Recycling attitudes and beliefs, awareness of individual consequences and recycling habits of Brazilians in Portugal




Recycling; Recycling habits; Attitude; Conscience; Brazilians.


We intend to analyze the prediction of Recycling Habits (HR) from the Attitudes and Beliefs in Recycling (ACR), and the Awareness of Individual Consequences (ICC). A total of 352 people participated in the study, who responded on a five-point Likert-type scale, the Self-Reported Habit Index (HAI), CCI and ACR scales. In SPPS 25.0 software, descriptive statistics, factor analysis were performed and in AMOS 24.0, the calculation of Structural Equations. The results showed that the ACR has an influence on the ICC, which in turn influences the HR. These results aim to contribute in the theoretical scope to a better understanding of recycling habits in families living far from their country of origin; in the field of practice, it suggests both for the formulation of public policies and for the development of campaigns of social engagement.


Aarts, H., & Verplanken, B. (1999). Habit, Attitude, and Planned Behaviour: Is Habit an Empty Construct or an Interesting Case of Goal-directed Automaticity? European Review of Social Psychology, 10(1), 101–134.

Ajzen, I. (1991). The Theory of Planned Behavior. The Theory of Planned Behavior, 50, 179–211.

Bom, U. B., Belbase, S., & Lila, R. B. (2017). Public Perceptions and Practices of Solid Waste Recycling in the City of Laramie in Wyoming, U. S. A. Recycling, 2(11), 2–19.

Carrus, G., Passafaro, P., & Bonnes, M. (2008). Emotions, habits and rational choices in ecological behaviours: The case of recycling and use of public transportation. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 28(1), 51–62.

Conselho Federal de Psicologia. (2000). Resolução CFP nº 016/2000 de 20 de dezembro de 2000. Dispõe sobre a realização de pesquisa em Psicologia com seres humanos. Brasília, DF.

Conselho Nacional de Saúde (CNS). (1996). Resolução nº 196, de 10 de outubro de 1996.

Corral Verdugo, V. (2012). The positive psychology of sustainability. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 14(5), 651–666.

Díaz Meneses, G., & Beerli Palacio, A. (2006). Different kinds of consumer response to the reward recycling technique: Similarities at the desired routine level. Asia Pacific Journal of Marketing and Logistics, 18(1), 43–60.

Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A. G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G* Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior research methods, 39(2), 175-191.

Formiga, N. S. (2004). O tipo de orientação cultural e sua influência sobre os indicadores do rendimento escolar. Psicologia: teoria e prática, 6(1), 13-29. Recuperado em 07 de novembro de 2022, de

Formiga, N. S., & Souza, M. A. (2012). Tipo de orientação cultural e empatia em brasileiros: verificação de um modelo teórico. Estudos Interdisciplinares em Psicologia, 3(2), 139-161.

Fu, X., & Juan, Z. (2017). Understanding public transit use behavior: integration of the theory of planned behavior and the customer satisfaction theory. Transportation, 44(5), 1021–1042.

Gardner, B. (2015). A review and analysis of the use of ‘habit’ in understanding, predicting and influencing health-related behaviour. Health Psychology Review, 9(3), 277–295.

Gardner, B., & Lally, P. (2013). Does intrinsic motivation strengthen physical activity habit? Modeling relationships between self-determination, past behaviour, and habit strength. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 36(5), 488–497.

Gardner, B., & Lally, P. (2018). Modelling Habit Formation and Its Determinants. In Verplanken B. (Ed.), The Psychology of Habit (1st ed., pp. 207–229).

Hair, J. F., Tatham, R. L., Anderson, R. E., & Black, W. (2005). Análise Multivariada de dados. Porto Alegre: Bookman.

Halvorsen, B. (2012). Resources , Conservation and Recycling Effects of norms and policy incentives on household recycling : An international comparison. “Resources, Conservation & Recycling,” 67, 18–26.

Henriksson, G., Åkesson, L., & Ewert, S. (2010). Uncertainty regarding waste handling in everyday life. Sustainability, 2(9), 2799–2813.

Ibrahim, A., Knox, K., Rundle-Thiele, S., & Arli, D. (2018). Segmenting a Water Use Market: Theory of Interpersonal Behavior Insights. Social Marketing Quarterly, 24(1), 3–17.

Ittiravivongs, A. (2012). Recycling as habitual behavior: The impact of habit on household waste recycling behavior in Thailand. Asian Social Science, 8(6), 74–81.

Kline, P. (2014). An easy guide to factor analysis.New York: Routledge.

Pasquali, L. (2011). Psicometria: teoria dos testes na psicologia e na educação. (4 ed.). Vozes.

