Assessment of the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease, smoking and dental wear: narrative review of the literature

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i9.31712

Keywords:

Tooth Wear; Gastroesophageal reflux; Tobacco use disorder.

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), smoking and tooth wear. A narrative review was conducted, performing an electronic literature search using the PubMed/Medline platform. Cross-sectional, cohort and case- control studies carried out in adults were included, addressing at least two of the three research topics. Animal studies, case reports, literature reviews, book chapters, letters, commentaries, editorials, and in vitro studies were excluded. There were no restrictions regarding language and publication date. The search resulted in 523 articles, 46 of them met the inclusion criteria. A total of 156,843 people from 20 countries participated in the selected studies. Most articles found a significant association between smoking and the occurrence of GERD, which can be explained by mechanisms involving Lower Esophageal Sphincter (LES) relaxation, reduced salivary secretion and increase in gastric emptying time. In addition, individuals with GERD may have reduced pH in the oral cavity, which can lead to degradation of dental structures, a process that can be exacerbated by the direct impact of smoking. The results of this study suggest that there is a positive relationship between GERD, smoking and tooth wear. However, further prospective studies evaluating the interaction of these three factors are needed to corroborate these findings.

References

Ahsan, I., Menon, I., Gupta, R., Sharma, A., Das, D., & Ashraf, A. (2020). Comparison of oral health status among adult tobacco users and non-tobacco users of Ghaziabad District, Uttar Pradesh: A cross sectional study. J Family Med Prim Care, 9(2), 1143-1148.

Almadi, M. A., Almousa, M. A., Althwainy, A. F., Altamimi, A. M., Alamoudi, H. O., Alshamrani, H. S., & Aljebreen, A. M. (2014). Prevalence of symptoms of gastroesopahgeal reflux in a cohort of Saudi Arabians: a study of 1265 subjects. Saudi J Gastroenterol, 20(4), 248-254.

Ang, T. L., Fock, K. M., Ng, T. M., Teo, E. K., Chua, T. S., & Tan, J. (2005). A comparison of the clinical, demographic and psychiatric profiles among patients with erosive and non-erosive reflux disease in a multi-ethnic Asian country. World J Gastroenterol, 11(23), 3558-61.

Chang, P., & Friedenberg, F. (2014). Obesity and GERD. Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 43(1), 161-173.

Chattopadhyay, D. K., Greaney, M. G., & Irvin, T. T. (1977). Effect of cigarette smoking on the lower oesophageal sphincter. Gut, 18(10), 833-835.

Chen, J. H., Wang, H. Y., Lin, H. H., Wang, C. C., & Wang, L. Y. (2014). Prevalence and determinants of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in adolescents. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 29(2), 269-75.

de Oliveira, S. S., dos Santos, I. a. S., da Silva, J. F., & Machado, E. C. (2005). [Gastroesophageal reflux disease: prevalence and associated factors]. Arq Gastroenterol, 42(2), 116-121.

Dennish, G. W., & Castell, D. O. (1971). Inhibitory effect of smoking on the lower esophageal sphincter. N Engl J Med, 284(20), 1136-1137.

Dodds, W. J., Dent, J., Hogan, W. J., Helm, J. F., Hauser, R., Patel, G. K., & Egide, M. S. (1982). Mechanisms of gastroesophageal reflux in patients with reflux esophagitis. N Engl J Med, 307(25), 1547-1552.

El-Serag, H. B., Sweet, S., Winchester, C. C., & Dent, J. (2014). Update on the epidemiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease: a systematic review. Gut, 63(6), 871-880.

Esmaillzadeh, A., Keshteli, A.H., Tabesh, M., Feizi, A., Adibi, P. (2014). Smoking status and prevalence of upper gastrointestinal disorders. Digestion., 89(4), 282-90.

Eusebi, L. H., Ratnakumaran, R., Yuan, Y., Solaymani-Dodaran, M., Bazzoli, F., & Ford, A. C. (2018). Global prevalence of, and risk factors for, gastro-oesophageal reflux symptoms: a meta-analysis. Gut, 67(3), 430-440.

