Investigation of the viscosifying and stabilizing effect of hydrophilic and hydrophobic clays in emulsified oil-based fluids
Keywords:Bentonite clays; Rheological behavior; Emulsified fluids.
Bentonites are extensively investigated for acting as viscosifying and stabilizing agents for emulsified fluids. The properties of drilling fluids are extremely important for the success of oil well drilling. However, the purification of clays is necessary to promote an improvement in the rheological behavior of the dispersions. Like natural bentonite clays, organophilic clays obtained from sodium bentonite clays are of enormous industrial importance due to their high degree of swelling in water, and quarternary ammonium salts. In this study, the influence of the clay type is investigated rheologically in emulsified fluids of different mass proportions oil/water (O/W): 50/50, 70/30, 80/20, 90/10 and 95/05 under the concentration 6000ppm. The clay samples were characterized by FRX, DRX AND TG/DTA. All oil-based emulsified fluids were analyzed through macroscopic and rheological morphological observations. Purified sludge green (hydrophilic) and organophilic sludge green (hydrophobic) clays were tested as viscosifying and stabilizing agents for emulsions. From the results, it was possible to verify the chemical composition of the clays, with the organophilic clay being the one with the greatest loss to fire, the efficiency of the surfactant intercalation in the slime-green organophilic clay shown in the X-ray diffractograms, as well as the events of mass loss, where the organophilic slime-green showed a greater loss. Rheologically, the results confirmed that only the emulsion containing sludge-green clay of mass fraction 50/50 (O/W) was physically stable.
Amorim, L. V.(2003). Melhoria, proteção e recuperação da reologia de fluidos hidroargilosos para uso na perfuração de poços de petróleo, Tese de Doutorado apresentada ao Curso de Engenharia de Processos/CCT/UFCG, Dezembro de 2003.
Arditty, S., Schmitt, V., Giermanska-Kahn, J. & Leal-Calderon, F. (2004). Materials based on solid-stabilized emulsions, Colloid Int. Sci. 275 (2004) 659–664.
Barbosa, R., Araújo, E. M., de Oliveira, A. D. & de Melo, T. J. A. (2006). Efeito de sais quaternários de amônio na organofilização de uma argila Bentonita nacional (Efect of quaternary ammonium salts on the organophilization of. Cerâmica, 52, 264- 268.
Binks, B. P., & Horozov, T. S. (2006). Colloidal particles at liquid interfaces. Cambridge University.
Brasileiro, C. T. (2018). Otimização da ativação com carbonato de lítio (Li2CO3) através de diferentes métodos na reologia da argila verde-lodo purificada para fluidos base água e base óleo. 2018. 111 f, Dissertação (Mestrado em Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais) - Universidade Federal da Paraíba, João Pessoa.
Campos, L. F. A. (2007). Composições de argilas bentoníticas para utilização em fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo, Tese de Doutorado apresentada ao Curso de Engenharia de Processos/CCT/UFCG, 2007.
Fischer, P., & Erni, P. (2007). Emulsion drops in external flow fields − The role of liquid interfaces, Curr. Opin. Colloid Interface Sci. 12 (2007) 196–205.
Hong, J. S., & Fischer, P. (2016). Bulk and interfacial rheology of emulsions stabilized with clay particles. colloids and surfaces a: physicochemical and engineering aspects, 508, 316–326. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2016.08.040.
Hong, J. S., Kong, H. J., Hyun, K., Bergfreund, J., Fischer, P. & Ahn, K. H. (2019). Rheological analysis of oil–water emulsions stabilized with clay particles by LAOS and interfacial shear moduli measurements. Rheologica Acta, 58(8), 453–466. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00397-019-01144-0
Hong, J. S., Rühs, P. A. & Fischer, P. (2015). Localization of clay particles at the oil-water interface in the presence of surfactants, Rheol. Acta 54 (2015) 725–734.
Hunter, T. N., Pugh, R. J., Franks, G. V. & Jameson, G. J. (2008). The role of particles in stabilising foams and emulsions. Adv Colloid Interf Sci 137:57–81.
Jeon, T. Y., & Hong, J. S. (2014). Stabilization of O/W emulsion with hydrophilic/hydrophobic clayparticles. Colloid and Polymer Science, 292(11), 2939–2947. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00396-014-3353-2
Kralchevsky, P. A., Ivanov, I. B., Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P. & Lips, A. (2005). On the thermodynamics of particle-stabilized emulsions: curvature effects and catastrophic phase inversion. Langmuir 21:50–63.
Larson, R. G. (1999). The structure and rheology of complex fluids. Oxford University.
Machado, J. C. V. (2002). Reologia e escoamento de fluidos: ênfase na indústria do petróleo. Editora Interciência
Opawale, F. O. & Burgess D. J. (1998). Influence of interfacial properties of lipophilic surfactants on water-in-oil emulsion stability, J. Colloid Interface Sci. 197 (1998) 142–150.
Paiva, L., Morales, A. R. & Valenzuela-Diaz, F. R. (2008). Organoclays: Properties, preparation and applications. Applied Clay Science, Elsevier B.V., 42(1-2), 8-24.
Pawar, A. B., Caggioni, M., Ergun, R., Hartel, R. W. & Spicer, P. T. (2011). Arrested coalescence of viscoelastic droplets with internal microstructure. Soft Matter 7:7710
Ramsden, W. (1903). Separation of solids in the surface-layers of solutions and ‘suspensions’ (observations on surface-membranes, bubbles, emulsions, and mechanical coagulation). Proc R Soc Lond 72:156–164
Ross, C. S. & Shannon, E. V. (1926). The minerals of bentonite and related clays and their physical properties. Journal of the American Ceramic Society, 9: 7779.
Stancik, E. J. & Fuller, G. G. (2004). Connect the drops: Using solids as adhesives for liquids. Langmuir, 20(12), 4805–4808. https://doi.org/10.1021/la049778e.
Sousa, F. K. A. (2010). Estudo de composições de argilas organofílicas para fluidos de perfuração de poços de petróleo em águas ultraprofundas, Tese de Doutorado. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciência e Engenharia de Materiais. Universidade Federal de Campina Grande – UFCG, 2010.
Souza Santos, P. (1992). Tecnologia de argilas, Ed. Edgard Blücher.
Tadros, T. (2004). Application of rheology for assessment and prediction of the long-term physical stability of emulsions. In Advances in Colloid and Interface Science (Vols. 108–109). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cis.2003.10.025.
Torres, L. G., Iturbe, R., Snowden, M. J., Chowdhry, B. Z. & Leharne, S. A. (2007). Preparation of o/w emulsions stabilized by solid particles and their characterization by oscillatory rheology. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 302(1–3), 439–448. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2007.03.009.
Whitby, C. P., Fornasiero, D. & Ralston, J. (2008). Effect of oil soluble surfactant in emulsions stabilized by clay particles, J. Colloid Interface. Sci. 323 (2008) 410–419.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Wênnya Joyce Carneiro Rodrigues Ramalho; Matheus Ferreira de Souza; Heber Sivini Ferreira
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.