Identification of the association of trichomonas vaginalis with human papillomavirus in precursor lesions and cervical cancer




Trichomonas vaginalis; Human Papillomavirus; Precursor Injuries; Cervical cancer.


This research aims to understand how Trichomonas vaginalis is a sexually transmitted disease as well as the human papillomavirus that is the cause of precursor lesions and cervical cancer. Taking into account the relationship between both, which allows the protozoan to act as a facilitator of HPV infections. This is an integrative review, in which data collection was verified with articles between 2014 and 2022 in the following databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (Scielo), Virtual Health Library (BVS), JmolMed, Report in Public Health, Scientific reports, The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries and Publisher Medline (PubMED), using the following descriptors and keywords: Trichomonas vaginalis, Human Papillomavirus, Precursor Lesions and Cervical Cancer. Proof of the presence of Trichomonas vaginalis in precursor lesions and cervical cancer. It was concluded that there is an infectious relationship between Trichomonas vaginalis in establishing an environment for the persistence and permanence of Human Papillomavirus in precursor lesions and cervical cancer.


Belfort, I. K. P., Cunha, A. P. A., Mendes, F. P. B., Galvão-Moreira, L. V., Lemos, R. G., de Lima Costa, L. H., ... & Monteiro, S. C. M. (2021). Trichomonas vaginalis as a risk factor for human papillomavirus: a study with women undergoing cervical cancer screening in a northeast region of Brazil. BMC women's health, 21(1), 1-8.

Brotman, R., Shardell, M., Gajer, P., Tracy, J., Zenilman, J., Ravel, J., Gravit,t P.,(2014).Interplay between the temporal dynamics of the vaginal microbiota and human papillomavirus detection. J Infect Dis. 2(1)0,1723–33.

Bezerra, A.H., (2017). Relação da infecção por hpv e trichomonas vaginallis com o câncer de colo de útero. Principais alterações citológicas, prevenção, diagnóstico e tratamento da infecção por Trichomonas vaginalis. Anais II CONBRACIS. Campina Grande: Realize Editora.

Chase, D., Goulder, A., Zenhausern, F., Monk, B., Herbst-Kralovetz, M.(2015). The vaginal and gastrointestinal microbiomes in gynecologic cancers: a review of applications in etiology, symptoms and treatment. Gynecol Oncol.13(8),190–200.

Costa-Lira, E., Jacinto, A. H. V. L., Silva, L. M., NapoleÃ, P. F. R., Barbosa-Filho, R. A. A., Cruz, G. J. S., ... & Borborema-Santos, C. M. (2017). Prevalence of human papillomavirus, Chlamydia trachomatis, and Trichomonas vaginalis infections in Amazonian women with normal and abnormal cytology. Genetics and Molecular Research, 16(2).

Dias, J. A., Luciano, T. V., Santos, M. C. L. F. S., Musso, C., Zandonade, E., Spano, L. C., & Miranda, A. E. (2021). Infecções sexualmente transmissíveis em mulheres afrodescendentes de comunidades quilombolas no Brasil: prevalência e fatores associados. Cadernos de Saúde Pública, 37, e00174919.

Fachin, O. (2017). Fundamentos de Metodologia. 6. ed. São Paulo: Saraiva.

Gil, A.C. (2019). Métodos e técnicas de pesquisa social. 7. ed. São Paulo: Atlas.

Hernández-Buelvas, L., Camargo, M., Sánchez, R., Patarroyo, M. E., & Patarroyo, M. A. (2021). Trichomonas vaginalis follow-up and persistence in Colombian women. Scientific reports, 11(1), 22597.

Hui, B.B., Reulein, C.P., Guy, R.J. (2018). Impact of replacing cytology with human papillomavirus testing for cervical cancer screening on the prevalence of Trichomonas vaginalis: a modelling study Sexually Transmitted Infections 9(4),216-221.

Kim, Y. H., Ahn, H. J., Kim, D., & Nam, H. W. (2022). Spatiotemporal Clusters and Trend of Trichomonas vaginalis Infection in Korea. The Korean Journal of Parasitology, 60(2), 97.

Kone, E. S., Balili, A. D., Paparisto, P. D., Ceka, X. R., & Petrela, E. D. (2017). Vaginal Infections of Albanian women Infected with HPV and their impact in intraepithelial cervical lesions evidenced by Pap test. Journal of Cytology, 34(1), 16.

Kovachev, S. M. (2020). Cervical cancer and vaginal microbiota changes. Archives of microbiology, 202(2), 323-327.

