Effects of social isolation on the health of the elderly in the context of the Covid-19 pandemic: an integrative review study
Keywords:Social Isolation; Aged; Mental Health; Coronavirus infections.
Introduction: The senescence process leads to a decline in cognitive functional capacity and adaptive responses that are necessary to perform activities of daily living, leading to a higher risk of morbidity and mortality. Studies show that aging can be associated with social isolation, which leads to several damages to physical and mental health. In December 2019, the first case of the new coronavirus was registered and, to contain the transmission, sanitary measures were taken, including social isolation. Objective: To investigate the effects of social isolation on physical and mental health in elderly community members during the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: This is an integrative review study, carried out systematically based on the guiding question “What are the effects of the social isolation of the COVID-19 pandemic for physical and mental health in elderly people?”.Results: The studies prioritized the effects on the mental health of the elderly population, with the need to expand the investigation for the physical health of the elderly population, in the context of social isolation.
Alvarenga, G. M. de O., DELFINO, L. L., Silva, L. D. S. V., Yassuda, M. S., & Cachioni, M. (2018). Idosos E Inclusão Digital Com Tablet-Pc: Uma Revisão Sistemática Da Literatura. Estudos Interdisciplinares Sobre o Envelhecimento, 23(1).
Cai, X., Hu, X., Ekumi, I. O., Wang, J., An, Y., Li, Z., & Yuan, B. (2020). Psychological Distress and Its Correlates Among COVID-19 Survivors During Early Convalescence Across Age Groups. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 28, pp. 1030–1039.
Callow, D. D., Arnold-Nedimala, N. A., Jordan, L. S., Pena, G. S., Won, J., Woodard, J. L., & Smith, J. C. (2020). The Mental Health Benefits of Physical Activity in Older Adults Survive the COVID-19 Pandemic. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 28, pp. 1046–1057.
Carvalho, E., Arantes, R. C., & Cintra, A. S. R. (2016). The inclusion of elderly persons from the Instituto Henrique da Silva Semente (IHESS) in Indaiatuba, São Paulo, in the digital age: physio-gerontological contributions. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 19(4), 567–575.
Chen, AT, Ge, S., Cho, S., Teng, AK, Chu, F., Demiris, G., & Zaslavsky, O. (2021). Reações ao COVID-19, uso de informação e tecnologia e conexão social entre idosos com pré-fragilidade e fragilidade. Enfermagem geriátrica (New York, NY) , 42 (1), 188–195.
Da Motta, L. B., & De Aguiar, A. C. (2007). Novas competências profissionais em saúde e o envelhecimento populacional brasileiro: Integralidade, interdisciplinaridade e intersetorialidade. Ciencia e Saude Coletiva, 12(2), 363–372.
Dias Myrrha, L. J., Turra, C. M., & Wajnman, S. (2017). A contribuição dos nascimentos e óbitos para o envelhecimento populacional no Brasil, 1950 a 2100. Revista Latinoamericana de Población, 11(20), 37–54.
Feng, X., & Astell-Burt, T. (2016). What types of social interactions reduce the risk of psychological distress? Fixed effects longitudinal analysis of a cohort of 30,271 middle-to-older aged Australians. Journal of Affective Disorders, 204, 99–102.
Freitas, E. V., Woollacott, M., Shumway-Cook, A., Mochizuki, G., Boe, S. G., Marlin, A., … Callisaya, M. L. (2014). The role of cognitive impairment in fall risk among older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Archives of Neurology, 63(1), 1763–1769.
Gale, C. R., Westbury, L., & Cooper, C. (2018). Social isolation and loneliness as risk factors for the progression of frailty: The English Longitudinal Study of Ageing. Age and Ageing, 47(3), 392–397.
García-Fernández, L., Romero-Ferreiro, V., López-Roldán, P. D., Padilla, S., & Rodriguez-Jimenez, R. (2020). Mental Health in Elderly Spanish People in Times of COVID-19 Outbreak. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 28, pp. 1040–1045.
Gorz, A. (2009). O envelhecimento. Tempo Social, 21(1), 15–34.
Grossman, E. S., Hoffman, Y. S. G., Palgi, Y., & Shrira, A. (2021). COVID-19 related loneliness and sleep problems in older adults: Worries and resilience as potential moderators. Personality and Individual Differences, Vol. 168.
Gustavsson, J., & Beckman, L. (2020). Compliance to recommendations and mental health consequences among elderly in sweden during the initial phase of the covid-19 pandemic—a cross sectional online survey. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17(15), 1–10.
Hamm, M. E., Brown, P. J., Karp, J. F., Lenard, E., Cameron, F., Dawdani, A., … Lenze, E. J. (2020). Experiences of American Older Adults with Pre-existing Depression During the Beginnings of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Multicity, Mixed-Methods Study. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 28, pp. 924–932.
