Epidemiological profile of malignant neoplasms of the prostate in Brazil - Description of half a decade and the influence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v13i3.45257

Keywords:

Epidemiology; Mortality; Prostatic neoplasms; Hospitalization.

Abstract

Prostate cancer (PC) is the 2nd most common in men. When compared with other malignancies, regional and ethnic disparities remain a problem. Screening is carried out through prostate specific antigen (PSA) measurement and digital rectal exam, and, if necessary, biopsy. There is controversy regarding the benefit of annual screening. Given the importance of epidemiological studies, this study aimed to quantify reported cases and describe factors related to the mortality rate and number of hospitalizations for PC between the years 2018 and 2023. The data were obtained from the SUS Information Technology Department (DATASUS), ICD10-C61 (malignant neoplasm of the prostate) by place of residence. The population studied are men aged 40 or over. Epidemiology in Brazil is like developed countries, despite regional disparities. More hospitalizations occurred in the Southeast and fewer in the North, along with the highest mortality rate. Inequalities between Regions are due to unequal access by the State. There is a predominance in the mortality rate at 80 years of age or more and a greater number of hospitalizations at 60 to 69 years of age. Mixed race people had a higher number of hospitalizations. The highest mortality rate occurred in 2021 and the highest number of hospitalizations in 2022 and 2023, which may be influenced by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Analyzing the profile of this neoplasm is essential to guide the planning of public policies, requiring measures to provide more equitable access to health facilities.

References

Bell, K. J., Del Mar, C., Wright, G., Dickinson, J., & Glasziou, P. (2015). Prevalence of incidental prostate cancer: A systematic review of autopsy studies. Int J Cancer, 137(7), 1749-1757. 10.1002/ijc.29538

Bergengren, O., Pekala, K. R., Matsoukas, K., Fainberg, J., Mungovan, S. F., Bratt, O., . . . Carlsson, S. V. (2023). 2022 Update on Prostate Cancer Epidemiology and Risk Factors-A Systematic Review. Eur Urol, 84(2), 191-206. 10.1016/j.eururo.2023.04.021

Brasil. Ministério da Saúde. Secretaria de Atenção Primária à Saúde. Nota técnica n9/2023. (2023). Recomendação pelo não rastreamento populacional do câncer de próstata. Disponível em: https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br/composicao/saps/publicacoes/notas-tecnicas/notatecnican9_rastreio.pdf

Brasil (n.d.). Ministério da Saúde. Sistema Único de Saúde. Disponível em: https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br/assuntos/saude-de-a-a-z/s/sus.

Burnett, A. L., Nyame, Y. A., & Mitchell, E. (2023). Disparities in prostate cancer. J Natl Med Assoc, 115(2S), S38-S45. 10.1016/j.jnma.2023.02.003

Carthon, B., Sibold, H. C., Blee, S., & R, D. P. (2021). Prostate Cancer: Community Education and Disparities in Diagnosis and Treatment. Oncologist, 26(7), 537-548. 10.1002/onco.13749

de Oliveira, M. M., Malta, D. C., Guauche, H., de Moura, L., & Silva, G. A. (2015). Estimated number of people diagnosed with cancer in Brazil: data from the National Health Survey, 2013. Rev Bras Epidemiol, 18(2), 146-157. 10.1590/1980-5497201500060013

Dovey, Z. S., Nair, S. S., Chakravarty, D., & Tewari, A. K. (2021). Racial disparity in prostate cancer in the African American population with actionable ideas and novel immunotherapies. Cancer Rep (Hoboken), 4(5), e1340. 10.1002/cnr2.1340

Esteban, E. P., & Almodovar-Abreu, L. (2020). A New Interpretation of the Standard PSA-Test. Res Rep Urol, 12, 75-84. 10.2147/RRU.S240171

Etzioni, R., Tsodikov, A., Mariotto, A., Szabo, A., Falcon, S., Wegelin, J., & Feuer, E. (2008). Quantifying the role of PSA screening in the US prostate cancer mortality decline. Cancer Causes Control, 19(2), 175-181. 10.1007/s10552-007-9083-8

Evangelista, F. d. M., Melanda, F. N., Modesto, V. C., Soares, M. R., Neves, M. A. B. d., Souza, B. d. S. N. d., & Andrade, A. C. d. S. (2022). Incidence, mortality and survival of prostate cancer in two municipalities with a high human development index in Mato Grosso, Brazil. [Incidência, mortalidade e sobrevida do câncer de próstata em dois municípios com alto índice de desenvolvimento humano de Mato Grosso, Brasil]. Revista Brasileira de Epidemiologia, 25. 10.1590/1980-549720220016.supl.1

Faria, L., Pereira, P., Lustosa, A., Aragão, I., Sant'Anna Aragão, F., & Cunha, M. (2020). Perfil epidemiológico do câncer de próstata no brasil: retrato de uma década. Revista UNINGÁ, 57, 76-84. 10.46311/2318-0579.57.4.076-084

Ferrari, G., Farías-Valenzuela, C., Guzmán-Habinger, J., Drenowatz, C., Marques, A., Kovalskys, I., & Fisberg, M. (2022). Relationship between socio-demographic correlates and human development index with physical activity and sedentary time in a cross-sectional multicenter study. BMC Public Health, 22(1), 669. 10.1186/s12889-022-13117-9

Foley, G. R., Blizzard, C. L., Stokes, B., Skala, M., Redwig, F., Dickinson, J. L., & FitzGerald, L. M. (2022). Urban-rural prostate cancer disparities in a

regional state of Australia. Sci Rep, 12(1), 3022. 10.1038/s41598-022-06958-2

Gomella, L. G., Liu, X. S., Trabulsi, E. J., Kelly, W. K., Myers, R., Showalter, T., & Wender, R. (2011). Screening for prostate cancer: the current evidence and guidelines controversy. Can J Urol, 18(5), 5875-5883.