Knussen, C., & Yule, F. (2008). “ I ’ m Not in the Habit of Recycling ” The Role of Habitual Behavior in the Disposal of Household Waste. Environment and Behavior, 40(5), 683–702.

Knussen, C., Yule, F., MacKenzie, J., & Wells, M. (2004). An analysis of intentions to recycle household waste: The roles of past behaviour, perceived habit, and perceived lack of facilities. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 24(2), 237–246.

Miafodzyeva, S., Brandt, N., & Andersson, M. (2013). Recycling behaviour of householders living in multicultural urban area: A case study of Järva, Stockholm, Sweden. Waste Management and Research, 31(5), 447–457.

Millon, T., & Lerner, M. J. (2003). Personality and social psychology. In I. B. Weiner (Ed.), Behaviour Research and Therapy (1st ed., Vol. 5).

Nguyen, T. N., Nguyen, H. V., Lobo, A., & Dao, T. S. (2017). Encouraging Vietnamese household recycling behavior: Insights and implications. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(2), 1–15.

Ofstad, S. P., Tobolova, M., Nayum, A., & Klöckner, C. A. (2017). Understanding the mechanisms behind changing people’s recycling behavior at work by applying a comprehensive action determination model. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(204), 1–17.

Ouellette, J. A., & Wood, W. (1998). Habit and Intention in Everyday Life: The Multiple Processes by Which Past Behavior Predicts Future Behavior. Psychological Bulletin, 124(1), 54–74.

Park, J., Ahn, C., Lee, K., Choi, W., Song, H. T., Choi, S. O., & Han, S. W. (2019). Analysis on public perception , user-satisfaction , and publicity for WEEE collecting system in South Korea : A case study for Door-to-Door Service. Resources, Conservation & Recycling, 144, 90–99.

Ralph, K. M., & Brown, A. E. (2019). The role of habit and residential location in travel behavior change programs, a field experiment. Transportation, 46(3), 719–734.

Saphores, J. D. M., & Nixon, H. (2014). How effective are current household recycling policies? Results from a national survey of U.S. households. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 92, 1–10.

Saphores, J. D. M., Nixon, H., Ogunseitan, O. A., & Shapiro, A. A. (2006). Household willingness to recycle electronic waste: An application to California. Environment and Behavior, 38(2), 183–208.

Sidique, S. F., Lupi, F., & Joshi, S. V. (2010). The effects of behavior and attitudes on drop-off recycling activities. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 54(3), 163–170.

Tabachnick, B., & Fidell, L. (2001). Using multivariate statistics. Needham Heights: Allyn & Bacon.

Tabernero, C., Cuadrado, E., Luque, B., Signoria, E., & Prota, R. (2016). The importance of achieving a high customer satisfaction with recycling services in communities. Environment, Development and Sustainability, 18(3), 763–776.

Verplanken, B., & Faes, S. (1999). Good intentions, bad habits, and effects of forming implementation intentions on healthy eating. European Journal of Social Psychology, 29(5–6), 591–604.<591::AID-EJSP948>3.0.CO;2-H

Verplanken, B., & Orbell, S. (2003). Reflections on Past Behavior: A Self-Report Index of Habit Strength. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 33(6), 1313–1330.

Verplanken, B., & Roy, D. (2016). Empowering interventions to promote sustainable lifestyles: Testing the habit discontinuity hypothesis in a field experiment. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 45, 127–134.

Verplanken, B., & Sui, J. (2019). Habit and Identity: Behavioral, Cognitive, Affective, and Motivational Facets of an Integrated Self. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(July), 1–11.

Verplanken, B., & Wood, W. (2006). Interventions to Break and Create Consumer Habits. Journal of Public Policy and Marketing, 25(1), 90–103.

Wang, Q., Long, X., Li, L., Kong, L., Zhu, X., & Liang, H. (2020). Engagement factors for waste sorting in China: The mediating effect of satisfaction. Journal of Cleaner Production, 267, 1–9.

Xu, L., Ling, M., Lu, Y., & Shen, M. (2017). Understanding household waste separation behaviour: Testing the roles of moral, past experience, and perceived policy effectiveness within the theory of planned behaviour. Sustainability (Switzerland), 9(4).



How to Cite

GONDIM, J. S. L. .; FORMIGA, N. S. .; MELLO, A. A. . Recycling attitudes and beliefs, awareness of individual consequences and recycling habits of Brazilians in Portugal. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 15, p. e485111537543, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i15.37543. Disponível em: Acesso em: 31 jan. 2023.



Human and Social Sciences