Friesen, L. R., Bohaty, B., Onikul, R., Walker, M. P., Abraham, C., Williams, K. B., & Friesen, C. A. (2017). Is histologic esophagitis associated with dental erosion: a cross-sectional observational study? BMC Oral Health, 17(1), 116.

Ganss, C., & Lussi, A. (2014). Diagnosis of erosive tooth wear. Monogr Oral Sci, 25, 22-31.

Goh, K. L., Chang, C. S., Fock, K. M., Ke, M., Park, H. J., & Lam, S. K. (2000). Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Asia. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 15(3), 230-238.

Grippo, J. O., Simring, M., & Coleman, T. A. (2012). Abfraction, abrasion, biocorrosion, and the enigma of noncarious cervical lesions: a 20-year perspective. J Esthet Restor Dent, 24(1), 10-23.

Hayashi, M., Kubo, S., Pereira, P. N. R., Ikeda, M., Takagaki, T., Nikaido, T., & Tagami, J. (2022). Progression of non-carious cervical lesions: 3D morphological analysis. Clin Oral Investig, 26(1), 575-583.

Helm, J. F., Dodds, W. J., Pelc, L. R., Palmer, D. W., Hogan, W. J., & Teeter, B. C. (1984). Effect of esophageal emptying and saliva on clearance of acid from the esophagus. N Engl J Med, 310(5), 284-288.

Illig, R., Klieser, E., Kiesslich, T., & Neureiter, D. (2013). GERD-Barrett-Adenocarcinoma: Do We Have Suitable Prognostic and Predictive Molecular Markers? Gastroenterol Res Pract, 643084.

Islami, F., Nasseri-Moghaddam, S., Pourshams, A., Poustchi, H., Semnani, S., Kamangar, F., & Malekzadeh, R (2014). Determinants of gastroesophageal reflux disease, including hookah smoking and opium use- a cross-sectional analysis of 50,000 individuals. PLoS One, 9(2):e89256.

Jordão, H. W. T., Coleman, H. G., Kunzmann, A. T., & McKenna, G. (2020). The association between erosive toothwear and gastro-oesophageal reflux-related symptoms and disease: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dent, 95, 103284.

Juel, J. (2017). Debut of Gastroesophageal Reflux Concomitant with Administration of Sublingual Immunotherapy. Case Rep Gastrointest Med, 2017, 8905372.

Kadakia, S. C., Kikendall, J. W., Maydonovitch, C., & Johnson, L. F. (1995). Effect of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux measured by 24-h ambulatory esophageal pH monitoring. Am J Gastroenterol, 90(10), 1785-1790.

Kahrilas, P. J., & Gupta, R. R. (1989). The effect of cigarette smoking on salivation and esophageal acid clearance. J Lab Clin Med, 114(4), 431-438.

Kahrilas, P. J., & Gupta, R. R. (1990). Mechanisms of acid reflux associated with cigarette smoking. Gut, 31(1), 4-10.

Kim, O., Jang, H. J., Kim, S., Lee, H. Y., Cho, E., Lee, J. E., & Kim, J. (2018). Gastroesophageal reflux disease and its related factors among women of reproductive age: Korea Nurses' Health Study. BMC Public Health, 18(1), 1133.

Kim, T. H., Lee, K. J., Yeo, M., Kim, D. K., & Cho, S. W. (2008). Pepsin detection in the sputum/saliva for the diagnosis of gastroesophageal reflux disease in patients with clinically suspected atypical gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms. Digestion, 77(3-4), 201-206.

Kim, V., & Criner, G. J. (2013). Chronic bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Am J Respir Crit Care Med, 187(3), 228-237.

Kjellén, G., Brudin, L. (1994). Gastroesophageal reflux disease and laryngeal symptoms. Is there really a causal relationship? ORL J Otorhinolaryngol Relat Spec, 56(5), 287-90.

