Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in the COVID-19 Pandemic in Sergipe and the Federal District




Temporomandibular Joint Dysfunction Syndrome; COVID-19; Pandemics; Psychosocial impact.


The COVID-19 pandemic and its containment measures directly influenced the psychosocial health of individuals and may lead to the emergence or worsening of signs and symptoms of temporomandibular disorders (TMDs). Thus, the objectives of the present study were to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on the signs and symptoms of TMDs and the influence of the new coronavirus infection on these signs and symptoms. This is a cross-sectional observational research with a quantitative and qualitative approach, carried out in the population of the state of Sergipe and the Federal District. Based on the Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders DC/TMD, individuals responded via Google forms to the DC/TMD Symptom Questionnaire and the DC/TMD Demographics. A total of 244 individuals participated in the study, 123 from the state of Sergipe and 121 from the Federal District. Of these individuals, 70.8% reported pain in the jaw, temple, ear or in front of the ear and 64.2% reported pain in the temporal region in the last 30 days. Habits or manias, such as clenching or grinding teeth and chewing gum, changed the pain of most respondents (50.8%). No significant association (p≥0.05) was found between the DC/TMD Symptom Questionnaire questions and COVID-19 contamination among respondents. Thus, it is suggested that the pandemic may have impacted the signs and symptoms of TMDs in the population of Sergipe and the Federal District, but the infection with the new coronavirus did not influence these signs and symptoms, and no significant difference was found between the individuals who were infected or not.


Almeida-Leite, C. M., Stuginski-Barbosa, J., & Conti, P. C. R. (2020). How psychosocial and economic impacts of COVID-19 pandemic can interfere on bruxism and temporomandibular disorders? Journal of Applied Oral Science, 28.

Almutairi, A. F., Albesher, N., Aljohani, M., Alsinanni, M., Turkistani, O., & Salam, M. (2021). Association of oral parafunctional habits with anxiety and the Big-Five Personality Traits in the Saudi adult population. The Saudi Dental Journal, 33(2), 90–98.

Baloch, S., Baloch, M. A., Zheng, T., & Pei, X. (2020). The Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Pandemic. The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, 250(4), 271–278.

Blakey, S. M., & Abramowitz, J. S. (2017). Psychological Predictors of Health Anxiety in Response to the Zika Virus. Journal of Clinical Psychology in Medical Settings, 24(3–4), 270–278.

Bohania, N., Ish, P., Nune, A., & Iyengar, K. P. (2021). Cranial neuropathy in COVID-19: a case series and review of literature. Le Infezioni in Medicina, 29(4), 609–613.

Brooks, S. K., Webster, R. K., Smith, L. E., Woodland, L., Wessely, S., Greenberg, N., & Rubin, G. J. (2020). The psychological impact of quarantine and how to reduce it: rapid review of the evidence. In The Lancet (Vol. 395, Issue 10227, pp. 912–920). Lancet Publishing Group.

Canales, G. D. L. T., Câmara-Souza, M. B., Lora, V. R. M. M., Guarda-Nardini, L., Conti, P. C. R., Garcia, R. M. R., Cury, A. A. D. B., & Manfredini, D. (2018). Prevalence of psychosocial impairment in temporomandibular disorder patients: A systematic review. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 45(11), 881–889.

Carrillo‐Diaz, M., Ortega‐Martínez, A. R., Romero‐Maroto, M., & González‐Olmo, M. J. (2022). Lockdown impact on lifestyle and its association with oral parafunctional habits and bruxism in a Spanish adolescent population. International Journal of Paediatric Dentistry, 32(2), 185–193.

Castro-de-Araujo, L. F. S., & Machado, D. B. (2020). Impact of COVID-19 on mental health in a Low and Middle-Income Country. Ciência & Saúde Coletiva, 25(suppl 1), 2457–2460.

