Physico-chemical characterization of oils from the dried fruit of coco (Cocos nucifera L.)
Keywords:Vegetable oils; Bligh & Dyer; Dried coconut; Peroxide; Oxidation.
The oil of the coconut dry fruit (Cocos nucifera L.) has a vegetable origin extracted from the coconut tree, belonging to the Arecaceae family and the subfamily Cocoideae. It has great potential for industrial use as it has applications in several productive areas. The constant search for products that can add value and bring benefits to humanity has led to the growth in the use of coconut oil in industrial processes, as it is an oil considered stable due to its high level of saturation compared to other edible oils. The objective of this research was to evaluate the oleochemical characteristics of coconut oil from cold extraction processes and industrialized oils, verifying the analysis of the parameters indicative of the quality of these oils, which were as follows: acidity, peroxide, iodine indexes and percentages of free fatty acids. A comparative analysis of commercial coconut oil and coconut oil adapted by the Bligh & Dyer method was performed. The samples in both treatments were obtained from local stores and were analyzed in triplicates. The analyzed parameters were similar for both treated oils, it was within the standards required by the RDC legislation No. 270 and CODEX alimentarius, indicating good quality for consumption. Only the data for the iodine index in both treatments were high, and may have been influenced by the seasonality of the fruit, by the extraction method or by industrial processes.
Ahmad, Z., Hasham, R., Aman, N., Nor, F. & Mohamad, R. (2015) Physico-chemical and antioxidant analysis of virgin coconut oil using west african tall variety. Journal of advanced research in materials science, 13(1), 1-10.
American Oil Chemists' Society; Firestone, D. (2004). Official methods and recommended practices of the American Oil Chemists' Society. Champaign, AOCS.
Azevedo et al. (2020). Physicochemical characterization, fatty acid profile, antioxidant activity and antibacterial potential of cacay oil, coconut oil and cacay butter. Plos One, 15(4), 1-11.
Brasil. (2005). Resolução RDC n. 270, de 22 de setembro de 2005. Dispõe sobre regulamento técnico para óleos vegetais, gorduras vegetais e creme vegetal. Brasília: ANVISA. Disponível em: <http://www.anvisa.gov.br/alimento/informes> Acesso em: 10 jun 2020.
Brasil. (1999). Resolução RDC n. 482, de 23 de setembro de 1999. Dispõe sobre regulamento técnico para fixação de identidade e qualidade de óleos e gorduras vegetais. Brasília: ANVISA. Disponível em: <http://www.anvisa.gov.br/alimento/informes> Acesso em: 10 jun 2020.
Bligh, E.G. & Dyer, W.J. (1959). A rapid method of total lipid extraction and purification. Canadian Journal of Biochemistry and Physiology, 37 (8), 911-917.
Brainer, S. Adaptação do nordeste ao cenário de modernização da cocoicultura brasileira. (2017). Escritório Técnico de Estudos Econômicos do Nordeste –ETENE. Ano 2, n. 18.
Cecchi, H. M. (2003) Fundamentos teóricos e práticos de análise de alimentos. 2ª ed. Campinas-São Paulo: Unicamp.
Correia, I.M.S., Araújo, G.S., Paulo, G.B.A. & Sousa, E.M.B.D. (2014). Avaliação das potencialidades e características físico-químicas de óleo de girassol (Helianthus annuus L.) e coco (Cocos nucifera L.) produzidos no Nordeste brasileiro. Scientia plena, 10 (3), 1-7.
Cruz, B.C. dos S., Chagas, C. G. O. & Bandeira, A.V. (2018). O tratamento térmico influencia as características físico-químicas e oxidativas do óleo de coco. Semina: Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, 39 (1), 51-58.
Debmandal, M.& Mandal, S. (2011). Coconut (Cocos nucifera L.: Aracaceae): In health promotion and disease prevention. Asian pacific journal of tropical medicine, 4(3), 241-247.
Duarte et al. (2019). Uso culinário de óleos e gorduras fontes de ácidos graxos saturados e perfil lipídico: revisão sistemática. Braz. Journal of Development, 5(10), 18100-18125.
Dumancas et al. (2016). Health benefits of virgin coconut oil. In: vegetable oil: Properties, Uses, and Benefits, (Editor: Brittany Holt), New York: Nova Science publishers, Inc.