Klenzak, S., Danelisen, I., Brannan, G. D., Holland, M. A., & van Tilburg, M. A. (2018). Management of gastroesophageal reflux disease: Patient and physician communication challenges and shared decision making. World J Clin Cases, 6(15), 892-900.

Kohata, Y., Fujiwara, Y., Watanabe, T., Kobayashi, M., Takemoto, Y., Kamata, N., & Arakawa, T. (2016). Long-Term Benefits of Smoking Cessation on Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease and Health-Related Quality of Life. PLoS One, 11(2), e0147860.

Kulig, M., Nocon, M., Vieth, M., Leodolter, A., Jaspersen, D., Labenz, J., & Willich, S. N. (2004). Risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease: methodology and first epidemiological results of the ProGERD study. J Clin Epidemiol, 57(6), 580-589.

Lail, G., Hanif, F. M., Lail, A., Haque, M. M. U., Tasneem, A. A., & Luck, N. H. (2019). Factors Influencing Quality of Life in Patients with Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Pakistan. J Coll Physicians Surg Pak, 29(9), 882-885.

Lee, Y. C., Yen, A. M., Tai, J. J., Chang, S. H., Lin, J. T., Chiu, H. M., & Chen, T. H. (2009). The effect of metabolic risk factors on the natural course of gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Gut, 58(2), 174-181.

Li, Y., Yu, F., Niu, L., Long, Y., Tay, F. R., & Chen, J. (2018). Association between bruxism and symptomatic gastroesophageal reflux disease: A case-control study. J Dent, 77, 51-58.

Lussi, A., & Carvalho, T. S. (2014). Erosive tooth wear: a multifactorial condition of growing concern and increasing knowledge. Monogr Oral Sci, 25, 1-15.

Maltarollo, T. H., Pedron, I. G., Medeiros, J. M. F., Kubo, H., Martins, J. L., & Shitsuka, C. (2020). A erosão dentária é um problema!. Research, Society and Development, 9(3), e168932723.

Mansour-Ghanaei, F., Joukar, F., Atshani, S. M., Chagharvand, S., & Souti, F. (2013). The epidemiology of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a survey on the prevalence and the associated factors in a random sample of the general population in the Northern part of Iran. Int J Mol Epidemiol Genet, 4(3), 175-182.

Martín-de-Argila, C., Martínez-Jiménez, P. (2013). Epidemiological study on the incidence of gastroesophageal reflux disease symptoms in patients in acute treatment with NSAIDs. Expert Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol, 7(1), 27-33.

Martinucci, I., Natilli, M., Lorenzoni, V., Pappalardo, L., Monreale, A., Turchetti, G., & de Bortoli, N. (2018). Gastroesophageal reflux symptoms among Italian university students: epidemiology and dietary correlates using automatically recorded transactions. BMC Gastroenterol, 18(1), 116.

Matsuki, N., Fujita, T., Watanabe, N., Sugahara, A., Watanabe, A., Ishida, T., & Azuma, T. (2013). Lifestyle factors associated with gastroesophageal reflux disease in the Japanese population. J Gastroenterol, 48(3), 340-349.

Miller, G., Palmer, K. R., Smith, B., Ferrington, C., & Merrick, M. V. (1989). Smoking delays gastric emptying of solids. Gut, 30(1), 50-53.

Miyawaki, S., Tanimoto, Y., Araki, Y., Katayama, A., Fujii, A., & Takano-Yamamoto, T. (2003). Association between nocturnal bruxism and gastroesophageal reflux. Sleep, 26(7), 888-892.

Moraes-Filho, J. P. (2004). Gastroesophageal reflux disease: prevalence and management in Brazil. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 18 Suppl, 23-26.

Mostaghni, A., Mehrabani, D., Khademolhosseini, F., Masoumi, S. J., Moradi, F., Zare, N., & Saberi-Firoozi, M. (2009). Prevalence and risk factors of gastroesophageal reflux disease in Qashqai migrating nomads, southern Iran. World J Gastroenterol, 15(8), 961-5.

