Analgesic effect of epidural maropitant and the combination of maropitant and lidocaine in cats subjected to ovariohysterectomy




Antagonist neurokinin-1 receptor; Health teaching; Nociception; Pain.


The present study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of epidural maropitant administered with or without lidocaine for post-operative analgesia in cats. Forty cats submitted to epidural administration of treatments followed by ovariohysterectomy were assessed in this study. The cats were randomly distributed into experimental groups: epidural control group (ECG), which received saline; epidural lidocaine group (ELG), which received 3 mg/kg of 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor; epidural maropitant group (EMG), which received 1 mg/kg of maropitant; and epidural lidocaine and maropitant group (ELMG), which received 3 mg/kg of 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor and 1 mg/kg of maropitant. In all groups, sacrococcygeal epidural administration was performed. Physiological variables were measured during the surgical procedure. Post-operative pain was assessed over six hours by using a visual analogue scale and a multidimensional scale for assessment of post-operative pain in cats. During the surgical procedure, the heart rate in the ELMG was lower than that in the EMG. The ECG required a higher quantity of rescue analgesia in the post-operative period. The EMG and ELMG showed lower pain scores than the ECG. Epidural administration of lidocaine and maropitant, alone or in combination, provided similar analgesic effects in the post-operative period. Although the results indicate analgesic effects of lidocaine and maropitant used alone for two hours and the combination for three hours, the clinical use is limited because the duration of analgesia is too short for postoperative analgesia.


Adentunji, A., Adewoye, C. O. & Ajade, R. A. (2002). Comparison of epidural analgesia with lignocaine or xylazine in cats. Veterinary Journal, 163, 335-336.

Adrian, D., Papich, M., Baynes, R., Murrel, J. & Lascelles, B. D. X. (2017). Chronic maladaptive pain in cats: A review of current and future drug treatment options. Veterinary Journal. 230, 52-61.

Avillar, B. M., Boscan, P., Mama, K. R., Ferreira, T. H., Congdon, J. & Twedt, D. C. (2012). Effect of epidural and intravenous use of the neurokinin-1 (NK-1) receptor antagonist maropitant on the sevofluorane minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) in dogs. Veterinary Anaesthesia Analgesia, 39(2), 201-205.

Babos, M.B., Grady, B., Wisnoff, W. & McGhee, C. (2013). Pathophysiology of pain. Disease-a-Month, 59(10), 330-358.

Boscan, P., Monnet, E., Mama, K., Twedt, D. C., Congdon, J. & Steffey, E. P. (2011). Effect of maropitant, a neurokinin 1 receptor antagonist, on anesthetic requirements during noxius visceral stimulation of the ovary in dogs. American Journal of Veteterinary Research, 72(12), 1576-1579.

Brondani, J. T., Luna, S. P. L., Minto, B. W., Santos, B. P. R., Beier, S. L., Matsubara, L. M. & Padovani, C. R. (2013). Confiabilidade e pontuação mínima relacionada à intervenção analgésica de uma escala multidimensional para avaliação de dor pós-operatória em gatos. Arquivo Brasileiro de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, 65(1), 153-162.

Cashmore, R. G., Harcourt-Brown, T.R., Freeman, P. M., Jeffery, N. D. & Granger, N. (2009). Clinical diagnosis and treatment of suspected neuropathic pain in three dogs. Australian Veterinary Journal, 87(1), 45-50.

Castro, D. S., Silva, M. F. A., Shih, A. C., Motta, P. P. A., Pires, M. V. M. & Scherer, P. O. (2009). Comparison between the analgesic effects of morphine and tramadol delivered epidurally in cats receiving a standardized noxious stimulation. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 11(12), 948-953.

Correa, J. M. X., Soares, P. C. L. R., Niella, R. V., Costa, B. A., Ferreira, M. S., Silva Junior, A. C., Sena, A. S., Sampaio, K. M. O. R., Silva, E. B., Silva, F. L. & Lavor, M. S. L. (2019). Evaluation of the antinociceptive effect of maropitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Veterinary Medicine International, 1-7.