Kelly, R. S., Vander Heiden, M. G., Giovannucci, E., & Mucci, L. A. (2016). Metabolomic Biomarkers of Prostate Cancer: Prediction, Diagnosis, Progression, Prognosis, and Recurrence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev, 25(6), 887-906. 10.1158/1055-9965.Epi-15-1223

Klaassen, Z., & Wallis, C. J. D. (2021). Assessing patient risk from cancer and COVID-19: Managing patient distress. Urol Oncol, 39(5), 243-246. 10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.01.023

Lakes, J., & Arsov, C. (2019). [PSA screening and molecular markers]. Urologe A, 58(5), 486-493. 10.1007/s00120-019-0900-y

Lee, A. J. X., & Purshouse, K. (2021). COVID-19 and cancer registries: learning from the first peak of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. British Journal of Cancer, 124(11), 1777-1784. 10.1038/s41416-021-01324-x

Lima, A. P. d., Lini, E. V., Giacomazzi, R. B., Dellani, M. P., Portella, M. R., & Doring, M. (2018). Prevalence and factors associated with the performance of prostate cancer screening in the elderly: a population-based study. [Prevalência e fatores associados à realização de exames de câncer de próstata em idosos: estudo de base populacional]. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 21(1), 53-59. 10.1590/1981-22562018021.170054

Loeb, S., Bjurlin, M. A., Nicholson, J., Tammela, T. L., Penson, D. F., Carter, H. B., & Etzioni, R. (2014). Overdiagnosis and overtreatment of prostate cancer. Eur Urol, 65(6), 1046-1055. 10.1016/j.eururo.2013.12.062

Matti, B., & Zargar-Shoshtari, K. (2021). Prostate cancer outcomes disparities: Population survival analysis in an ethnically diverse nation. Urol Oncol, 39(6), 367 e319-367 e326. 10.1016/j.urolonc.2021.02.023

Montironi, R., Santoni, M., Mazzucchelli, R., Burattini, L., Berardi, R., Galosi, A. B., & Scarpelli, M. (2016). Prostate cancer: from Gleason scoring to prognostic grade grouping. Expert Rev Anticancer Ther, 16(4), 433-440. 10.1586/14737140.2016.1160780

Moyer, V. A., & Force, U. S. P. S. T. (2012). Screening for prostate cancer: U.S. Preventive Services Task Force recommendation statement. Ann Intern Med, 157(2), 120-134. 10.7326/0003-4819-157-2-201207170-00459

Parker, C., Castro, E., Fizazi, K., Heidenreich, A., Ost, P., Procopio, G. (2020). Prostate cancer: ESMO Clinical Practice Guidelines for diagnosis, treatment and follow-up. Ann Oncol, 31(9), 1119-1134. 10.1016/j.annonc.2020.06.011

Pereira, A. S.; Shitsuka, D. M., Parreira, F. J., & Shitsuka, R. (2018). Metodologias da pesquisa cientifica. UFSM.

Ragsdale, J. W., 3rd, Halstater, B., & Martinez-Bianchi, V. (2014). Prostate cancer screening. Prim Care, 41(2), 355-370. 10.1016/j.pop.2014.02.009

Reeve, B. B., Tan, X., Chen, R. C., Usinger, D. S., & Pinheiro, L. C. (2018). Symptom and function profiles of men with localized prostate cancer. Cancer, 124(13), 2832-2840. 10.1002/cncr.31401

Santos, M. d. O., Lima, F. C. d. S. d., Martins, L. F. L., Oliveira, J. F. P., Almeida, L. M. d., & Cancela, M. d. C. (2023). Estimativa de Incidência de Câncer no Brasil, 2023-2025. Revista Brasileira de Cancerologia, 69(1), e-213700. 10.32635/2176-9745.RBC.2023v69n1.3700

Santos, R. O. M. dos., Abreu, M. M. de., Migowski, A., & Engstrom, E. M.. (2022). Decision aid for prostate cancer screening in Brazil. Revista de Saude

Publica, 56, 19. https://doi.org/10.11606/s1518-8787.2022056003467

Sasse, A. D., Wiermann, E. G., Herchenhorn, D., Bastos, D. A., Schutz, F. A., Maluf, F. C., & Nogueira, L. (2017). First Brazilian Consensus of Advanced Prostate Cancer: Recommendations for Clinical Practice. Int Braz J Urol, 43(3), 407-415. 10.1590/S1677-5538.IBJU.2016.0490

Simbana-Rivera, K., Torres-Roman, J. S., Challapa-Mamani, M. R., Guerrero, J., De la Cruz-Ku, G., Ybaseta-Medina, J., & Martinez-Herrera, J. F. (2023). Regional disparities of prostate cancer mortality in Ecuador: an examination of trends and correlates from 2004 to 2019. BMC Public Health, 23(1), 992. 10.1186/s12889-023-15941-z

U.S.Preventive Services Task Force. (2018). Prostate Cancer Screening. https://www.uspreventiveservicestaskforce.org/uspstf/recommendation/prostate-cancer-screening

Published

24/03/2024

How to Cite

LEONELO, M. S. D. .; REZENDE, J. P. O. .; ÁLVARO , P. H. e S. .; ARAÚJO , L. M. M. .; CANTARELLI , J. D. P. .; COELHO , V. O. M. .; OLIVEIRA , P. H. M. de . Epidemiological profile of malignant neoplasms of the prostate in Brazil - Description of half a decade and the influence of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 13, n. 3, p. e9413345257, 2024. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v13i3.45257. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/45257. Acesso em: 13 jun. 2024.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences