Histopathological evaluation of chromoblastomycosis: A literature review





Fungus; Chromoblastomycosis; Diagnosis; Histology; Histologic technique.


Chromoblastomycosis (CBM) is a cutaneous or subcutaneous mycoses. The trauma occurs when the fungus is installed and is more prevalent in individuals living in tropical and subtropical regions, with earliest descriptions dating back to 1920. The diagnosis of CBM is based on the incidence of cases in the endemic areas and is commonly reached through microbiological analyses to identify the etiologic agent in clinical samples. The process for the analysis of the collected samples allows one to visualise the muriform cells, which are brown, rounded structures having crossed chambers and that can be commonly called sclerotic bodies, characterising the positive diagnosis. The objective of this review was to verify the connection of the histopathological techniques to the diagnosis of CBM.


Abdullah, E., Idris, A., & Saparon., A. (2017). Papr reduction using scs-slm technique in stfbc mimo-ofdm. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 12(10):3218–3221.

Al-Doory, Y. (1983). Chromomycosis. In: Di Salvo, A. F. Occupational mycoses. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 95-121.

Ameen, M. (2009). Chromoblastomycosis: clinical presentation and management. Clin Exp Dermatol; 34:849 – 854. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2230.2009.03415.x.

Azevedo, C. M. P. S., Marques, S. G., & Santos, D. W. C. L. (2015). Squamous cell carcinoma derived from chronic chromoblastomycosis in Brazil. Clinical Infectious Diseases, 60(10):1500–1504. https://doi.org/10.1093/cid/civ104.

Badali, H., Bonifaz, A., & Barrn-Tapia, T. (2010). Rhinocladiella aquaspersa, proven agent of verrucous skin infection and a novel type of chromoblastomycosis. Medical Mycology, 48(5):696–703. https://doi/org/10.3109/13693780903471073.

Badali, H., et al. (2008). Biodiversity of the genus Cladophialophora. Stud Mycol, 61(1):175-91. https://doi.org/10.3114/sim.2008.61.18.

Bhattacharjee, R., Narang, T., & Chatterjee, D. (2019). Cutaneous Chromoblastomycosis: A Prototypal Case. Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery, 23(1):98-98. https://doi.org/10.1177/1203475418789029.

Bonifaz, A., Carrasco-Gerard, E., & Saul, A. (2010). Chromoblastomycosis: clinical and mycologic experience of 51 cases. Mycoses, 44:1-7. https://doi.org/ 10.1046/j.1439-0507.2001.00613. x.

Burlingame, E. A., et al. (2018). SHIFT: speedy histopathological-to-immunofluorescent translation of whole slide images using conditional generative adversarial networks. In: Medical Imaging 2018: Digital Pathology. International Society for Optics and Photonics, 1058105. https://doi.org/10.1117/12.2293249.

Camara-Lemarroy, C. R., Soto-Garcia, A. J., & Preciado-Yepez, C. I. (2013). Case of chromoblastomycosis with pulmonary involvement. Journal of Dermatology, 2013; 40(9):746–748. https://doi.org/10.1111/1346-8138.12216.

Chavan, S. S., Kulkarni., M. H., & Makannavar, J. H. (2010). “Unstained” and “de stained” sections in the diagnosis of chromoblastomycosis: a clinico-pathological study. Indian journal of pathology & microbiology, 53(4):666–671. https://doi.org/10.4103/0377-4929.72021.

Da Silva., et al. (2008). Development of natural culture media for rapid induction of Fonsecaea pedrosoi sclerotic cells in vitro. J Clin Microbiol, 46(11):3839-3841. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00482-08.

De Azevedo., C. M., Gomes, R. R., & Vicente, V. A. (2015). Fonsecaea pugnacius, a novel agent of disseminated chromoblastomycosis. Journal of Clinical Microbiology, 53(8):2674–2685. https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.00637-15.

De Hoog, G. S., et al. (2000). Black fungi: clinical and pathogenic approaches. Med Mycol, ;38:243-50.

Elfer, K. N., et al. (2016). DRAQ5 and eosin (‘D&E’) as an analog to hematoxylin and eosin for rapid fluorescence histology of fresh tissues. PLoS One, 11(10): e0165530. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0165530.

Freudiger, C. W., et al. (2012). Multicolored stain-free histopathology with coherent Raman imaging. Laboratory investigation, 92(10):1492. https://doi.org/10.1038/labinvest.2012.109.

Gajjar, D. U., Pal, A. K., & Santos, J. M. (2011). Severe pigmented keratitis caused by Cladorrhinum bulbillosum. Indian J Med Microbiol, 29(4):434–437. https://doi.org/10.4103/0255-0857.90191. PMID: 22120812.

Galvão, T. F., & Pereira, M. G. (2014). Revisões sistemáticas da literatura: passos para sua elaboração. Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde, 23(1):183–184. https://doi.org/10.5123/S1679-49742014000100018.

Giacomelli, M. G., et al. (2016).Virtual hematoxylin and eosin transillumination microscopy using epi-fluorescence imaging. PLoS One, 11(8):e0159337. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0159337.

Hay, R. (2019). The diagnosis of fungal neglected tropical diseases (fungal NTDs) and the role of investigation and laboratory tests: An expert consensus report. Tropical medicine and infectious disease, 4(4):122. https://doi.org/10.3390/tropicalmed4040122.

He, L., et al. (2018). Successful treatment of chromoblastomycosis of 10‐year duration due to Fonsecaea nubica. Mycoses, 61(4):231-236. https://doi.org/10.1111/myc.12732.

