Determination of volatile organic compounds in craft beers by gas chromatography and headspace sampling

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i9.7746

Keywords:

VOC's analysis; HS-GC-FID; Classification of beers; Multivariate analysis.

Abstract

The craft beer market is booming and, in this scenario, Brazil presents itself as one of the most innovative countries in the segment. Volatile organic compounds are present in craft beers as being largely responsible for the aroma and flavor of the product and, therefore, their determination is essential both for analysis of the final product and during the control of the production process. Thus, this work aimed to optimize an analytical method for quantification of volatile compounds in craft beers, using gas chromatography with headspace sampling. The study involved sample decarbonation tests analyzing different agitation times and optimization of the sampling conditions that employed a factorial design 23, considering the factors temperature, heating time of the headspace oven and sample injection volume. The acetaldehyde, ethyl acetate, n-propanol, isobutanol and isoamyl alcohol analytes had their detection and quantification limits calculated and were determined in American Lager, Dunkel, Helles, IPA, Ale, Wit, Weiss and Dobbel craft beers. Multivariate analysis was performed using Principal Component and Hierarchical Cluster Analysis and the influence of higher alcohols on sample separation was observed. The method proved to be suitable for quantification of volatiles in the craft beers and can be used both in the analysis of the final product, and during the formation of these compounds during the fermentation process.

References

Anderson, H. E., Santos, I. C., Hildenbrand, Z. L., & Schug, K. A. (2019). A review of the analytical methods used for beer ingredient and finished product analysis and quality control. Analytica Chimica Acta, 1085, 1-20.

Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e do Abastecimento (MAPA). (2019). Norma operacional nº 1, de 24 de janeiro de 2019. Norma interna DIPOV/SDA nº 01, de 24 de janeiro de 2019. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil, Brasília, DF, ISSN 1111-1111, 3(1.22).

Brasil. Ministério da Agricultura, Pecuária e do Abastecimento (MAPA). (2020). Anuário da Cerveja 2019. Secretaria de Defesa Agropecuária. Brasília: MAPA/SDA, 16.

Brewings Associaton. (2020). 2020 Brewers Association Beer Style Guidelines. Recuperado em 19 agosto, 2020, de https://www.brewersassociation.org/edu/brewers-association-beer-style-guidelines/.

Buiatti, S. Beer Composition: An Overview. (2009). In: Preedy, V. R., (Ed.) Beer in Health and Disease Prevention. Academic Press, 213–225.

Cecchi, H. M. (2003). Fundamentos teóricos e práticos em análise de alimentos. Editora UNICAMP.

Cervbrasil. Associação Brasileira Da Indústria Da Cerveja. (2018). Mercado cervejeiro. Recuperado em 19 de agosto, 2020, de http://www.cervbrasil.org.br/novo_site/mercado-cervejeiro.

Collins, C. H., Braga, G. L., & Bonato, P. S. (2006). Fundamentos de Cromatografia, Editora da Unicamp.

Chen, E. C. H. (2018). Analysis of Volatile Beer Flavor Compounds by a Dynamic Headspace Entrainment Technique. Journal of the American Society of Brewing Chemists, 41(1), 28-31.

Costa, L. M. R. (2017). Produção de cerveja artesanal pela fermentação de uma levedura da Jabuticaba: Análise da cinética local de metabólitos voláteis e dos efeitos das variáveis no processo. Dissertação de mestrado, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brasil.

Cruwys, J., Dinsdale, R. M., Hawkes, F. R, & Hawkes, D. L. (2002). Development of a static headspace gas chromatographic procedure for the routine analysis of volatile fatty acids in wastewaters. Journal of Chromatography A, 945(1-2), 195-209.

Daniells, S. (2018). Brazil ranked number 2 most innovative craft beer Market: Mintel. Recuperado em 19 de agosto, 2020, de https://www.foodnavigator-latam.com/Article/2018/09/21/Brazil-ranked-number-2-most-innovative-craft-beer-market-Mintel#.

Equipe Estatcamp. (2014). Software Action. Estatcamp - Consultoria em estatística e qualidade, São Carlos - SP, Brasil. Recuperado em 16 de agosto, 2020, de http://www.portalaction.com.br/.

Gomes, W. P. C., Yoshinaga, F., & Bortoleto, G. G. (2020). Determinação de Álcoois em Bebidas Comerciais por Cromatografia Gasosa e Amostragem por Headspace. Bioenergia em Revista: Diálogos, 10(1), 111-124. Recuperado em 01 de agosto, 2020, de http://www.fatecpiracicaba.edu.br/revista/index.php/bioenergiaemrevista/article/view/371/373782.