Food Chemicals Codex. Committee of Food Chemicals Codex, Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, National Academy of Sciences. 4th ed. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1996.
Ghani et al. (2018). Physicochemical properties, antioxidant capacities, and metal contents of virgin coconut oil produced by wet and dry processes. Food Science & Nutrition, 6, 1298-1306.
Kamariah et al. (2008). Physico-chemical and quality characteristics of virgin coconut oil – A Malaysian survey. Journal of Tropical Agriculture and Food Science, 36 (2), 1-10.
Krishna, G.A.G., Raj, G., Bhatnagar, A. S. & Kumar, P.P.K. (2010). Chandrashekar, Preeti. Coconut oil: Chemistry, production, and its applications – A review. Indian Journal Coconut, 53(3), 15-27.
Lajolo, F.M. & Mercadante, A.Z. (2018). Química e Bioquímica dos Alimentos. Editora Atheneu, v. 2.
Machado, G.C., Chaves, J. B. P. & Antoniassi, R. (2006). Composição em ácidos graxos e caracterização física e química de óleos hidrogenados de coco babaçu. Revista Ceres, 53, 308, 463-470.
Manchanda, S.C. & Passi, S.J. (2016). Selecting healthy edible oil in the Indian context. Indian Heart Journal, 68, 447-449.
Martins, C. R., Júnior, L. A. de J. (2014). Produção e comercialização de coco no Brasil frente ao comércio internacional: Panorama 2014. Embrapa Tabuleiros Costeiros, Aracaju.
Martins, J.S. & Santos, J.C.O. (2015). Estudo comparativo das propriedades de óleo de coco obtido pelos processos industrial e artesanal. P. 515-526. In: Anais [...] V Encontro Regional de Química & IV Encontro Nacional de Química. São Paulo: Blucher.
Moigradean, D., Poiana, M.A. & Gogoasa, I. (2012). Quality characteristics and oxidative stability of coconut oil during storage. Journal of Agroalimentary Processes and Technologies, 18(4), 272-276.
Nasrin et al. (2020). Effect of novel coconut oil and beeswax edible coating on postharvest quality of lemon at ambient storage. Journal of Agriculture and Food Research, 2, 1000019.
Perera, D.N., Hewavitharana, G.G.& Navaratne, S.B. (2020). Determination of Physicochemical and Functional Properties of Coconut Oil by Incorporating Bioactive
Compounds in Selected Spices. Journal of lipids, 2020, 1-11.
Pereira et al (2018). Methodology of cientific research. [e-Book]. Santa Maria City. UAB / NTE / UFSM Editors. Available at: https://repositorio.ufsm.br/bitstream/handle/1/15824/Lic_Computacao_Metodologia-Pesquisa-Cientifica.pdf?sequence=1.
Pinho, A.P.S de. & Souza, A.F de. (2018). Extração e caracterização do óleo de coco (Cocos nucifera L.). Revista Perspectivas Online: Biológicas e Saúde, 8 (26), 9-18.
Ponte et al. (2017). Mônica Castelo Guimarães. Avaliação físico-química dos óleos de babaçu (Orbignya speciosa) e coco (Cocos nucifera) com elevado índice de acidez e dos ácidos graxos (C6 a C16). Scientia plena, 13 (8), 1-8.
Schumacher, B.O., Preuss, E.M., Vargas, C.G. & Helbig, Elizabete. (2016). Coconut oil on biochemical and morphological parameters in rats submitted to normolipidic and hyperlipidic diets. Ciência Rural, 46 (10), 1818-1823.
Subajiny, S., Bopitiya, D. & Madhujith, T. (2018). A comparative study on stability of different types of coconut (Cocos nucifera) oil against autoxidation and photo-oxidation. African Journal of Food Science, 12(9), 216-229.
Suryani et al. (2019). A Comparative Study of Virgin Coconut Oil, Coconut Oil and Palm Oil in Terms of Their Active Ingredients. Processes, 8(402), 1-11.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Maria Clara dos Santos Furtado; Valentina Castro; Auanna Marcelly Oliveira; Juliana Chaves Elias Santos; Edilene Ferreira da Silva; Victória Maura Silva Bermúdez; Vera Lúcia Viana do Nascimento
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.