Hammerschmidt, K. S. de A., & Santana, R. F. (2020). Saúde do idoso em tempos de pandemia COVID-19. Cogitare Enfermagem, Vol. 25.
Hertzog, C., Kramer, A. F., Wilson, R. S., & Lindenberger, U. (2008). Enrichment Effects on Adult Cognitive Development. Psychological Science in the Public Interest, 9(1), 1–65.
Kutz, N. A., Maria, M., Abreu, H. De, & Salgueiro, D. O. (2016). Relações entre equilíbrio, força muscular, mobilidade funcional, medo de cair e estado nutricional de idosos da comunidade. Revista Kairós : Gerontologia, 19(2), 147–165.
Miranda, D., Morais, G., Mendes, G., Cruz, A., Silva, A., & Lucia, A. (2016). O envelhecimento populacional brasileiro- desafios e consequências. Revista Brasileira de Geriatria e Gerontologia, 19(3), 507–519.
Nasri, F. (2008). Demografi a e epidemiologia do envelhecimento O envelhecimento populacional no Brasil The aging population in Brazil. Einstein, 6(2), 4–6.
Oliveira, A. S. (2019). Transição Demográfica, Transição Epidemiológica E Envelhecimento Populacional No Brasil. Hygeia - Revista Brasileira de Geografia Médica e Da Saúde, 15(32), 69–79.
Park, N. S., Jang, Y., Lee, B. S., & Chiriboga, D. A. (2017). The relation between living alone and depressive symptoms in older Korean Americans: do feelings of loneliness mediate? Aging and Mental Health, 21(3), 304–312.
Ribeiro, I. A., Lima, L. R. De, Vople, C. R. G., Funghetto, S. S., Rehem, T. C. M. S. B., & Stival, M. M. (2019). Síndrome do idoso frágil em idosos com doenças crônicas na Atenção Primária. Rev Esc Enferm USP, 53(03449), 1–9.
Robb, C. E., de Jager, C. A., Ahmadi-Abhari, S., Giannakopoulou, P., Udeh-Momoh, C., McKeand, J., … Middleton, L. (2020). Associations of Social Isolation with Anxiety and Depression During the Early COVID-19 Pandemic: A Survey of Older Adults in London, UK. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11(September), 1–12.
Robins, L. M., Hill, K. D., Finch, C. F., Clemson, L., & Haines, T. (2018). The association between physical activity and social isolation in community-dwelling older adults. Aging and Mental Health, 22(2), 175–182.
Schneider, R. H., & Irigaray, T. Q. (2008). O envelhecimento na atualidade: aspectos cronológicos, biológicos, psicológicos e sociais. Estudos de Psicologia (Campinas), 25(4), 585–593.
Shankar, A., McMunn, A., Demakakos, P., Hamer, M., & Steptoe, A. (2017). Social isolation and loneliness: Prospective associations with functional status in older adults. Health Psychology, 36(2), 179–187.
Shrira, A., Hoffman, Y., Bodner, E., & Palgi, Y. (2020). COVID-19-Related Loneliness and Psychiatric Symptoms Among Older Adults: The Buffering Role of Subjective Age. American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry, Vol. 28, pp. 1200–1204.
Smith, T. O., Dainty, J. R., & Macgregor, A. (2018). Trajectory of social isolation following hip fracture: An analysis of the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) cohort. Age and Ageing, 47(1), 107–112.
Soares, C. B., Hoga, L. A., Peduzzi, M., Sangaleti, C., Yonekura, T., Silva, D. R. A. D., … Trevizan, M. A. (2010). Revisão Integrativa versus Revisão Sistemática. Reme: Revista Mineira de Enfermagem, 8(1), 102–106.
Sousa, A. C. P. D. A., Guerra, R. O., Tu, M. T., Phillips, S. P., Guralnik, J. M., & Zunzunegui, M. V. (2014). Lifecourse adversity and physical performance across countries among men and women aged 65-74. PLoS ONE, 9(8).
Willians, K., & Kemper, S. (2010). Exploring interventions to reduce cognitive decline in aging. Journal of Psychosocial Nursing & Mental Health Services, 48(913), 42–51.
Yu, B., Steptoe, A., Niu, K., Ku, P. W., & Chen, L. J. (2018). Prospective associations of social isolation and loneliness with poor sleep quality in older adults. Quality of Life Research, 27(3), 683–691.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Gisele Kariny de Souza Davi Bezerra; Ana Carolina Patrício de Albuquerque Sousa; Maria Clara Medeiros Araújo; Giminiana Aline de Lucena; Lucca Ferdinando Queiroz Fernandes; Pedro Henrique de Medeiros Morais; Larissa de Menezes Albuquerque Coelho; Isabelle Canuto Rabelo Barbosa; Eric Cymon do Vale Beserra
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.