Perceptions of violence based on genetics: the influence of monoamine oxidase A in the origin of violent behavior
Keywords:Genetics; Monoamine Oxidase; Violence
Objective: To gather scientific literature regarding the influence of the low activity of the enzyme Monoaminoxidase A, responsible for the regulation of brain neurotransmitters, on criminal and / or violent behavior. Methods: Searches were performed in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases using “genes”, “crime” and “monoaminoxidase”, selecting articles published between 2009 and 2019. Results: The selected sample, after applying the inclusion criteria and exclusion, was composed of 14 articles. Discussion: A relationship was found between low levels of activity of Monoaminoxidase A, when associated with socio-environmental factors, with a greater tendency to commit criminal and / or violent acts. Among the socio-environmental factors, the most cited is the experience of trauma in childhood. However, there were copyright disagreements, which demonstrates the need for further investigation and development of studies on the subject. Final considerations: It was found that individuals with low Monoaminoxidase A activity and who experienced stressful socioenvironmental factors are more prone to aggressive and / or violent behavior.
Bethea, C. L., Phu, K., Kim, A., & Reddy, A. P. (2015). Androgen metabolites impact CSF amines and axonal serotonin via MAO-A and-B in male macaques. Neuroscience, 301, 576-589.
Beaver, K. M., Barnes, J. C., & Boutwell, B. B. (2014). The 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene confers an increased risk for shooting and stabbing behaviors. Psychiatric quarterly, 85(3), 257-265.
Beaver, K. M., DeLisi, M., Vaughn, M. G., & Barnes, J. C. (2010). Monoamine oxidase A genotype is associated with gang membership and weapon use. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 51(2), 130-134.
Beaver, K. M., Wright, J. P., Boutwell, B. B., Barnes, J. C., DeLisi, M., & Vaughn, M. G. (2013). Exploring the association between the 2-repeat allele of the MAOA gene promoter polymorphism and psychopathic personality traits, arrests, incarceration, and lifetime antisocial behavior. Personality and Individual Differences, 54(2), 164-168.
Byrd, A. L., & Manuck, S. B. (2014). MAOA, childhood maltreatment, and antisocial behavior: meta-analysis of a gene-environment interaction. Biological psychiatry, 75(1), 9-17.
Chester, D. S., DeWall, C. N., Derefinko, K. J., Estus, S., Peters, J. R., Lynam, D. R., & Jiang, Y. (2015). Monoamine oxidase A (MAOA) genotype predicts greater aggression through impulsive reactivity to negative affect. Behavioural brain research, 283, 97-101.
Ercole, F. F., Melo, L. S. D., & Alcoforado, C. L. G. C. (2014). Revisão integrativa versus revisão sistemática. Revista Mineira de Enfermagem, 18(1), 9-12.
Fergusson, D. M., Boden, J. M., Horwood, L. J., Miller, A., & Kennedy, M. A. (2012). Moderating role of the MAOA genotype in antisocial behaviour. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 200(2), 116-123.
Forzano, F., Borry, P., Cambon-Thomsen, A., Hodgson, S. V., Tibben, A., De Vries, P., ... & Cornel, M. (2010). Italian appeal court: a genetic predisposition to commit murder?. European journal of human genetics, 18(5), 519-521.
Godar, S. C., Fite, P. J., McFarlin, K. M., & Bortolato, M. (2016). The role of monoamine oxidase A in aggression: Current translational developments and future challenges. Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology and biological psychiatry, 69, 90-100.
González-Tapia, M. I., & Obsuth, I. (2015). “Bad genes” & criminal responsibility. International journal of law and psychiatry, 39, 60-71.
Gorodetsky, E., Bevilacqua, L., Carli, V., Sarchiapone, M., Roy, A., Goldman, D., & Enoch, M. A. (2014). The interactive effect of MAOA‐LPR genotype and childhood physical neglect on aggressive behaviors in Italian male prisoners. Genes, brain and behavior, 13(6), 543-549.
Klasen, M., Wolf, D., Eisner, P. D., Eggermann, T., Zerres, K., Zepf, F. D., ... & Mathiak, K. (2019). Serotonergic contributions to human brain aggression networks. Frontiers in neuroscience, 13, 42.
Lösel, F., & Farrington, D. P. (2012). Direct protective and buffering protective factors in the development of youth violence. American journal of preventive medicine, 43(2), S8-S23.
Mendes, D. D., Mari, J. D. J., Singer, M., Barros, G. M., & Mello, A. F. (2009). Estudo de revisão dos fatores biológicos, sociais e ambientais associados com o comportamento agressivo. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 31, S77-S85.
Romero-Rebollar, C., Ostrosky-Shejet, F., Camarena-Medellín, B., Bobes-León, M. A., Díaz-Galván, K. X., & Pérez-López, M. L. (2015). Brain morphometric correlates of MAOA-uVNTR polymorphism in violent behavior. Revista Médica del Hospital General de México, 78(1), 13-20.
Stetler, D. A., Davis, C., Leavitt, K., Schriger, I., Benson, K., Bhakta, S., ... & Bortolato, M. (2014). Association of low-activity MAOA allelic variants with violent crime in incarcerated offenders. Journal of psychiatric research, 58, 69-75.
Tiihonen, J., Rautiainen, M. R., Ollila, H. M., Repo-Tiihonen, E., Virkkunen, M., Palotie, A., & Saarela, J. (2015). Genetic background of extreme violent behavior. Molecular psychiatry, 20(6), 786-792.
World Health Organization, & Krug, E. G. (2002). World report on violence and health. 2002.
Zubkov, E. A., Zorkina, Y. A., Orshanskaya, E. V., Khlebnikova, N. N., Krupina, N. A., & Chekhonin, V. P. (2019). Post-Weaning Social Isolation Disturbs Gene Expression in Rat Brain Structures. Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine, 166(3), 364-368.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2020 Alba Angélica Nunes Mouta; Lays Carollinne Soares de Carvalho; Eduardo Ferreira de Oliveira; Daniela Moura Parente Martins; Isadora Maria de Almeida Morais; Stefen Kesse Matos de Souza; Francisco Jander de Sousa Nogueira; Augusto César Beltrão da Silva; Oswaldo Lima Almendra Neto; Danielle Lais Lopes Barboza; Renata Paula Lima Beltrão
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.