Epiphytic communities associated with citrus huanglongbing in areas with and without application of biofertilizer
Keywords:Candidatus Liberibacter spp; Nitrogen fixers; Total bacteria; Total fungi.
Huanglongbing (HLB) is the most serious disease for citrus. Plants little affected by pathogens can be explained by interactions between microbial populations and plants. The restructuring of communities can be made by the use of biofertilizers, with the potential to suppress disease by stimulating beneficial microorganisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epiphytic communities of citrus associated with HLB in areas with and without application of biofertilizers. Leaf samples were collected randomly from symptomatic, asymptomatic and healthy trees. Total fungi, nitrogen fixers and total bacteria were evaluated by counting colony forming units (CFU) on culture medium . The data were analyzed in a 2x3 factorial, submitted to analysis of variance and means were compared by Tukey test (p <0.05). The number of total bacteria was expressively higher in the area with the application of biofertilizer, either in healthy, asymptomatic or symptomatic plants. The application of biofertilizer is able to increase the epiphytic bacterial community in citrus.
Araújo, W. L., Marcon, J., Maccheroni, W., Van Elsas, J. D., Van Vuurde, J. W. L. & Azevedo, J. L. (2002). Diversity of Endophytic Bacterial Populations and Their Interaction with Xylella fastidiosa in Citrus Plants. Applied and Environmental Microbiology, 68 (10), 4906-4914. https://doi.org/10.1128/AEM.68.10.4906-4914.2002
Backman, P. A. & Sikora, R. A. (2008). Endophytes: An emerging tool for biological control. Biological Control, 46 (1), 1-3. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2008.03.009
Bassanezi, R. B., Lopes, S. A., de Miranda, M. P., Wulff, N. A., Volpe, H. X. L., & Ayres, A. J. (2020). Overview of citrus huanglongbing spread and management strategies in Brazil. Tropical Plant Pathology, 45, 251-264. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40858-020-00343-y
Belasque Junior, J., Yamamoto, P. T., De Miranda, M. P., Bassanezi, R. B., Ayres, A. J. & Bové, J. M. (2010). Controle do huanglongbing no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Citrus Research & Technology, 31 (1), 53-64. http://doi.org/10.5935/2236-3122.20100005
Boscariol-Camargo, R. L., Cristofani-Yaly, M., Malosso, A., Colettafilho, H. D. & Machado, M. A. (2010). Avaliação de diferentes genótipos de citros à infecção por Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus. Citrus Research & Technology, 31 (1), 85-90. http:// doi.org/10.5935/2236-3122.20100008
Carvalho, C. R., Dias, A. C., Homma, S. K., & Cardoso, E. J. (2020). Phyllosphere bacterial assembly in citrus crop under conventional and ecological management. PeerJ, 8, e9152. https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.9152
Chelius, M. K. & Triplett, E. W. (2001). The Diversity of Archaea and Bacteria in Association with the Roots of Zea mays L. Microbial Ecology, 41 (3), 252-263. http:// doi.org/10.1007/s002480000087
Döbereiner, J. & Day, J. M. (1976). Associative symbioses in tropical grasses: characterization of microorganisms and dinitrogen-fixing sites. In: Proceedings of the 1st international symposium on nitrogen fixation. Washington State University Press Pullman, 2, 518-538.
Feichtenberger, E., Bassanezi, R. B., Spósito, M. B. & Belasque, J. R. J. (2005). Doenças de citrus. In: Kimati, H., Amorim, L., & Camargo, L. E. (Ed.). Manual de Fitopatologia (pp. 239-269). São Paulo: Editora Ceres.