Cerqueira, T. R. do C., Batista, S. G., de Mello, E. B., DosSantos, M. F., & Tuñas, I. T. de C. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Stress, Sleep, and Oral Health in University Students. Frontiers in Pain Research , 2.

Cipollaro, L., Giordano, L., Padulo, J., Oliva, F., & Maffulli, N. (2020). Musculoskeletal symptoms in SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) patients. Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research, 15(178), 1–7.

Consortium. (2014). Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders:Assessment Instruments (Brazilian Portuguese).

Davis, H. E., Assaf, G. S., McCorkell, L., Wei, H., Low, R. J., Re’em, Y., Redfield, S., Austin, J. P., & Akrami, A. (2021). Characterizing long COVID in an international cohort: 7 months of symptoms and their impact. EClinicalMedicine, 38, 1–19.

de Caxias, F. P., Athayde, F. R. F. de, Januzzi, M. S., Pinheiro, L. V., & Turcio, K. H. L. (2021). Impact event and orofacial pain amid the COVID-19 pandemic in Brazil: a cross-sectional epidemiological study. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 29, 1–11.

Delanerolle, G., Zeng, Y., Shi, J.-Q., Yeng, X., Goodison, W., Shetty, A., Shetty, S., Haque, N., Elliot, K., Ranaweera, S., Ramakrishnan, R., Raymont, V., Rathod, S., & Phiri, P. (2022). Mental health impact of the Middle East respiratory syndrome, SARS, and COVID-19: A comparative systematic review and meta-analysis. World Journal of Psychiatry, 12(5), 739–765.

Disser, N. P., de Micheli, A. J., Schonk, M. M., Konnaris, M. A., Piacentini, A. N., Edon, D. L., Toresdahl, B. G., Rodeo, S. A., Casey, E. K., & Mendias, C. L. (2020). Musculoskeletal Consequences of COVID-19. The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume, 102(14), 1197.

Emodi-Perlman, A., Eli, I., Smardz, J., Uziel, N., Wieckiewicz, G., Gilon, E., Grychowska, N., & Wieckiewicz, M. (2020). Temporomandibular Disorders and Bruxism Outbreak as a Possible Factor of Orofacial Pain Worsening during the COVID-19 Pandemic—Concomitant Research in Two Countries. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 9(10), 3250.

Fillingim, R. B., Ohrbach, R., Greenspan, J. D., Knott, C., Diatchenko, L., Dubner, R., Bair, E., Baraian, C., Mack, N., Slade, G. D., & Maixner, W. (2013). Psychological Factors Associated With Development of TMD: The OPPERA Prospective Cohort Study. The Journal of Pain, 14(12), T75–T90.

Fillingim, R. B., Slade, G. D., Greenspan, J. D., Dubner, R., Maixner, W., Bair, E., & Ohrbach, R. (2018). Long-term changes in biopsychosocial characteristics related to temporomandibular disorder: findings from the OPPERA study. Pain, 159(11), 2403–2413.

Greene, C. S., & Manfredini, D. (2021). Transitioning to chronic temporomandibular disorder pain: A combination of patient vulnerabilities and iatrogenesis. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 48(9), 1077–1088.

Gonçalves, D. A., Dal Fabbro, A. L., Campos, J. A., Bigal, M. E., & Speciali, J. G. (2010). Symptoms of temporomandibular disorders in the population: an epidemiological study. Journal of Orofacial Pain, 24(3),270-8.

Hasöksüz, M., Kiliç, S., & Saraç, F. (2020). Coronaviruses and SARS-COV-2. Turkish Journal of Medical Sciences, 50, 549–556.

Henriques, C. M. P., & Vasconcelos, W. (2020). Crises dentro da crise: respostas, incertezas e desencontros no combate à pandemia da Covid-19 no Brasil. Estudos Avançados, 34(99), 25–44.

Karaarslan, F., Güneri, F. D., & Kardeş, S. (2022). Long COVID: rheumatologic/musculoskeletal symptoms in hospitalized COVID-19 survivors at 3 and 6 months. Clinical Rheumatology, 41(1), 289–296.