Ness-Jensen, E., & Lagergren, J. (2017). Tobacco smoking, alcohol consumption and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol, 31(5), 501-508.

Nilsson, M., Johnsen, R., Ye, W., Hveem, K., & Lagergren, J. (2004). Lifestyle related risk factors in the aetiology of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Gut, 53(12), 1730-1735.

Nirwan, J. S., Hasan, S. S., Babar, Z. U., Conway, B. R., & Ghori, M. U. (2020). Global Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastro-oesophageal Reflux Disease (GORD): Systematic Review with Meta-analysis. Sci Rep, 10(1), 5814.

Nocon, M., Labenz, J., & Willich, S. N. (2006). Lifestyle factors and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux -- a population-based study. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 23(1), 169-174.

Nouraie, M., Radmard, A.R., Zaer-Rezaii, H., Razjouyan, H., Nasseri-Moghaddam, S., Malekzadeh, R. (2007). Hygiene could affect GERD prevalence independently: a population-based study in Tehran. Am J Gastroenterol, 102(7), 1353-60.

Ohmure, H., Oikawa, K., Kanematsu, K., Saito, Y., Yamamoto, T., Nagahama, H., & Miyawaki, S. (2011). Influence of experimental esophageal acidification on sleep bruxism: a randomized trial. J Dent Res, 90(5), 665-671.

Pandeya, N., Green, A.C., Whiteman, D.C.; Australian Cancer Study (2012). Prevalence and determinants of frequent gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in the Australian community. Dis Esophagus, 25(7), 573-83.

Pelkonen, M., Notkola, I. L., Nissinen, A., Tukiainen, H., & Koskela, H. (2006). Thirty-year cumulative incidence of chronic bronchitis and COPD in relation to 30-year pulmonary function and 40-year mortality: a follow-up in middle-aged rural men. Chest, 130(4), 1129-1137.

Pereira, M. L. D., Silva , R. C. B. da ., Augusto , C. de A. F., Fort, A. C., Moura , R. de M. e, Liporoni , P. C. S., & Zanatta, R. F. (2021). Aspectos sociais, nutricionais e comportamentais associados a lesões de desgaste dental erosivo – considerações e aspectos preventivos. Research, Society and Development, 10(1), e37310111897.

Ranjitkar, S., Smales, R. J., & Kaidonis, J. A. (2012). Oral manifestations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 27(1), 21-27.

Richter, J. E. (1996). Typical and atypical presentations of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The role of esophageal testing in diagnosis and management. Gastroenterol Clin North Am, 25(1), 75-102.

Roesch-Ramos, L., Roesch-Dietlen, F., Remes-Troche, J. M., Romero-Sierra, G., Mata-Tovar, C. e. J., Azamar-Jácome, A. A., & Barranca-Enríquez, A. (2014). Dental erosion, an extraesophageal manifestation of gastroesophageal reflux disease. The experience of a center for digestive physiology in Southeastern Mexico. Rev Esp Enferm Dig, 106(2), 92-97.

Rosaida, M.S., Goh, K.L. (2004). Gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, reflux oesophagitis and non-erosive reflux disease in a multiracial Asian population: a prospective, endoscopy based study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 16(5), 495-501.

Silva, D. O. C. da ., Silva, I. de M., Rocha, A. de O., Anjos, L. M. dos ., Lima, T. O., Santos, R. de M. dos A., & Cruz, B. P. . (2021). Cimento de ionômero de vidro e sua aplicabilidade na Odontologia: Uma revisão narrativa com ênfase em suas propriedades. Research, Society and Development, 10(5), e20110514884.

Smit, C. F., Copper, M. P., van Leeuwen, J. A., Schoots, I. G., & Stanojcic, L. D. (2001). Effect of cigarette smoking on gastropharyngeal and gastroesophageal reflux. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol, 110(2), 190-193.