Gottwald, T., Da Graça, J. V. & Bassanezi, R. B. (2007). Citrus huanglongbing: The pathogen and its impact. Plant Health Progress. 8 (1), 31. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHP-2007-0906-01-RV
Kim, J. S., Sagaram, U. S., Burns, J. K., Li, J. L. & Wang, N. (2009). Response of Sweet orange (Citrus sinensis) to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' infection: microscopy and microarray analyses. Phytopathology, 99 (1), 50-57. https://doi.org/10.1094/PHYTO-99-1-0050
Mahajan, M. V., Jagtap, G. P. & Dey, U. (2013). Rapid molecular detection of Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, the bacterium associated with citrus huanglongbing (greening) disease of Mandarin using polymerase chain reaction. African Journal of Biotechnology, 12 (29), 4623-4629. https://doi.org/10.5897/AJB12.1881
Medeiros, M. B. & Lopes, J. S. (2006). Biofertilizantes líquidos e sustentabilidade agrícola. Bahia Agrícola, 7(3), 24-26. http://www.seagri.ba.gov.br/content/biofertilizantes-l%C3%ADquidos-e-sustentabilidade-agr%C3%ADcola
Mina, D., Pereira, J. A., Lino-Neto, T., & Baptista, P. (2020). Impact of plant genotype and plant habitat in shaping bacterial pathobiome: a comparative study in olive tree. Scientific reports, 10(1), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-60596-0
Mourão Filho, F. D. A. A., Stipp, L. C. L. & Mendes, B. M. J. (2010). Perspectivas da produção e utilização de transgênicos para o controle do huanlongbing. Citrus Research & Technology, 31 (1), 91-100. https://doi.org/10.5935/2236-3122.20100009
Nan, J., Zhang, S., & Jiang, L. (2021). Antibacterial Potential of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GJ1 against Citrus Huanglongbing. Plants, 10(2), 261. https://doi.org/10.3390/plants10020261
Qiu, M., Zhang, R., Xue, C., Zhang, S., Li, S., Zhang, N. & Shen, Q. (2012). Application of bio-organic fertilizer can control Fusarium wilt of cucumber plant by regulation microbial community of rhizosphere soil. Biologic Fertility Soils, 48 (7), 807-816. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00374-012-0675-4
Rubini, M. R., Silva-Ribeiro, R. T., Pomella, A. W. V., Maki, C. S., Araújo, W. L., Dos Santos, D. R. & Azevedo, J. L. (2005). Diversity of endophytic fungal community of cacao (Theobroma cacao L.) and biological control of Crinipellis perniciosa, causal agent of witches' broom disease. International Journal of Biological Sciences, 1 (1), 24-33. https://doi.org/10.7150/ijbs.1.24
Sauer, A. V., Zanutto, C. A., Nocchi, P. T. R., Machado, M. A., Bock, C. H. & Nunes, W. M. C. (2015). Seasonal variation in populations of ‘Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus’ in citrus trees in Paraná State, Brazil. Plant Disease, 99 (8), 1125-1132. https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0926-RE
Shen, Z., Ruan, Y., Wang, B., Zhong, S., Su, L., Li, R. & Shen, Q. (2015). Effect of biofertilizer for suppressing Fusarium wilt disease of banana as well as enhancing microbial and chemical proprieties of soil under greenhouse trial. Applied Soil Ecology, 93, 111-119. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsoil.2015.04.013
Silva, A. F; Pinto, J. M; França, C. R. R. S; Fernandes, S. C; Gomes, T. C. A; Silva, M. S. L. & Matos, A. N. B. (2007). Preparo e uso de biofertilizantes líquidos. Embrapa Semi-Árido. Comunicado técnico 130. https://www.infoteca.cnptia.embrapa.br/infoteca/handle/doc/153383
Timmusk, S., West, P.V., Gow, N.A.R. & Huffstutler R.F. (2009). Paenibacillus polymyxas antagonizes oomycetes plant pathogens Phytophthora palmivora and Pythium aphanidermatum. Journal Applied Ecology, 106 (5), 1473-1481. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2672.2009.04123.x
Trivedi, P., He, Z., Van Nostrand, J. D., Albrigo, G., Zhou, J. & Wang, N. (2012). Huanglongbing alters the structure and functional diversity of microbial communities associated with citrus rhizosphere. International Society for Microbial Ecology Journal, 6 (2), 363-83. https://doi.org/10.1038/ismej.2011.100
Wu, H, Yang, X., Fan, J., Miao, W., Ling, N., Xu, Y., Huang, Q. & Shen, Q. (2009). Supression of Fusarium wilt watermelon by a bio-organic fertilizer containing combinations of antagonistic microrganisms. Biological Control, 54 (2), 287-300. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10526-008-9168-7
Zhang, M., Powell, C. A., Benyon, L. S., Zhou, H. & Duan, Y. (2013). Deciphering the bacterial microbiome of citrus plants in response to 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'-infection and antibiotic treatments. PLoS One, 8 (11), e76331. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0076331
Zhang, S., He, X., Zhang, J., Raza, W., Yang, X., Ruan, Y., Shen, Q. & Huang, Q. (2014). Supression of Fusarium wilt of banana with application of bio-organic fertilizers. Pedosphere, 24 (5), 613-624. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1002-0160(14)60047-3
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Rodrigo Domiciano Marques; Paula Fernanda de Azevedo; Aline Vanessa Sauer; Leopoldo Sussumu Matsumoto
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.