LGALS3 +191A and +292C polymorphisms are associated with a reduction in serum gal-3 levels, but not with the clinical events of individuals with sickle cell anemia





Galectin-3; LGALS3; Polymorphism; Sickle cell anemia.


Objective: This study aimed to evaluate whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) +191 C>A (rs4644) and +292 A>C (rs4652) of the LGALS3 gene and the serum levels of galectin-3 (gal-3) are associated with clinical events in patients with sickle cell anemia (SCA). Methods: SNP +191 and +292 of the LGALS3 gene were detected by the TaqMan PCR system in real time. Gal-3 levels were measured in serum by ELISA. The study included 322 patients, mean age 36 (21-84). Results: AA and CA genotypes of the +191 region were related to lower levels of gal-3 when compared to CC genotype (p=0.0296). Lower level of gal-3 was also associated with the +191/+292 (AA/CC; CA/CC) diplotypes (p=0.0137) compared to the diplotypes (CC/AA; CC/CC; CC/AC; CA/AC). There was no association between serum levels of galectin-3 and genotype frequencies of the LGALS3 +191 and +292 polymorphisms with clinical events in SCA. Conclusion: The polymorphisms +191 and +292 of the LGALS3 are associated to decrease in serum levels of gal-3. However, no association of polymorphisms and levels of gal-3 with clinical events was observed in patients SCA.


Abd El-Kader, S. M., & Al-Shreef, F. M. (2018). Impact of aerobic exercises on selected inflammatory markers and immune system response among patients with sickle cell anemia in asymptomatic steady state. Afr Health Sci, 18(1), 111-119.

Aciksari, G., Uygun, T., Atici, A., et al. (2020) Association between galectin-3 levels and isolated coronary artery ectasia.Cardiovasc J Afr, 5(31), 1-6.

Atabaki, M., Hashemi, M., Daneshvar, H., Alijani, E. (2017). Lectin, galactoside binding, soluble, 3 rs4652 A/C gene variation andthe risk for rheumatoid arthritis. Biomed Rep. 6(2),251-255.

Bartolucci, P., Brugnara, C., Teixeira-Pinto, A., et al. (2012) Erythrocyte density in sickle cell syndromes is associated with specific clinical manifestations and hemolysis. Blood, 120, 3136-3141.

Chen, S. S., Sun, L. W., Brickner, H., & Sun, P. Q. (2015). Downregulating galectin-3 inhibits proinflammatory cytokine production by human monocyte-derived dendritic cells via RNA interference. Cell Immunol, 294, 44-53.

Cruz, C. S., Angelo, A. L. D., Larocca, T. F., et al. (2015) Avaliação do polimorfismo da galectina-3 em indivíduos com doença de chagas crônica. Arq bras cardiol, 21, 185-192.

Davis, L. G., Dibner, M. D., & Battey, J. F. (1986). Basic method in molecular biology. Londres: Elservier, 338-388.

De Carvalho-Siqueira, G. Q., Ananina, G., de Souza, B. B., et al. (2019). Whole-exome sequencing indicates FLG2 variant associated with leg ulcers in Brazilian sickle cell anemia patients. Exp Biol Med(Maywood), 1-8.

Domingos, I. F., Pereira-Martins, D. A., Sobreira, M. J. V. C., et al. (2020). High levels of proinflammatory cytokines IL-6 and IL-8 are associated with a poor clinical outcome in sickle cell anemia. Ann Hematol, 99(5), 947-953.

Feng, W., Wu, X., Li, S., et al. (2017). Association of serum galectin-3 with the acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Med Sci Monit, 26(23), 4612-4618.

George, M., Shammugam, E., Srivatsan, V., et al. (2015). value of pentraxin-3 and galectin-3 in acute coronary syndrome: a short-term prospective cohort study.Ther Adv Cardiovasc Dis, 5, 275-284.

Higgs, D. R., & Wood, W. G. (2008). Genetic complexity in sickle cell disease. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 105(33), 11595-11596.

Hu, C. Y., Chang, S. K., Wu, C. S., Tsai, W. I., Hsu, P. N.. (2011). Galectin-3 gene (LGALS3) +292C allele is a geneticpredisposition factor for rheumatoid arthritis in Taiwan. Clin Rheumatol, 30,1227-1233.

Huttle, A., Maestre, G. E., Lantigua, R., & Green, N. S. (2015). Sckle cell in sckle cell disease in Latin America e the United States. Pediatr blood Cancer, 62, 1131-1136.

Jorgensen, D. R., Rosano, C., & Novelli, E. M. (2016). Can Neuroimaging Markers of Vascular Pathology Explain Cognitive Performance in Adults With Sickle Cell Anemia? A review of the Literature. Hemoglobin, 40(6),381-387.

Kosaraju, V., Harwani, A., Partovi, S., et al. (2017). Imaging of musculoskeletal manifestations in sickle cell disease patients. Br J Radiol, 90(1073):20160130.