De La Puente-Redondo, V., Tingley III, F. D., Schneider, R. P. & Hickman, M. A. (2007). The neurokinin-1 antagonist activity of maropitant, an antiemetic drug for dogs, in a geribil model. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology Therapeutics, 30(4), 281-87.

DeRossi, R., Hermeto, L. C., Jardim, P. H. A., Bicudo, N. A. & Assis, K. T. (2016). Postoperative pain control in cats: clinical trials with pre-emptive lidocaine epidural co-administered with morphine or methadone. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery. 18(11), 882-888.

Dulin, J. D., Coyne, P. J., Bohm, N. M. & Adler, M. (2017). Fosaprepitant for the management of refractory pain in a patient with cancer-related dermatomyositis. Journal of Palliative Medicine, 20(12), 1415-1419.

Epstein, M., Rodan, I., Griffenhagen, G., Kadrlik, J., Petty, M., Robertson, S. & Simpson, W. (2015). AAHA/AAFP Pain management guidelines for dogs and cats. Journal of the American Animal Hospital Association, 51, 67–84.

Estebe, J. P. (2017) Intravenous lidocaine. Best Practice & Research: Clinical Anaesthesiology, 31(4), 513-521.

Fernandez-Parra, R., Zilberstein, L., Fontaine, C. & Adami, C. (2017). Comparison of intratesticular lidocaine, sacrococcygeal epidural lidocaine and intravenous methadone in cats undergoing castration: a prospective, randomized, investigator-blind clinical trial. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 44(2), 356-363.

Fukui, S., Ooyama, N., Tamura, J., Umar, M. A., Ishizura, T., Itami, T., Miyoshi, K., Sano, T. & Yamashita, K. (2015). Interaction between maropitant and carprofen on sparing of the minimum alveolar concentration for blunting adrenergic response (MAC-BAR) of sevoflurane in dogs. The Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, 79(3), 502-508.

Garcia-Recio, S. & Gascón, P. (2015). Biological and pharmacological aspects of the NK1-Receptor. BioMed Research International, 1-14.

Hermeto, L. C., DeRossi, R., Marques, B. C. & Jardim, P. H. A. (2015). Potentiation of epidural lidocaine by co-administering tramadol by either intramuscular or epidural route in cats. Canadian Journal of Veterinary Research, 79(3), 214-220.

Hermeto, L. C., Rossi, R., Bicudo, N., Assis, K. T., Escobar, L. L. & Camargo, P. S. (2017). The effect of epidurally administered dexamethasone with lignocaine for post-operative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. A dose-response study. Acta Cirúrgica Brasileira, 32(4), 307-318.

Hickman, M. A., Cox, S. R., Mahabir, S., Miskell, C., Lin, J., Bunger, A. & Mccall, R. B. (2008). Safety, pharmacokinetics and use of the novel NK-1 receptor antagonist maropitant (CereniaTM) for the prevention of emesis and motion sickness in cats. Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 31(3), 220-229.

Kakuta, N., Tsutsumi, Y. M., Horikawa, Y. T., Kawano, H., Kinoshita, M., Tanaka, K. & Oshita, S. (2011). Neurokinin-1 receptor antagonism, aprepitant, effectively diminishes post-operative nausea and vomiting while increasing analgesic tolerance in laparoscopic gynecological procedures. Journal of Medical Investigation, 58(3-4), 246-251.

Kraus, B. L. H. (2013). Efficacy of maropitant in preventing vomiting in dogs premedicated with hydromorphone. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40(1), 29-34.

Lawal, F. M. & Adentunji, A. A. (2009). Comparison of epidural anaesthesia with lignocaine, bupivacaine and a lignocaine-bupivacaine mixture in cats. Journal of the South African Veterinary Association, 80(4), 243-246.