Jaleel, A., et al. (2017). Mycetoma‐like chromoblastomycosis: a diagnostic dilemma. International journal of dermatology, 56(5):563-566. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.13499.

Jamil, A., Lee, Y. Y., & Thevarajah, S. (2012). Invasive squamous cell carcinoma arising from chromoblastomycosis. Medical Mycology, 50(1):99–102. https://doi.org/10.3109/13693786.2011.571295.

Jayasree, P., et al. (2019). Dermoscopic features in nodular chromoblastomycosis. International journal of dermatology, 58(5):107-109. https://doi.org/10.1111/ijd.14344.

Kim, D. M., Hwang, S. M., & Suh, M. K. (2011). Chromoblastomycosis Caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi. Annals of dermatology, 23(3):369–74. https://doi.org/10.5021/ad.2011.23.3.369

Lahiani, A. K., & Eldad, G. R. O. (2018). Enabling Histopathological Annotations on Immunofluorescent Images through Virtualization of Hematoxylin and Eosin. J Pathol Inform. https://doi.org/10.4103/jpi.jpi_61_17.

Le, Ta., et al. (2019). Case Report: A Case of Chromoblastomycosis Caused by Fonsecaea pedrosoi in Vietnam, Mycopathologia, 184(1):115–119. 10.1007/s11046-018-0284-3.

López-Martínez., & Méndez-Tovar, L. J. (2007). Chromoblastomycosis. Clin Dermatol, 25:188–94. https://doi.org/10.1128/CMR.00032-16.

Lyon, J. P., et al. (2011). Photodynamic Antifungal Therapy Against Chromoblastomycosis. Mycopathologia, 172( 4):293–297. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-011-9434-6.

Mcginnis, M. R. (1983). Chromoblastomycosis and phaeohyphomycosis: new concepts, diagnosis, and mycology. J Am Acad Dermatol,8:1-16. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0190-9622(83)70001-0.

Mendoza, L., Karuppayil, S. M., & Szaniszlo, P. J. (1993). Calcium regulates in vitro dimorphism in chromoblastomycotic fungi. Mycoses, 36(5-6):157-64. 10.1111/j.1439-0507.1993.tb00744.x.

Mittal, A., et al. (2014). Chromoblastomycosis from a non-endemic area and response to itraconazole. Indian journal of dermatology, 59(6):606. https://doi.org/10.4103/0019-5154.143537.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., & Tetzlaff, J. (2009). Guidelines and Guidance Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses: The PRISMA Statement. PLoS Med, 6: e1000097. https://doi.org/10.1186/2046-4053-4-1.

Pradeepkumar, N. S., & Joseph, N. M. (2011). Chromoblastomycosis caused by Cladophialophora carrionii in a child from India. Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, 5 (7):556–560. https://doi.org/10.3855/jidc.1392.

Purim, K. S. M., Peretti., M. C., & Neto, J. F. (2017). Chromoblastomycosis: Tissue modifications during itraconazole treatment. Anais Brasileiros de Dermatologia 2017; 92(4):478–483. https://doi.org/10.1590/abd1806-4841.20175466.

Queiroz-Telles, F., et al. (2009). Chromoblastomycosis: an overview of clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Med Mycol, 47:3-15. https://doi.org/10.1080/13693780802538001.

Queiroz-Telles, F., & Santos, D. W. (2013). Challenges in the therapy of chromoblastomycosis. Mycopathologia, 175:477-88. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-013-9648-x.

Queiroz-Telles, F., et al. (2011). Mycoses of implantation in Latin America: an overview of epidemiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment. Med Mycol, 49:225-36. https://doi.org/10.3109/13693786.2010.539631.

Stefanović, D. (2015). Use of eriochrome cyanine R for routine histology and histopathology: an improved dichromatic staining procedure. Biotechnic & Histochemistry, 90(6):470-474. https://doi.org/10.3109/10520295.2015.1058420.

Stefanović, D. S., & Marija, L. D. (2015). Use of eriochrome cyanine R in routine histology and histopathology: is it time to say goodbye to hematoxylin? Biotechnic & histochemistry, 90(6):461-469. https://doi.org/10.3109/10520295.2015.1057765.

Weedon, D., Deurse, M., & Allison, S. (2013). Chromoblastomycosis in Australia: An historical perspective. Pathology, 45(5):489–491. https://doi.org/10.1097/PAT.0b013e32836326a1.

Zhang, R., et al. (2019). A Case of Chromoblastomycosis Caused by Fonsecaea Pedrosoi and Investigation of the Pathogenic Fungi, Mycopathologia, 184(2):349-352. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-019-0319-4

Zhu, C. Y., Yang, Y. P., & Sheng, P. (2015). Cutaneous Chromoblastomycosis Caused by Veronaea botryosa in a Patient with Pemphigus Vulgaris and Review of Published Reports. Mycopathologia, 180(1–2):123–129. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11046-015-9887-0.




How to Cite

AMARAL, M. C. do .; CARVALHO, A. dos S. .; ALVES, E. H. P. .; NASCIMENTO, H. M. S. .; RODRIGUES, A. A. .; CAETANO, V. da S. .; SILVA, B. C. .; FERNANDES, T. R. S.; FERNANDES, J. R. N. .; RÊGO, N. T. D. S. do .; PAIVA, A. F. de .; MEDEIROS, C. A. C. .; FREITAS, S. M. C. .; MACHADO, M. S. de M. .; VASCONCELOS, D. F. P. . Histopathological evaluation of chromoblastomycosis: A literature review . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 6, p. e47410616027, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i6.16027. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/16027. Acesso em: 15 jun. 2021.



Health Sciences