Smith, J., & Woodcock, A. (2006). Cough and its importance in COPD. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis, 1(3), 305-314.

Stake-Nilsson, K., Hultcrantz, R., Unge, P., & Wengström, Y. (2013). Changes in symptoms and lifestyle factors in patients seeking healthcare for gastrointestinal symptoms: an 18-year follow-up study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol, 25(12), 1470-1477.

Stanciu, C., & Bennett, J. R. (1972). Smoking and gastro-oesophageal reflux. Br Med J, 3(5830), 793-795. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.3.5830.793

Tack, J., Becher, A., Mulligan, C., & Johnson, D. A. (2012). Systematic review: the burden of disruptive gastro-oesophageal reflux disease on health-related quality of life. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 35(11), 1257-1266.

Thomas, G. A., Rhodes, J., & Ingram, J. R. (2005). Mechanisms of disease: nicotine--a review of its actions in the context of gastrointestinal disease. Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol, 2(11), 536-544.

Trudgill, N. J., Smith, L. F., Kershaw, J., & Riley, S. A. (1998). Impact of smoking cessation on salivary function in healthy volunteers. Scand J Gastroenterol, 33(6), 568-571.

Vakil, N., van Zanten, S. V., Kahrilas, P., Dent, J., Jones, R., & Group, G. C. (2006). The Montreal definition and classification of gastroesophageal reflux disease: a global evidence-based consensus. Am J Gastroenterol, 101(8), 1900-1920; quiz 1943.

Veugelers, P. J., Porter, G. A., Guernsey, D. L., & Casson, A. G. (2006). Obesity and lifestyle risk factors for gastroesophageal reflux disease, Barrett esophagus and esophageal adenocarcinoma. Dis Esophagus, 19(5), 321-328.

Vilela, A. L. R., Machado, A. C., Rangel , S. de O., Allig, G. R., Souza, P. G., Reis, B. R., Soares, P. V., & Menezes, M. S. . (2020). Análise do potencial de desgaste dentário de dieta ácida: Revisão de literatura. Research, Society and Development, 9(11), e44191110004.

Waring, J. P., Eastwood, T. F., Austin, J. M., & Sanowski, R. A. (1989). The immediate effects of cessation of cigarette smoking on gastroesophageal reflux. Am J Gastroenterol, 84(9), 1076-1078.

Watanabe, Y., Fujiwara, Y., Shiba, M., Watanabe, T., Tominaga, K., Oshitani, N., & Arakawa, T. (2003). Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption associated with gastro-oesophageal reflux disease in Japanese men. Scand J Gastroenterol, 38(8), 807-811.

Wetselaar, P., Manfredini, D., Ahlberg, J., Johansson, A., Aarab, G., Papagianni, C. E., & Lobbezoo, F. (2019). Associations between tooth wear and dental sleep disorders: A narrative overview. J Oral Rehabil, 46(8), 765-775.

Wetselaar, P., Vermaire, J. H., Visscher, C. M., Lobbezoo, F., & Schuller, A. A. (2016). The Prevalence of Tooth Wear in the Dutch Adult Population. Caries Res, 50(6), 543-550.

Wiklund, I. (2004). Review of the quality of life and burden of illness in gastroesophageal reflux disease. Dig Dis, 22(2), 108-114.

Zero, D. T. (1996). Etiology of dental erosion--extrinsic factors. Eur J Oral Sci, 104(2 ( Pt 2)), 162-177.

Zimmerman, J (2004). Irritable bowel, smoking and oesophageal acid exposure: an insight into the nature of symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux. Aliment Pharmacol Ther, 20(11-12), 1297-303.

Published

08/07/2022

How to Cite

VIEIRA , G. L. de C.; OLIVEIRA , M. L. de M.; ZEOLA, L. F. Assessment of the relationship between gastroesophageal reflux disease, smoking and dental wear: narrative review of the literature. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 9, p. e23711931712, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i9.31712. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/31712. Acesso em: 24 sep. 2022.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences