Comparison of pulmonary ultrasound aspects of dairy calves born from a normal or dystocic parturition
Keywords:Bovine; Veterinary practice; Disease; Lungs; Ultrasound.
Ultrasound has relatively low use in the veterinary practice of cattle, especially in the diagnosis of respiratory diseases. There is little information on imaging patterns and occurrence of these diseases in calves from dystocic parturition, especially in the ability to diagnose the subclinical respiratory diseases. The correct clinical diagnosis aims to support efficient growth and expression of genetic potential for the replacer calves. Eighteen Holstein calves, five of which did not require assistance during birth and thirteen calves from dystocic parturition had the respiratory system evaluated by ultrasound. The objective was to describe and compare the pulmonary ultrasound aspects of calves from dystocic parturitions, compared to calves born without any aid. The degree of dystocia was classified on a scale from 1 to 5 points and the categorization of ultrasound images considered the presence or absence of pulmonary lesions. The ultrasound examination was able to diagnose animals affected with BRD in a subclinical manifestation, considering that none of the animals that presented pulmonary consolidation showed clinical signs of respiratory diseases. All cows with dystocia were classified as grade 2 dystocic parturition. There was no correlation between normal delivery (grade 1) and mild dystocia (grade 2) and occurrence of pulmonary consolidation.
Adams, E. A. & Buczinski, S. (2016). Short communication: Ultrasonographic assessment of lung consolidation postweaning and survival to the first lactation in dairy heifers. Journal of Dairy Science 99(2), 1465–1470.
Bach, A. (2011). Associations between several aspects of heifer development and dairy cow survivability to second lactation. Journal of Dairy Science 94(2), 1052–1057.
Buczinski, S., Forté, G. & Bélanger, A. M. (2013). Ultrasonographic assessment of the thorax as a fast technique to assess pulmonary lesions in dairy calves with bovine respiratory disease. Journal of Dairy Science 96(7), 4523–4528.
Buczinski, S., Forté, G., Francoz, D. & Bélanger, A. M. (2014). Comparison of thoracic auscultation, clinical score, and ultrasonography as indicators of bovine respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 28(1), 234–242.
Buczinski, S., Ménard, J. & Timsit, E. (2016). Incremental value (bayesian framework) of thoracic ultrasonography over thoracic auscultation for diagnosis of bronchopneumonia in preweaned dairy calves. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine 30(4), 1396-1401.
Buczinski, S., Fecteau, G., Dubuc, J. & Francoz, D. V (2018). Validation of a clinical scoring system for bovine respiratory disease complex diagnosis in preweaned dairy calves using a Bayesian framework. Preventive Veterinary Medicine 1, 156-152.
Cramer, M. & Ollivett, T. (2019). Growth of preweaned, group-housed dairy calves diagnosed with respiratory disease using clinical respiratory scoring and thoracic ultrasound—A cohort study. Journal of Dairy Science 102(5), 4322–4331.
Djemali, M., Freeman, A. E. & Berger, P. J. (1987). Reporting of dystocia scores and effects of dystocia on production, days open, and days dry from dairy herd improvement data. Journal of Dairy Science 70(10), 2127-2131.
Dubrovsky, S. A., Van Eenennaam, A. L., Aly, S. S., Karle, B. M., Rossitto, P. V., Overton, M. W., Lehenbauer, T. W. & Fadel, J. G. (2020). Preweaning cost of bovine respiratory disease (BRD) and cost-benefit of implementation of preventative measures in calves on California dairies: The BRD 10K study. Journal of Dairy Science 103(2), 1583-1597.
Dunn, T. R., Ollivett, T. L., Renaud, D. L., Leslie, K. E., Leblanc, S. J., Duffield, T. F. & Kelton, D. F. (2018). The effect of lung consolidation, as determined by ultrasonography, on first-lactation milk production in Holstein dairy calves. Journal of Dairy Science 101(6), 5404–5410.
Jourquin, S., Lowie, T., Debruyne, F., Chantillon, L., Vereecke, N., Boyen, F., Boone, R., Bokma, J. & Pardon, B. (2022). Dynamics of subclinical pneumonia in male dairy calves in relation to antimicrobial therapy and production outcomes. Journal of Dairy Science, S0022-0302(22)00644-0.
Jung, C. & Bostedt, H. (2004). Thoracic ultrasonography technique in newborn calves and description of normal and pathological findings. Veterinary Radiology & Ultrasound 45(4),331–335.
Minitab. (2020). Inc. Meet Minitab, EUA (http://www.minitab.com/ptbr/products/minitab/free-trial/).
McGuirk, S. M. (2008). Disease management of dairy calves and heifers. Veterinary Clinics of North America: Food Animal Practice 24(1), 139–153.
Ollivett T., Burton, A. J., Bicalho, R. C. & Nydam, D. V. (2011). Use of rapid US for detection of subclinical and clinical pneumonia in dairy calves. American Association of Bovine Practitioners, Stillwater, 148.
Quick, A. E., Ollivett, T. L., Kirkpatrick, B. W. & Weigel, K. A. (2020). Genomic analysis of bovine respiratory disease and lung consolidation in preweaned Holstein calves using clinical scoring and lung ultrasound. Journal of Dairy Science 103(2), 1632-1641.
Schaffer, A. P., Larson, R. L., Cernicchiaro, N., Hanzlicek, G. A., Bartle, S. J. & Thomson, D. U. (2016). The association between calfhood bovine respiratory disease complex and subsequent departure from the herd, milk production, and reproduction in dairy cattle. Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association 248(10), 1157–1164.
Rabeling, B., Rehage, J., Döpfer, D. & Scholz, H. (1998). Ultrasonographic findings in calves with respiratory disease. Veterinary Record 143(17), 468-471.
Rhodes, V., Ryan, E. G., Hayes, C. J., McAloon, C., O'Grady, L., Hoey, S., Mee, J. F., Pardon, B., Earley, B. & McAloon, C. G. (2021). Diagnosis of respiratory disease in preweaned dairy calves using sequential thoracic ultrasonography and clinical respiratory scoring: Temporal transitions and association with growth rates. Journal of Animal Science 104(10), 11165-11175.
Teixeira, A. G. V., Mcart, J. A. A. & Bicalho, R. C. (2017). Thoracic ultrasound assessment of lung consolidation at weaning in Holstein dairy heifers: Reproductive performance and survival. Journal of Dairy Science 100(4), 2985-2991.
Thompson, P. N., Stone, A., Schultheiss, W. A. (2006). Use of treatment records and lung lesion scoring to estimate the effect of respiratory disease on growth during early and late finishing periods in South African feedlot cattle. Journal of Animal Science 84(2), 488–498.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 José da Páscoa Nascimento Neto; André Luis Mendes Azevedo Carvalho; Clara Emmanuelly Mota Martins ; Túlio Bastos Tomaz Carvalho; Luiz Felipe Rogana Müller; Hélio Rezende Lima Neto; Luthesco Haddad Lima Chalfun
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.