Kindler, S., Samietz, S., Houshmand, M., Grabe, H. J., Bernhardt, O., Biffar, R., Kocher, T., Meyer, G., Völzke, H., Metelmann, H.-R., & Schwahn, C. (2012). Depressive and Anxiety Symptoms as Risk Factors for Temporomandibular Joint Pain: A Prospective Cohort Study in the General Population. The Journal of Pain, 13(12), 1188–1197.

Köche, J. C. (2011). Fundamentos de Metodologia Científica: Teoria da ciência e iniciação à pesquisa. Editora Vorazes.

Lopez-Leon, S., Wegman-Ostrosky, T., Perelman, C., Sepulveda, R., Rebolledo, P. A., Cuapio, A., & Villapol, S. (2021). More than 50 long-term effects of COVID-19: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 16144.

Machoň, V., Levorová, J., Beňo, M., & Foltán, R. (2022). The Manifestations of Covid-19 Infection. Manifestations in Patients with Temporomandibular Joint Disorders. Prague Medical Report, 123(2), 95–100.

Manfredini, D., Marini, M., Pavan, C., Pavan, L., & Guarda-Nardini, L. (2009). Psychosocial profiles of painful TMD patients. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 36(3), 193–198.

McKeown, B., Poerio, G. L., Strawson, W. H., Martinon, L. M., Riby, L. M., Jefferies, E., McCall, C., & Smallwood, J. (2021). The impact of social isolation and changes in work patterns on ongoing thought during the first COVID-19 lockdown in the United Kingdom. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(40).

Medeiros, R. A. de, Vieira, D. L., Silva, E. V. F. da, Rezende, L. V. M. D. L., Santos, R. W. dos, & Tabata, L. F. (2020). Prevalence of symptoms of temporomandibular disorders, oral behaviors, anxiety, and depression in Dentistry students during the period of social isolation due to COVID-19. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 28, 1–8.

Mirhashemi, A., Khami, M. R., Kharazifard, M., & Bahrami, R. (2022). The Evaluation of the Relationship Between Oral Habits Prevalence and COVID-19 Pandemic in Adults and Adolescents: A Systematic Review. Frontiers in Public Health, 10.

Molina‐Gil, J., González‐Fernández, L., & García‐Cabo, C. (2021). Trigeminal neuralgia as the sole neurological manifestation of COVID‐19: A case report. Headache: The Journal of Head and Face Pain, 61(3), 560–562.

Moura, A. A. M. de, Bassoli, I. R., Silveira, B. V. da, Diehl, A., Santos, M. A. dos, Santos, R. A. dos, Wagstaff, C., & Pillon, S. C. (2022). Is social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic a risk factor for depression? Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem, 75(1).

National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research (2018). Facial Pain.

Ohrbach, R., & Dworkin, S. F. (2019). AAPT Diagnostic Criteria for Chronic Painful Temporomandibular Disorders. The Journal of Pain, 20(11), 1276–1292.

O’Sullivan, R., Burns, A., Leavey, G., Leroi, I., Burholt, V., Lubben, J., Holt-Lunstad, J., Victor, C., Lawlor, B., Vilar-Compte, M., Perissinotto, C. M., Tully, M. A., Sullivan, M. P., Rosato, M., Power, J. M., Tiilikainen, E., & Prohaska, T. R. (2021). Impact of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Loneliness and Social Isolation: A Multi-Country Study. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 18(19), 9982.

Ozamiz-Etxebarria, N., Dosil-Santamaria, M., Picaza-Gorrochategui, M., & Idoiaga-Mondragon, N. (2020). Stress, anxiety, and depression levels in the initial stage of the COVID-19 outbreak in a population sample in the northern Spain. Cadernos de Saude Publica, 36(4), 1–9.

