The importance of treating community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age (CAP)

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v11i12.34853

Keywords:

Community-acquired pneumonia; Pulmonary infection; Antibiotic therapy; Treatment; Pediatrics.

Abstract

Pneumonia, an infectious disease of the lower airways, is among the three main causes of morbidity and mortality children in developing countries. The objective was to discuss the importance of the treatment of Community Acquired Pneumonia (CAP) in children under 5 years old, describing the characteristics and antibiotic therapy, comparing the effectiveness of the drugs recommended by the WHO. Material and Method: This was an integrative literature review in LILACS, PUBMED/MEDELINE and SCIELO databases, between 2013 and 2022. 75 articles were identified, 10 of which were used in the elaboration of the work. Results show that CAP is the leading cause of death among infectious diseases that affect children. Its rapid identification is of paramount importance for the initiation of an adequate treatment and to avoid further complications or even death. Better access to effective prevention and management strategies is needed in low- and middle-income countries, while new strategies are needed to address the residual burden of disease once implemented.

References

American Academy of Pediatrics (2015). Pneumococcal infections. In: Kimberlin DW, Brady, M. T., Jackson, M. A., Long, S. S. (Eds). Red book: 2015 report of the Committe on Infectious Diseases.. American Academy of Pediatrics. 30ed.p. 626.

Ayieko, P., Irimu, G., Ogero, M., Mwaniki, P., Malla, L., Julius, T., Chepkirui, M.,Mbevi, G., Oliwa, J., Agweyu, A., Akech, S., Were, F., & English, M. (2019).Effect of enhancing audit and feedback on uptake of childhood pneumonia treatment policy in hospitals that are part of a clinical network : a cluster randomized trial. Article, 1–14.

Chang, A. B., Fong, S. M., Yeo, T. W., Ware, R. S., Mccallum, G. B., Nathan, A. M., Ooi, M. H., Bruyne, J. De Byrnes, C. A., Lee, B., Nachiappan, N., Saari, N., Torzillo, P., Smith-Vaughan, H., Morris, P. S., Upham, J. W., & Grimwood, K. (2019). HOspitalised Pneumonia Extended (HOPE) Study to reduce the longterm effects of childhood pneumonia : protocol for a multicentre , double-blind ,parallel , superiority randomised controlled trial. Article, 7(August 2018), 1–9.https://doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2018-026411

Departamento Científico de Pneumologia (2018). Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade na infância. Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria.3,1-7.

Ferreira, S., Sant’Anna, C. C., March, M. F. B. P., Santos, M. A. R. C., Cunha, A. J. L. A. (2014). Lethality by pneumonia and factors associated to death.J Pediatr (Rio J).90(1),92-7

Fachin, O. (2017). Fundamentos de Metodologia. (6ª. ed.): Saraiva.

Ginsburg, A. S., May, S. J., Nkwopara, E., Ambler, G., Mccollum, E. D., Mvalo, T., Phiri, A., Lufesi, N., & Sadruddin, S. (2018). Methods for conducting a doubleblind randomized controlled clinical trial of three days versus five days of amoxicillin dispersible tablets for chest indrawing childhood pneumonia among children two to 59 months of age in Lilongwe, Malawi: a study prot. Article, 1–10.

Gil, A. C. (2019). Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa social. (7ª. ed.): Atlas.

Jain, S., Williams, D. J., Arnold, S. R., Ampofo, K., Bramley, A. M., Reed, C., et. al. Community-acquired pneumonia requiring hospitalization among U.S. children. N Engl J Med. 2015; 372:835-45.

Kilpi, T. M., Jokinen, J., Puumalainen, T., Nieminen, H., Ruokokoski, E., Rinta-kokko, H., Traskine, M., Lommel, P., Moreira, M., Ruiz-Guinazu, J., Borys, D., Shcuerman, L., & Palmu, A. A. (2018). Effectiveness of pneumococcal18 Haemophilus influenzae protein D conjugate vaccine against pneumonia in children : A cluster-randomised trial. Article, 36(39), 5891–5901.https://doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2018.08.020

Leite, C. R., Azevedo, J., Galvão, V. S., Moreno-Carvalho, O., Reis, J. N., & Nascimento-Carvalho, C. (2016) Clinical and bacteriological characteristics of invasive pneumococcal disease after pneumococcal 10-valent conjugate vacine implementation in Salvador, Brazil. Braz J Infect Dis .20(1):56-60.

Lisiane, I., & Vieira, V. (2016). O impacto da vacina pneumocócica PCV10 na redução da mortalidade por pneumonia em crianças menores de um ano em Santa Catarina, Brasil Impact of PCV10 pneumococcal vaccine on mortality from pneumonia in children less than one year of age in Santa Catarin. Artigo.32(3), 1–11.

March, M. F. B. P., Ferreira, S., Ribeiro, J. D., & Souza, E. L. S. (2013). Pneumonias comunitárias. In: Campos Jr D, Burns DAR, Lopez FA. Tratado de Pediatria. São Paulo: Manole. (3ª ed.) p. 2549-58.

Maat, J. S. Van-de, Perez, D. G., Driessen, G. J. A., Wermeskerken, A.-M. van, Smit, F. J., Noordzij, J. G., Tramper-Strander, G., Obihara, C. C., Punt, J., Moll, H. A., & Oostenbrink, R. (2021). The influence of chest X-ray results on antibiotic prescription for childhood pneumonia in the emergency department. Original Article, 2765–2772.

Maatid, J. S. van de., PeetersID, D., NieboerID, D., Wermeskerken, A.-M. van, SmitID, F. J., NoordzijID, J. G., Tramper-Stranders, G., Driessen, G. J. A.,

Obihara, C. C., Punt, J., Lei, J. van der, Polinder, S., MollID, H. A., & OostenbrinkID, R. (2020). Evaluation of a clinical decision rule to guide antibiotic

prescription in children with suspected lower respiratory tract infection in The Netherlands : A stepped-wedge cluster randomised trial. Original Article, 10(5),1–19.https://doi.org/10.17026/dans-27a-fj4k

Nascimento-Carvalho, C. M. (2020). Community-acquired pneumonia among children: the latest evidence for an updated management. Jornal de Pediatria, 96,29-38.

Ross, R. K., Hersh, A. L., Kronman, M. P., Newland, J. G., Metjian., T. A., Localio, A. R. et al.(2014) Impact of Infectious Diseases Society of America/Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society guidelines on treatment of community-acquired pneumonia in hospitalized children. Clin Infect Dis.58(6):834-8.

Rodrigues, J. C., & Silva-Filho, L. V. R. F(2016). Pneumonias agudas na criança. Boletim da Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo.1(5):4-7

Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, (2007). Diretrizes Brasileiras em Pneumonia Adquirida na Comunidade em Pediatria. J Bras Pneumol.33(Supl 1):S31-50.

Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisiologia, et al. (2011) Pneumonia adquirida na comunidade na infância: tratamento e prevenção. Diretrizes clínicas na saúde suplementar, 3-16.

World Health Organization. (2013). Pocket Book of Hospital Care for Children. (2nd ed.) Malta.

Published

21/09/2022

How to Cite

OLIVEIRA, R. da S. .; RODRIGUES JUNIOR, O. M. .; GAMA, R. A. da .; ALHO , R. da C. .; CARMO, O. R. F. do .; RODRIGUES, A. E. da S. .; ANDRADE, M. de S. .; ROMÃO, M. R. de S. . The importance of treating community-acquired pneumonia in children under 5 years of age (CAP). Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 12, p. e556111234853, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i12.34853. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/34853. Acesso em: 25 feb. 2024.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences