The biocompatibility of Achyrocline satureioides plant extract over human gingival fibroblasts




Fibroblasts ; Plant extracts; Phytotherapy.


Objective: Achyrocline satureioidesA.satureioides” is a subshrub, widely distributed in South America because of its medicinal properties. Although it is widely used in folk medicine, there is still no approval for its therapeutic use, and its biocompatibility is little explored.  This study aimed to evaluate its cytotoxicity and genotoxicity over human gingival fibroblasts (FMM-1). Methodology: Ten different concentration of the glycolic extract of A.satureioides were tested for 5min and 24h of contact with the cells to evaluate its cytotoxicity using the MTT colorimetric assay and to evaluate its genotoxicity using the micronucleus assay. Data were analyzed with one-way ANOVA and Tukey test with a significance level (α=0.05). Results: All tested concentrations of the extract presented cell viability more than 70% and has no significant difference of the control group after 5min and 24h. However, for 5min the 100 mg/mL was cytotoxic and for 24h the 1.56 mg/mL stimulated cell proliferation. For genotoxicity analysis, only the concentration 6.25 mg/mL showed results similar to the control of cell culture in the micronucleus count after 5min and 24h. Conclusions: The glycolic extract of A.satureioides doesn’t have cytotoxic and genotoxic effects in concentrations up to 6.25 mg/mL, but in high concentrations it is considered genotoxic.


Abu Hasna, A., Ferrari, C. H., & Talge Carvalho, C. A. (2019). Endodontic treatment of a large periapical cyst with the aid of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy - Case report. Brazilian dental science, 22(4), 561–568. doi:10.14295/bds. 2019. v.22i4.1745

Abu Hasna, A., Khoury, R. D., Toia, C. C., Gonçalves, G. B., de Andrade, F. B., Claudio António Talge Carvalho, … Valera. (2020). In vitro Evaluation of the Antimicrobial Effect of N-acetylcysteine and Photodynamic Therapy on Root Canals Infected with Enterococcus faecalis. Iranian Endodontic Journal.

Abu Hasna, A., Pereira Da Silva, L., Pelegrini, F. C., Ferreira, C. L. R., de Oliveira, L. D., & Carvalho, C. A. T. (2020). Effect of sodium hypochlorite solution and gel with/without passive ultrasonic irrigation on Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli and their endotoxins. F1000Research, 9, 642. doi:10.12688/f1000research.24721.1

Calvo, D., Cariddi, L. N., Grosso, M., Demo, M. S., & Maldonado, A. M. (2006). Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) DC (Marcela): antimicrobial activity on Staphylococcus spp. and immunomodulating effects on human lymphocytes. Revista latinoamericana de microbiologia, 48(3-4), 247–255.

Cariddi, L. N., Sabini, M. C., Escobar, F. M., Bacchetti, R., Montironi, I., Merckis, C., … Sabini, L. I. (2015). In Vitro and In Vivo Cytogenotoxic Effects of Hot Aqueous Extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. BioMed research international, 2015, 270973. doi:10.1155/2015/270973

De La Chapa, J. J., Singha, P. K., Lee, D. R., & Gonzales, C. B. (2018). Thymol inhibits oral squamous cell carcinoma growth via mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Journal of Oral Pathology & Medicine, 47(7), 674–682. doi:10.1111/jop.12735

Desmarchelier, C., Coussio, J., & Ciccia, G. (1998). Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects in extracts of the medicinal herb Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. (“marcela”). Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, 31(9), 1163–1170.

Ferraro, G., Anesini, C., Ouviña, A., Retta, D., Filip, R., Gattuso, M., … Bandoni, A. (2008). Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Extracts of Achyrocline satureioides Flowers from Different Zones in Argentina. undefined.

Ghonmode, W. N., Balsaraf, O. D., Tambe, V. H., Saujanya, K. P., Patil, A. K., & Kakde, D. D. (2013). Comparison of the antibacterial efficiency of neem leaf extracts, grape seed extracts and 3% sodium hypochlorite against E. feacalis - An in vitro study. Journal of international oral health: JIOH, 5(6), 61–66.

Groppo, F. C., Bergamaschi, C. de C., Cogo, K., Franz-Montan, M., Motta, R. H. L., & de Andrade, E. D. (2008). Use of phytotherapy in dentistry. Phytotherapy Research, 22(8), 993–998. doi:10.1002/ptr.2471

Guandalini Cunha, B., Duque, C., Sampaio Caiaffa, K., Massunari, L., Araguê Catanoze, I., Dos Santos, D. M., … Guiotti, A. M. (2020). Cytotoxicity and antimicrobial effects of citronella oil (Cymbopogon nardus) and commercial mouthwashes on S. aureus and C. albicans biofilms in prosthetic materials. Archives of Oral Biology, 109, 104577. doi:10.1016/j.archoralbio.2019.104577

Guss, K. L., Pavanni, S., Prati, B., Dazzi, L., de Oliveira, J. P., Nogueira, B. V., … Scherer, R. (2017). Ultrasound-assisted extraction of Achyrocline satureioides prevents contrast-induced nephropathy in mice. Ultrasonics Sonochemistry, 37, 368–374. doi:10.1016/j. ultsonch. 2017.01.035

Hnatyszyn, O., Moscatelli, V., Rondina, R., Costa, M., Arranz, C., Balaszczuk, A., … Ferraro, G. (2004). Flavonoids from Achyrocline satureioides with relaxant effects on the smooth muscle of Guinea pig corpus cavernosum. Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology, 11(4), 366–369. doi:10.1078/0944711041495182

Horiba, N., Maekawa, Y., Ito, M., Matsumoto, T., & Nakamura, H. (1991). A pilot study of Japanese green tea as a medicament: antibacterial and bactericidal effects. Journal of Endodontics, 17(3), 122–124. doi:10.1016/S0099-2399(06)81743-7

Joray, M. B., del Rollán, M. R., Ruiz, G. M., Palacios, S. M., & Carpinella, M. C. (2011). Antibacterial activity of extracts from plants of central Argentina--isolation of an active principle from Achyrocline satureioides. Planta Medica, 77(1), 95–100. doi:10.1055/s-0030-1250133

Jungermann, G. B., Burns, K., Nandakumar, R., Tolba, M., Venezia, R. A., & Fouad, A. F. (2011). Antibiotic resistance in primary and persistent endodontic infections. Journal of Endodontics, 37(10), 1337–1344. doi: 10.1016/j. joen. 2011.06.028

Kadarian, C., Broussalis, A. M., Miño, J., Lopez, P., Gorzalczany, S., Ferraro, G., & Acevedo, C. (2002). Hepatoprotective activity of Achyrocline satureioides(Lam) D. C. Pharmacological Research, 45(1), 57–61. doi:10.1006/phrs.2001.0904

Lorenzo, D., Atti-Serafini, L., Santos, A. C., Frizzo, C. D., Paroul, N., Paz, D., … Moyna, P. (2000). Achyrocline satureioides essential oils from southern Brazil and Uruguay. Planta Medica, 66(5), 476–477. doi:10.1055/s-2000-8590

Maekawa, L. E., Rossoni, R. D., Barbosa, J. O., Jorge, A. O. C., Junqueira, J. C., & Valera, M. C. (2015). Different extracts of Zingiber officinale decrease Enterococcus faecalis infection in Galleria mellonella. Brazilian dental journal, 26(2), 105–109. doi:10.1590/0103-6440201300199

Memari Trava, G., Almeida Santos, J., Paula Ramos, L., Rosário Estevam dos Santos, P. B., Abu Hasna, A., Yui, K. C., … Spalding, M. (2020). The effect of halogen bulb and light-emitting diode light curing units on temperature increase and fibroblast viability. F1000Research, 9, 1369. doi:10.12688/f1000research.25456.1

Oliveira, J. R. de, de Jesus Viegas, D., Martins, A. P. R., Carvalho, C. A. T., Soares, C. P., Camargo, S. E. A., … de Oliveira, L. D. (2017). Thymus vulgaris L. extract has antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory effects in the absence of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity. Archives of Oral Biology, 82, 271–279. doi: 10.1016/j. archoralbio. 2017.06.031

Organization, W. H. (2019). Who Global Report On Traditional And Complementary Medicine 2019 (1st ed., p. 226). [Geneva, Switzerland]: World Health Organization.

Polydoro, M., de Souza, K. C. B., Andrades, M. E., Da Silva, E. G., Bonatto, F., Heydrich, J., … Moreira, J. C. F. (2004). Antioxidant, a pro-oxidant and cytotoxic effects of Achyrocline satureioides extracts. Life Sciences, 74(23), 2815–2826. doi:10.1016/j.lfs.2003.09.073

Qunqiang, L., & Farnham, S. (1989). Clinical experience with Chinese herbs in endodontic therapy. General dentistry, 37(3), 234.