Li, H., Xiao, Z., Xing, B., Wu, S., Wang, Y., Liu, Z., ... & Li, P. (2022). Association between common vaginal and HPV infections and results of cytology test in the Zhoupu District, Shanghai City, China, from 2014 to 2019. Virology journal, 19(1), 1-10.

Li, L., Liu, J., Wang, S., Wang, X., & Xiang, T. Z. (2022). Trichomonas Vaginalis Segmentation in Microscope Images. In International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer-Assisted Intervention (pp. 68-78). Springer, Cham.

Lugo, L. Z., Jacob, C., Machado, A. P., Almeida, F. G., Ávila, L. S., Prata, T., ... & Tozetti, I. A. (2018). Human papillomavirus and coinfections with Chlamydia trachomatis, Gardnerella vaginalis, and Trichomonas vaginalis in self-collected samples from female sex workers in the Central-Western region of Brazil. Jornal Brasileiro de Patologia e Medicina Laboratorial, 54, 46-51.

Pinheiro, J., Biboy, J., Vollmer, W., Hirt, R. P., Keown, J. R., Artuyants, A., ... & Simoes-Barbosa, A. (2018). The protozoan Trichomonas vaginalis targets bacteria with laterally acquired NlpC/P60 peptidoglycan hydrolases. MBio, 9(6), e01784-18.

Menon, S., Broeck, D. V., Rossi, R., Ogbe, E., Harmon, S., & Mabeya, H. (2016). Associations between vaginal infections and potential high-risk and high-risk human papillomavirus genotypes in female sex workers in western Kenya. Clinical therapeutics, 38(12), 2567-2577.

Pascoal, I. L., Barreto, J. M., Coelho, L. R. P., Barbosa, M. H. A., Amaral, J. G. N., Santos, C. A. C., & de Souza, J. H. K. (2021). Trichomonas vaginalis como Co-Fator na propagação do HIV em mulheres: uma revisão de literatura. Brazilian Journal of Development, 7(5), 52660-52673.

RochaD. A., AzevedoM. J. N., BatistaS. J. S., Beltrão Êmille S., MoraesC. O., AraújoA. F., ReisR. S., TorresK. L., LeviJ. E., & MariñoJ. M. (2019). T. vaginalis in riverside women in Amazonia, Brazil: an experience using the EVALYN® BRUSH vaginal self-collection device. The Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 13(11), 1029-1037.

Sung, H., Ferlay, J., Siegel, R. L., Laversanne, M., Soerjomataram, I., Jemal, A., & Bray, F. (2021). Global cancer statistics 2020: GLOBOCAN estimates of incidence and mortality worldwide for 36 cancers in 185 countries. CA: a cancer journal for clinicians, 71(3), 209-249.

Urbański, L.J., Angeli, A., Mykuliak, V.V., Azizi, L., Kuuslahti, M., Hytönen V.P., Supuran, C.T., Parkkila,S.,(2022). Biochemical and structural characterization of beta-carbonic anhydrase from the parasite Trichomonas vaginalis. J Mol Med (Berl) 100(1):115-124.

Valdez, M., Jeronimo, J., Bansil, P., Qiao, Y. L., Zhao, F. H., Chen, W., ... & Castle, P. E. (2016). Effectiveness of novel, lower cost molecular human papillomavirus‐based tests for cervical cancer screening in rural china. International Journal of Cancer, 138(6), 1453-1461.

Vallely, A. J., Toliman, P. J., Ryan, C., Rai, G., Wapling, J., Gabuzzi, J., ... & Kaldor, J. M. (2018). Association between visual inspection of the cervix with acetic acid examination and high‐risk human papillomavirus infection, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae and Trichomonas vaginalis in Papua New Guinea. Australian and New Zealand Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, 58(5), 576-581.

Yang, M., Li, L., Jiang, C., Qin, X., Zhou, M., Mao, X., & Xing, H. (2020). Co-infection with trichomonas vaginalis increases the risk of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2–3 among HPV16 positive female: a large population-based study. BMC infectious diseases, 20(1), 1-10.

Yang, S., Zhao, W., Wang, H., Wang, Y., Li, J., & Wu, X. (2018). Trichomonas vaginalis infection-associated risk of cervical cancer: a meta-analysis. European Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology and Reproductive Biology, 228, 166-173.



How to Cite

ARAÚJO, A. P. da S. .; SENA, A. B. .; CHAVES, I. C. B. . Identification of the association of trichomonas vaginalis with human papillomavirus in precursor lesions and cervical cancer. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 15, p. e488111537678, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i15.37678. Disponível em: Acesso em: 9 feb. 2023.



Health Sciences