the importance of laboratory evaluations for prognoses and, consequently, improves the quality of life and wellbeing of dogs.
Bellows, J., Colitz, C. M., Daristotle, L., Ingram, D. K., Lepine, A., Marks, S. L., Sanderson, S. L., Tomlinson, J., & Zhang, J. (2015). Common physical and functional changes associated with aging in dogs. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association, 246(1), 67–75. https://doi.org/10.2460/javma.246.1.67
Cowell, R. L. (2004). Veterinary Clinical Pathology Secrets. Mosby Elsevier, St Louis, 408p.
Creevy, K. E., Grady, J., Little, S. E., Moore, G. E., Strickler, B. G., Thompson, S., & Webb, J. A. (2019). 2019 AAHA Canine Life Stage Guidelines. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 55(6), 267–290. https://doi.org/10.5326/JAAHA-MS-6999
Dell'Osa, D., & Jaensch, S. (2016). Prevalence of clinicopathological changes in healthy middle-aged dogs and cats presenting to veterinary practices for routine procedures. Australian veterinary journal, 94(9), 317–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/avj.12481
Fernandes, T. R., Risso, D. F. A., Marini, M. R. & Manhoso, F. F. R. (2013). Proncipais afecções diagnosticadas em pacientes caninos geriátricos atendidos no município de Marília/SP no período de 2008 a 2012. Unimar Ciências, 22(1-2), 41–47.
Galvão, A. L. B., & Carvalho, M. B. (2015). Perfil hematológico de cães idosos sadios ou com doença renal crônica tratados com n-acetilcisteína. Nucleus Animalium, 7(2), 63–74. https://doi.org/10.3738/1982.2278.1470
Gates, M. C., Hinds, H. J., & Dale, A. (2017). Preliminary description of aging cats and dogs presented to a New Zealand first-opinion veterinary clinic at end-of-life. New Zealand veterinary journal, 65(6), 313–317. https://doi.org/10.1080/00480169.2017.1360161
Hall, J. A., Chinn, R. M., Vorachek, W. R., Gorman, M. E., & Jewell, D. E. (2010). Aged Beagle dogs have decreased neutrophil phagocytosis and neutrophil-related gene expression compared to younger dogs. Veterinary immunology and immunopathology, 137(1-2), 130–135. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vetimm.2010.05.002
Jain, N. C. (1993). Essencials of Veterinary Hematology. Lea & Febiger, Philadelphia, 417p.
Lecheta, D. R., Silva, D. K. M., Santos, G. A., Cunha, M. S., Gaspar, T. T., Lopes, B. A., Deboleto, S. G. C., & Braz P. H. (2020). Effect of preanesthetic fasting on gastric emptying andplasma glucose in healthy dogs of different age groups. Pesquisa Veterinária Brasileira, 40(4),:289-292. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-5150-pvb-6260
Lee, S. H., Kim, J. W., Lee, B. C., & Oh, H. J. (2020). Age-specific variations in hematological and biochemical parameters in middle- and large-sized of dogs. Journal of veterinary science, 21(1), e7. https://doi.org/10.4142/jvs.2020.21.e7
Lowseth, L. A., Gillett, N. A., Gerlach, R. F., & Muggenburg, B. A. (1990). The effects of aging on hematology and serum chemistry values in the beagle dog. Veterinary clinical pathology, 19(1), 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165x.1990.tb00535.x
Marotti, J., Galhardo, A. P. M., Furuyama, R. J., Pigozzo, M. N., Campos, N. T., & Laganá, D. C. (2008). Amostragem em Pesquisa Clínica: Tamanho da Amostra. Revista de Odontologia Da Universidade Cidade de São Paulo, 20(2), 186–194.
Martins, C. R., Noleto, P. G., Araújo, S. F., Miranda, R. L. & Mundim, A.V. (2013). Perfil hematológico de cães (Canis familiaris) obesos e senis. Vet. Not., 18(2) supl.,62–66.
Metzger, F. L., & Rebar, A. H. (2012). Clinical pathology interpretation in geriatric veterinary patients. The Veterinary clinics of North America. Small animal practice, 42(4), 615–v. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cvsm.2012.04.004
Nabi, S.U., Dey, S., Gupta, G., Kumar, A., Vala, J. and Jan, M.H. (2010) A study of neuromuscular dysfunctions in geriatric dogs. Haryana Vet., 49, 73-74.
Pati, S., Panda, S. K., Acharya, A. P., Senapati, S., Behera, M., & Behera, S. S. (2015). Evaluation of geriatric changes in dogs. Veterinary world, 8(3), 273–278. https://doi.org/10.14202/vetworld.2015.273-278
Radakovich, L. B., Pannone, S. C., Truelove, M. P., Olver, C. S., & Santangelo, K. S. (2017). Hematology and biochemistry of aging-evidence of "anemia of the elderly" in old dogs. Veterinary clinical pathology, 46(1), 34–45. https://doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12459
Rofina, J. E., van Ederen, A. M., Toussaint, M. J., Secrève, M., van der Spek, A., van der Meer, I., Van Eerdenburg, F. J., & Gruys, E. (2006). Cognitive disturbances in old dogs suffering from the canine counterpart of Alzheimer's disease. Brain research, 1069(1), 216–226. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2005.11.021
Sanjeeta, J., Patel, P. R., & Raval, S. K. (2013). Changes in haematological parameters in adult and geriatric dogs. Veterinary Pratitioner, 14(2), 230-231.
Santos, S. C. S., Meyer, R., & Costa, M. F. (2013). Variação dos parâmetros hematológicos de cães doadores regulares de sangue. Revista de Ciências Médicas e Biológicas, 12:472-477.
Srikala D., Ansar K., Nalini K.K., Ramesh P.T., Suguma R., & Yahiraj S. (2020). Studies on haematologica parameters in apparently healthy adult and sick geriatrics dogs. Journal of Entomology and Zoology Studies, 8(1), 209-211.
Stockhaus, C., Teske, E., Van Den Ingh, T., & Rothuizen, J. (2002). The Influence of Age on the Cytology of the Liver in Healthy Dogs. Veterinary Pathology, 39(1), 54-158. https://doi.org/10.1354/vp.39-1-154
Tesser, S., Cavagnolli, N. I., Torriani, T., & Rodrigues, A. D. (2016). Perfil hematológico de cães e gatos na cidade de Bento Gonçalves, Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Arq. Ciênc. Vet. Zool. Unipar, 19, 47-51. http://doi.org/10.25110/arqvet.v19i1.2016.5790
Thrall, M. A., Weiser, G., Allison, R. W. & Campbell, T. W. (2015). Hematologia e Bioquímica. Clínica Veterinária. 2nd.ed. Rio de Janeiro: Guanabara Koogan, 688p.
Willems, A., Paepe, D., Marynissen, S., Smets, P., Van de Maele, I., Picavet, P., Duchateau, L., & Daminet, S. (2017). Results of Screening of Apparently Healthy Senior and Geriatric Dogs. Journal of veterinary internal medicine, 31(1), 81–92. https://doi.org/10.1111/jvim.14587
Zangirolami-raimundo, J., Echeimberg, J. de O., & Leone, C. (2018). Tópicos de metodologia de pesquisa: Estudos de corte transversal. Journal of Human Growth and Development, 28(3), 356–360.http://doi.org/10.7322/jhgd.152198
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Fernanda Bruno; Melina Castilho de Souza Balbueno; Thaís Aguiar Emídio; Natalia Rios; Fernando Vieira Pereira; Milene Leticia Bastos de Souza; Cideli de Paula Coelho
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.