Rivera, F., Gervaz, E., Sere, C., & Dajas, F. (2004). Toxicological studies of the aqueous extract from Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC (Marcela). Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 95(2-3), 359–362. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2004.08.013

Sabini, M C, Cariddi, L. N., Escobar, F. M., Mañas, F., Comini, L., Reinoso, E., … Sabini, L. I. (2013). Evaluation of the cytotoxicity, genotoxicity and apoptotic induction of an aqueous extract of Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) DC. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 60, 463–470. doi:10.1016/j.fct.2013.08.005

Sabini, María Carola, Escobar, F. M., Tonn, C. E., Zanon, S. M., Contigiani, M. S., & Sabini, L. I. (2012). Evaluation of antiviral activity of aqueous extracts from Achyrocline satureioides against Western equine encephalitis virus. Natural Product Research, 26(5), 405–415. doi:10.1080/14786419.2010.490216

Salgueiro, A. C. F., Folmer, V., da Rosa, H. S., Costa, M. T., Boligon, A. A., Paula, F. R., … Puntel, G. O. (2016). In vitro and in silico antioxidant and toxicological activities of Achyrocline satureioides. Journal of Ethnopharmacology, 194, 6–14. doi:10.1016/j.jep.2016.08.048

Santos, A. L., Ripoll, D., Nardi, N., & Bassani, V. L. (1999). Immunomodulatory effect of Achyrocline satureioides (LAM.) D.C. aqueous extracts. Phytotherapy Research, 13(1), 65–66. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199902)13:1<65::AID-PTR371>3.0.CO;2-Z

Siqueira, I. R., Simões, C. M. O., & Bassani, V. L. (2020). Achyrocline satureioides (Lam.) D.C. as a potential approach for management of viral respiratory infections. Phytotherapy Research. doi:10.1002/ptr.6807

Sousa, F. M. S. de, Araujo, J. R. da S., Couto, L. M. F. C. B., Sousa, R. M. S., Oliveira, M. das D. A., Costa Júnior, J. S. da, … Almeida, P. M. de. (2020). Cytogenotoxic potential of Terminalia actinophylla (Mart.) bark in Allium cepa L. Research, Society and Development, 9(9), e353997322. doi:10.33448/rsd-v9i9.7322

Valera, Marcia C, Oliveira, S. A., Maekawa, L. E., Cardoso, F. G., Chung, A., Silva, S. F., & Carvalho, C. A. (2016). Action of Chlorhexidine, Zingiber officinale, and Calcium Hydroxide on Candida albicans, Enterococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, and Endotoxin in the Root Canals. The journal of contemporary dental practice, 17(2), 114–118. doi:10.5005/jp-journals-10024-1812

Valera, Marcia Carneiro, Cardoso, F. G. da R., Maekawa, L. E., Camargo, C. H. R., de Oliveira, L. D., & Carvalho, C. A. T. (2015). In vitro antimicrobial and anti-endotoxin action of Zingiber Officinale as auxiliary chemical and medicament combined to calcium hydroxide and chlorhexidine. Acta odontologica Scandinavica, 73(7), 556–561. doi:10.3109/00016357.2014.949846

Viegas, D. de J., Amêndola, I., Botrel, T. M., De Oliveira, F. E., Figueira, L. W., Sper, F. L., … De Oliveira, L. D. (2020). Schinus terebinthifolius (Brazilian Peppertree) extract used as antifungal to control Candida spp. in planktonic cultures and biofilms. Brazilian dental science, 23(4), 7p. doi:10.14295/bds.2020.v23i4.2077

Zanon, S. M., Ceriatti, F. S., Rovera, M., Sabini, L. J., & Ramos, B. A. (1999). Search for antiviral activity of certain medicinal plants from Córdoba, Argentina. Revista latinoamericana de microbiologia, 41(2), 59–62.




How to Cite

FERREIRA, E. C. C. .; GONÇALVES, T. M. .; PEREIRA, T. C. .; HASNA, A. A. .; OLIVEIRA, F. E. de .; JORJÃO, A. L. .; CAMARGO, S. E. A. .; OLIVEIRA, L. D. de .; SPALDING, M. . The biocompatibility of Achyrocline satureioides plant extract over human gingival fibroblasts . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 1, p. e37610111902, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i1.11902. Disponível em: Acesso em: 8 mar. 2021.



Health Sciences