Marques, V., Souza, R. A. P. R., Ramos, L. J., Zan, R. A., Meneguetti, D. U. O. (2012). Revendo a anemia falciforme: Sintomas, tratamento e perspectivas.Rev Cie Fac Edu Mei Amb, 3(1),39-61.

Mendonça-Belmont, T. F., Do, Ó. K. P., Soares Silva, A., et al. (2016). Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms at +191 and +292 of Galectin-3 gene (LGALS3) related to lower GAL-3 serum levels are associated with frequant respiratory tract infection and vaso-oclusive crisis in children with sickle cell anemia. Plos One, 11(9).

Minniti, C. P., Eckman, J., Sebastiani, P., Steinberg, M. H., & Bellas, S. K. (2010). Leg ulcers in sickle cell disease. Am J Hematol, 85(10), 831-833.

Minniti, C. P., & Kato, G. J. (2016). Critical reviews: how we treat sickle cell patients with leg ulcers.Am J Hematol, 91, 22-30.

Numano, F., Shimizu, C., Jimenez-Fernandez, S., et al. (2015). Galectin-3 is a marker of myocardial and vascular fibrosis in kwasaki disease patients with giant aneurysms. International jornal. Of cardiology, 201, 429-437.

Parker, D. M., Owens, S. L., Ramkumar, N., et al. (2019). Galectin-3 as a predictor of long-term survival after isolated coronary artery bypass grafting surgery. Ann Thorac Surg.

Pitanga, T. N., Oliveira, R. R., Zanette, D. L., et al. (2016). Sickle red cells as danger signals on proinflammatory gene expression, leukotriene B4 and interleukin-1 beta production in peripheral blood mononuclear cell. Cytokine, 83, 75‐84.

Rabinovich, G. A., Baum, L. G., Tinari, N., et al. (2002). Galectins and their ligands: amplifiers, silencersnor tuners of the inflammatory response? TRENDS in immunology, 23(6), 313-320.

Rebholz, C. M., Selvin, E., Liang, M., Ballantyne, C. M., Hoogeveen, R. C., Aguilar, D. (2018). Plasma galectin-3 levels are associated with the risk of incident chronic kidney disease.Kidney Int, 93(1):252-259.

Rêgo, M. J., da Silva, R. R., Pereira, M. C., et al. (2015). Evaluation of CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) T cell populations, IL-10 production, and their correlation with clinical and biochemical parameters in sickle cell anemia patients with leg ulcers. Cytokine. 75(2),310-315.

Romaniuk, M. A., Negrotto, S., Campetella, O., Rabinovich, G. A., Schattner, M. (2011). identification of galectins as novel regulators of platelet signaling and function. IUBMB Life, 63(7),521-527.

Sanchaisuriya, K., Chunpanich, S., Fucharoen, G., & Fucharoen, S. (2004). Multiplex allelespecific PCR assay for differential diagnosis of Hb S, Hb D-Punjab and Hb Tak. Clin. Chim. Acta, 343 129–34.

Senet, P., Blas-Chatelain, C., Levy, P., et al. (2017). Factors predictive of leg-ulcer healing in sickle cell disease: a multicentre, prospective cohort study. Br J Dermatol, 177(1),206-211.

Serjeant, G. R. Understating the morbidity of sickle cell disease. (1997). British Journal of Haematology, 99(4), 976-977.

Shen, Q., Chen, W., Liu, J., & Liang, Q. (2019). Galectin-3 aggravates pulmonary arterial hypertension via immunomodulation in congenital heart disease. Life Sci, 1(232).

Wagdy, R., Suliman, H., Bamashmose, B., et al. (2018). Subclinical myocardial injury during vaso-occlusive crisis in pediatric sickle cell disease.Eur J Pediatr, 177(12), 1745-1752.

Wang, A., Zhong, C., Zhu, Z., et al. (2018). Serum Galectin-3 and poor outcomes among patients with acute ischemic stroke. Stroke, 49(1), 211-214.

Zhang, Y., Wang, Y., Zhai, M., et al. (2018). Influence of LGALS3 gene polymorphisms on susceptibility and prognosis of dilated cardiomyopathy in a Northern Han Chinese population. Gene. 5(642), 293-298.




How to Cite

Ó, K. P. do, Mendonça-Belmont, T. F. de ., Farias, I. C. C., Silva, A. S. da ., Freire, A. K. da S. ., Moura, P. M. M. F. de ., Vasconcelos, L. R. S. ., Araújo, A. da S. ., Arcanjo, G. da S. ., Falcão, D. A. ., Hatzlhofer, B. L. D. ., Lucena-Araújo , A. R. . ., Bezerra, M. A. C. ., & Cavalcanti, M. do S. de M. . (2020). LGALS3 +191A and +292C polymorphisms are associated with a reduction in serum gal-3 levels, but not with the clinical events of individuals with sickle cell anemia. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e442997314. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i9.7314



Health Sciences