Marquez, M., Boscan, P., Weir, H., Vogel, P. & Twedt, D. C. (2015). Comparison of NK-1 receptor antagonist (Maropitant) to morphine as a pre-anaesthetic agent for canine ovariohysterectomy. Plos one. 10(10), 1-10.

Mathews, K., Kronen, P. W., Lascelles, D., Nolan, A., Robertson, S., Steagall, P. V. M., Wright, B. & Yamashita, K. (2014). Guidelines for recognition, assessment and treatment of pain: WSAVA global pain council members and co-authors of this document. Journal of Small Animal Practice. 55(6), 10-68.

Niyom, S., Boscan, P., Twedt, D. C., Monnet, E. & Eickhoff, J. C. (2013). Effect of maropitant, a neurokinin-1 receptor antagonist, on the minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane during stimulation of the ovarian ligament in cats. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 40(4), 425-431.

O’hearn, A. K. & Wright, B.D. (2011). Coccygeal epidural with local anesthetic for catheterization and pain management in the treatment of feline urethral obstruction. Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care, 21(1), 50-52.

Okano, K., Kimura, T. & Edamura, K. (2015). Dose-dependent isoflurane-sparing effect of maropitant in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 14(4), 95-99.

Patacchini, R., Lecci, A., Holzer, P. & Maggi, C.A. (2004). Newly discovered tachykinins raise new questions about their peripheral roles and the tachykinin nomenclature. Trends Pharmacological Sciences, 25(1), 1-3.

Prasoon, P., Gupta, S., Kumar, R., Gautam, M., Kaler, S. & Ray, S. B. (2016). Role of fosaprepitant, a neurokinin type 1 receptor antagonist, in morphine-induced antinociception in rats. Indian Journal of Pharmacology, 48(4), 394-398.

Quartara, L. & Maggi, C. A. (1998). The tachykinin NK1 receptor. Part II: distribution and pathophysiological roles. Neuropeptides, 32(1), 1-49.

Robertson, S. A. & Taylor, P. M. (2004). Pain management in cats – past, present and future. Part 2. Treatment of pain – clinical pharmacology. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 6(5), 321-333.

Slingsby, L. S. & Waterman-Pearson, A. E. (1998). Comparison of pethidine, buprenorphine and ketoprofen for postoperative analgesia after ovariohysterectomy in the cat. Veterinary Record, 143(7), 185–189.

Steagall, P. V. & Monteiro, B. P. (2018). Acute pain in cats: Recent advances in clinical assessment. Journal of Feline Medicine and Surgery, 21, 1-10.

Steagall, P. V. M., Simon, B. T., Neto, F. J. T., Luna, S. P. L. (2017). An update on drugs used for lumbosacral epidural anesthesia and analgesia in dogs. Frontiers in Veterinary Science, 4, 1-12.

Swallow, A., Rioja, E., Elmer, T. & Dugdale, A. (2017). The effect of maropitant on intraoperative isoflurane requirements and postoperative nausea and vomiting in dogs: a randomized clinical trial. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 44(4), 785-793.

Valverde, A. (2008). Epidural analgesia and anesthesia in dogs and cats. Veterinary Clinics: Small Animal Practice, 38(6), 1205-1230.

Xiao, J., Zeng, S., Wang, X., Barbazada, H., Li, Z. & Liu, R. (2016). Neurokinin 1 and opioid receptors: relationships and interactions in nervous system. Translational Perioperative and Pain Medicine, 1(3), 11-21.




How to Cite

CORRÊA, J. M. X. .; NIELLA, R. V.; OLIVEIRA, J. N. S. de .; MARQUES, C. S. da C. .; SILVA, E. B. da; BEIER, S. L. .; SILVA, F. L.; LAVOR, M. S. L. de. Analgesic effect of epidural maropitant and the combination of maropitant and lidocaine in cats subjected to ovariohysterectomy . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 7, p. e17511729612, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i7.29612. Disponível em: Acesso em: 6 jul. 2022.



Agrarian and Biological Sciences