Hammer, Ø., Harper, D. A. T., & Ryan, P. D. (2001). PAST: Paleontological Statistics Software Package for Education and Data Analysis. Palaeontologia Electronica, 4(1), 9.

Instituto Adolfo Lutz. (2008). Métodos físico-químicos para análise de alimentos. Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 1020.

Kobayashi, M., Shimizu, H., & Shioya, S. (2008). Beer Volatile Compounds and Their Application to Low-Malt Beer Fermentation. Journal Of Bioscience And Bioengineering, 106(4), 317-323.

Kolb, B., & Ettre, L. S. (1997). Static Headspace-Gas Chromatography: Theory and Practice. Wiley-VCH.

Mainardi, P. H., & Bidoia, E. D. (2020). Modelos Estatísticos Fatoriais: Conceitos e Aplicações. Exatas Online, 11(1), 32-49.

Mega, J. F.; Neves, E.; Andrade, C. J. de. (2011) A produção da cerveja no Brasil. Revista Citino - Ciência, Tecnologia, Inovação e Oportunidades, Joinville, 1(1), 34-42.

Mosher, M., & Trantham, K. (2017). Brewing Science: A Multidisciplinary Approach. Springer.

Nascimento, R. F. do, Lima, A. C. A. de, Barbosa, P. G. A., & Silva, V. P. A. da. (2018). Cromatografia gasosa: aspectos teóricos e práticos. Imprensa Universitária, 334.

Preddy, V. R. (Ed.). (2009). Beer in Health and Disease Prevention. Academic Press.

Pires, E. & Brányik, T. (2015). Biochemistry of Beer Fermentation. Springer.

Reed, G., & Nagodawithana, T. W. (1991). Yeast Technology. Springer, 454.

Ribani, M., Bottoli, C. B. G., Collins, C. H., Jardim, I. C. S. F., & Melo, L. F. C. (2004). Validação em métodos cromatográficos e eletroforéticos. Química Nova, 27(5), 771-780.

Ruppel, T., Grecsek, H., & Life, P. (2005). Brewing QC Applications Using Headspace Sampling-Gas Chromatography. Beer, Grain and Wine, 28. Recuperado em 19 de agosto, 2020, de https://www.perkinelmer.com.cn/PDFs/downloads/FAR_GCBrewingQCApplications.pdf.

Ruvalcaba, J. E., Durán-Guerrero, E., Barroso, C. G., & Castro, R. (2019). Development of a stir bar sorptive extraction method to study different beer styles volatile profiles. Food Research International, 126, 108680.

Originpro. Version 2019b. (2019). OriginLab Corporation, Northampton, MA, USA. Recuperado em 19 de agosto, 2020, de https://www.originlab.com/.

Silveira, F. L. da. (2010). Energia mecânica e calor. Centro de Referência para Ensino de Física - CREF, Instituto de Física da UFRGS. Recuperado em 19 de agosto, 2020, de https://www.if.ufrgs.br/novocref/?contact-pergunta=energia-mecanica-e-calor.

Skoog, D. A., West, D. M., Holler, F. J., & Crouch, S. R. (2017). Fundamentos de Química Analítica (9º ed.). Cengage Learning.

Soares, L. M. V. (2001). Como obter resultados confiáveis em cromatografia. Revista do Instituto Adolfo Lutz, 60(1), 79-84.

Strong, G., & England, K. (2015). BCJP - Beer Judge Certification Program 2015 Style Guidelines. Recuperado em 18 de agosto, 2020, de https://www.bjcp.org/docs/2015_Guidelines_Beer.pdf.

Tian, J. (2010). Determination of several flavours in beer with headspace sampling–gas chromatography. Food Chemistry, 123(4), 1318–1321.

Troilo, A., Francesco, G. de, Marconi, O., Sileoni, V., Turchetti, B., & Perretti, G. (2019). Low Carbohydrate Beers Produced by a Selected Yeast Strain from an Alternative Source. Journal Of The American Society Of Brewing Chemists, 78(1), 80-88.

Published

30/08/2020

How to Cite

Bortoleto, G. G., & Gomes, W. P. C. (2020). Determination of volatile organic compounds in craft beers by gas chromatography and headspace sampling. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e600997746. https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v9i9.7746

Issue

Section

Agrarian and Biological Sciences