Paliwal, V. K., Garg, R. K., Gupta, A., & Tejan, N. (2020). Neuromuscular presentations in patients with COVID-19. Neurological Sciences, 41(11), 3039–3056.

Pow, E. H., Leung, K. C., & McMillan, A. S. (2001). Prevalence of symptoms associated with temporomandibular disorders in Hong Kong Chinese. Journal of Orofacial Pain,15(3), 228-34.

Rajkumar, R. P. (2020). COVID-19 and mental health: A review of the existing literature. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 52, 102066.

Saccomanno, S., Bernabei, M., Scoppa, F., Pirino, A., Mastrapasqua, R., & Visco, M. A. (2020). Coronavirus lockdown as a major life stressor: Does it affect tmd symptoms? International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(23), 1–13.

Saczuk, K., Lapinska, B., Wawrzynkiewicz, A., Witkowska, A., Arbildo-Vega, H. I., Domarecka, M., & Lukomska-Szymanska, M. (2022). Temporomandibular Disorders, Bruxism, Perceived Stress, and Coping Strategies among Medical University Students in Times of Social Isolation during Outbreak of COVID-19 Pandemic. Healthcare, 10(4), 740.

Schiffman, E., Ohrbach, R., Truelove, E., Look, J., Anderson, G., Goulet, J.-P., List, T., Svensson, P., Gonzalez, Y., Lobbezoo, F., Michelotti, A., Brooks, S. L., Ceusters, W., Drangsholt, M., Ettlin, D., Gaul, C., Goldberg, L. J., Haythornthwaite, J. A., Hollender, L., … Dworkin, S. F. (2014). Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (DC/TMD) for Clinical and Research Applications: Recommendations of the International RDC/TMD Consortium Network* and Orofacial Pain Special Interest Group†. Journal of Oral & Facial Pain and Headache, 28(1), 6–27.

Tran, Q. D., Vu, T. Q. C., & Phan, N. Q. (2022). Depression prevalence in Vietnam during the Covid-19 pandemic: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Ethics, Medicine and Public Health, 23, 100806.

Vaishya, R., Jain, V. K., & Iyengar, K. P. (2021). Musculoskeletal manifestations of COVID-19. Journal of Clinical Orthopaedics and Trauma, 17, 280–281.

van Mulukom, V., Muzzulini, B., Rutjens, B. T., van Lissa, C. J., & Farias, M. (2021). The psychological impact of threat and lockdowns during the COVID-19 pandemic: exacerbating factors and mitigating actions. Translational Behavioral Medicine, 11(7), 1318–1329.

Winocur-Arias, O., Winocur, E., Shalev-Antsel, T., Reiter, S., Levratovsky, S., Emodi-Perlman, A., & Friedman-Rubin, P. (2022). Painful Temporomandibular Disorders, Bruxism and Oral Parafunctions before and during the COVID-19 Pandemic Era: A Sex Comparison among Dental Patients. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(3), 589.

Yap, A. U., Marpaung, C., & Rahmadini, E. D. (2021). Psychological well-being and distress: Their associations with temporomandibular disorder symptoms and interrelationships. Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology, 132(2), 163–171.

Yap, A. U., Zhang, M., Cao, Y., Lei, J., & Fu, K. (2022). Comparison of psychological states and oral health–related quality of life of patients with differing severity of temporomandibular disorders. Journal of Oral Rehabilitation, 49(2), 177–185.



How to Cite

ANDRADE, M. M.; FARIAS, G. de A. .; SANTANA, L. N.; CRUZ, J. W. A. .; MACIEL, L. Y. dos S. .; PICINATO-PIROLA, M.; COSTA, M. R. de C. D. . Signs and Symptoms of Temporomandibular Disorders in the COVID-19 Pandemic in Sergipe and the Federal District . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 11, p. e370111133617, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i11.33617. Disponível em: Acesso em: 6 oct. 2022.



Health Sciences