Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement

This statement is based on the guidelines and norms developed by the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE).
To publish a manuscript in Research, Society and Development (RSD) it is necessary to comply with standards of ethical behaviour expected by all actors involved in the act of publication: the authors, journal editors and reviewers. This statement is based on COPE's “Best Practice Guidelines for Magazine Editors”. Below, we detail these standards to publish texts in our journal.

I. Duties of Editors

A. Publication decisions
The editors-in-chief of Research, Society and Development are responsible for deciding which articles submitted to the journal should be published as soon as the peer review of every manuscript is finished. Editors may follow the journal's editorial board policies and will consider legal requirements regarding matters such as defamation, copyright infringement and plagiarism. Editors can also consult with other editors and reviewers to assist in their decision making.

B. Fair play
Editors (and peer reviewers) evaluate manuscripts for their intellectual content, irrespective of race, age, sexual orientation, religious beliefs, ethnic origin, nationality, or political philosophy.

C. Confidentiality
Editors, and other Editorial Team members, must not disclose information about a submitted manuscript to anyone other than the corresponding author, reviewers, potential reviewers or other editorial advisors.

D. Disclosure and conflicts of interest
Unpublished materials disclosed in a submitted article should not be used in the editors' own research without the express written consent of the authors.

II. Duties of peer reviewers or evaluators

A. Contributing to Editorial Decisions.
Peer Reviewers help editors make editorial decisions through communications with the editors and the corresponding author. They can also assist authors in improving manuscripts through comments or demands of mandatory modifications.

B. Punctuality.
Any invited reviewer who feels disqualified to review research presented in a manuscript or who knows that immediate review, within due time, will be impossible should immediately notify the editors and withdraw from the review process.

C. Confidentiality.
The works received for analysis must be treated by the reviewers as confidential documents. They must not be introduced to or discussed with others unless authorized by the editors.

D. Objectivity standards.
Reviews and opinions must be conducted and written objectively and constructively. Personal criticism is inappropriate. Assessors must express their opinions clearly, using arguments that support their assessment.

E. Source recognition.
Reviewers should identify relevant published works not cited by the authors. Any observation, derivation or argument published before, must be followed by a citation from its source. A reviewer should also draw the editors' attention to any significant similarity or overlap between the manuscript and other published work of which they are personally aware.

F. Disclosure and conflict of interest.
Privileged information or ideas obtained by reading the manuscripts must be kept confidential and must not be used for the personal benefit of the reviewers. Reviewers should not consider manuscripts in which they have conflicts of interest resulting from competition, collaboration, or other relationships or links with any of the authors, companies or institutions linked to the manuscripts.

III. Duties of authors

A. Report of norms and procedures.
Authors of original texts must present an accurate account of the research work carried out and an objective analysis of its meaning.

B. Underlying data must be accurately presented in the manuscript. An article should contain enough details and references to allow others to replicate the work. Fraudulent or intentionally inaccurate statements constitute unethical behaviour and are unacceptable.

C. Data Access and Retention.
Authors may be asked to provide raw data related to the submitted manuscript for editorial review. They must be prepared to provide public access to such data (following the joint data and database statement of the Association of Learned and Professional Society Publishers and The International Association of Scientific, Technical, & Medical Publishers), if possible and, they must, in any case, be prepared to retain such data for a reasonable period after publication.

D. Originality and plagiarism.
Authors must ensure that they have written original works; if authors used the work and/or words of others, they must ensure that they are properly cited or referenced.

E. Multiple, Redundant, or Concurrent Publication.
Authors should not publish manuscripts describing essentially the same research in more than one journal or primary publication. Additionally, the submission of the same manuscript to more than one journal simultaneously constitutes unethical behaviour and is unacceptable.

F. Recognition of sources.
Proper recognition of the work of other researchers should always occur. Authors should cite all publications that have been influential in determining the nature and results of the reported work.

G. Authorship of the article.
Authorship should be limited to those who have made a significant contribution to the conception, design, execution, or interpretation of the reported study. All those who have made significant contributions must be listed as co-authors. If others participated in substantive aspects of the research project, they should be credited or listed as contributors only. The corresponding author must ensure that all appropriate co-authors are included in the paper and those inappropriate not; he must also ensure that all co-authors have seen and approved the final version of the document and agreed to submit it for publication. Upon submission, the email addresses and ORCID links of all co-authors must be provided. Once accepted by the Editorial Board, Research, Society and Development will send a copy of this statement to all co-authors who are expected to sen individual expressions of an agreement as requirements for the beginning of the evaluation process. After this point, all communication will be made only with the corresponding author.

H. Hazards to humans or animals.
If the research work involves chemicals, procedures or equipment that pose any unusual hazards to humans or animals, they must appear in the manuscript.

I. Disclosure and conflicts of interest.
All authors must disclose in the manuscript any financial, professional, or any other substantive conflict of interest that could be an influential factor in the research results or the interpretation of those results. In addition, all sources of financial support for the project must appear in the article.

J. Fundamental Errors in Published Works.
When an author discovers a significant error or inaccuracy in their published work, they must immediately notify the Editorial Team and collaborate with them to retract or correct the article.