Effects of physical exercise and supplemental diet in patients with sarcopenic obesity
Keywords:Obesity; Sarcopenia; Physical exercise; Supplemental diet.
Objective: To compare and analyze the effectiveness of exercise and supplemental diet in the treatment of sarcopenic obesity. Method: Integrative literature review based on articles published in journals indexed in the following databases: Virtual Health Library (VHL) and US National Library of Medicine - National Institutes of Health (PubMed). With the help of Health Sciences Descriptors (DeCS) the keywords were selected: Obesity, Sarcopenia, Exercise and Dietary. Results: After analyzing the articles, it was found that 66.67% of these stated that the combination of physical exercise and a supplemental diet resulted in good efficacy in the treatment of sarcopenic obesity, 11.11% observed that the isolated practice of physical exercise, especially strength, has an effective result, 11.11% evaluated only protein supplementation and then observed effective results and 11.11% identified that the benefits of isolated physical activity were the same as those obtained through combination of physical activity and use of a high-protein diet. Conclusion: According to the studies evaluated, the practice of physical exercise coupled with a high-protein diet culminates in an effective treatment for sarcopenic obesity. However, more accurate studies are needed to determine a clinical approach that composes an adequate protocol for the problem in question.
Benton, M. J., Whyte, M. D., & Dyal, B. W. (2011). Sarcopenic obesity: strategies for management. AJN The American Journal of Nursing, 111(12), 38-44.
Bouchonville, M. F., & Villareal, D. T. (2013). Sarcopenic Obesity–How Do We Treat It?. Current opinion in endocrinology, diabetes, and obesity, 20(5), 412.
Cruz-Jentoft, A. J., Bahat, G., Bauer, J., Boirie, Y., Bruyère, O., Cederholm, T., ... & Zamboni, M. (2019). Sarcopenia: revised European consensus on definition and diagnosis. Age and ageing, 48(1), 16-31.
Farsijani, S., Cauley, J. A., Santanasto, A. J., Glynn, N. W., Boudreau, R. M., & Newman, A. B. (2020). Transition to a more even distribution of daily protein intake is associated with enhanced fat loss during a hypocaloric & physical activity intervention in obese older adults. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 24(2), 210-217.
Galbreath, M., Campbell, B., La Bounty, P., Bunn, J., Dove, J., Harvey, T., ... & Kreider, R. B. (2018). Effects of adherence to a higher protein diet on weight loss, markers of health, and functional capacity in older women participating in a resistance-based exercise program. Nutrients, 10(8), 1070.
JafariNasabian, P., Inglis, J. E., Kelly, O. J., & Ilich, J. Z. (2017). Osteosarcopenic obesity in women: impact, prevalence, and management challenges. International journal of women's health, 9, 33.
Khadra, D., Itani, L., Tannir, H., Kreidieh, D., El Masri, D., & El Ghoch, M. (2019). Association between sarcopenic obesity and higher risk of type 2 diabetes in adults: a systematic review and meta-analysis. World journal of diabetes, 10(5), 311.
Kemmler, W., Grimm, A., Bebenek, M., Kohl, M., & von Stengel, S. (2018). Effects of combined whole-body electromyostimulation and protein supplementation on local and overall muscle/fat distribution in older men with sarcopenic obesity: the randomized controlled franconia sarcopenic obesity (FranSO) study. Calcified tissue international, 103(3), 266-277.
Kim, H., Kim, M., Kojima, N., Fujino, K., Hosoi, E., Kobayashi, H., ... & Yoshida, H. (2016). Exercise and nutritional supplementation on community-dwelling elderly Japanese women with sarcopenic obesity: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 17(11), 1011-1019.
Larsson, L., Degens, H., Li, M., Salviati, L., Lee, Y. I., Thompson, W., ... & Sandri, M. (2019). Sarcopenia: aging-related loss of muscle mass and function. Physiological reviews, 99(1), 427-511.
Lee, D. C., Shook, R. P., Drenowatz, C., & Blair, S. N. (2016). Physical activity and sarcopenic obesity: definition, assessment, prevalence and mechanism. Future science OA, 2(3), FSO127.
Molino, S., Dossena, M., Buonocore, D., & Verri, M. (2016). Sarcopenic obesity: an appraisal of the current status of knowledge and management in elderly people. The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 20(7), 780-788.
Nabuco, H. C., Tomeleri, C. M., Fernandes, R. R., Junior, P. S., Cavalcante, E. F., Cunha, P. M., ... & Cyrino, E. S. (2019). Effect of whey protein supplementation combined with resistance training on body composition, muscular strength, functional capacity, and plasma-metabolism biomarkers in older women with sarcopenic obesity: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Clinical nutrition ESPEN, 32, 88-95.
Oh, C., Jeon, B. H., Storm, S. N. R., Jho, S., & No, J. K. (2017). The most effective factors to offset sarcopenia and obesity in the older Korean: physical activity, vitamin D, and protein intake. Nutrition, 33, 169-173.
Portillo Baquedano, M. P., & PREDIMED-PLUS Investigators. (2019). Association of lifestyle factors and inflammation with sarcopenic obesity: data from the PREDIMED-Plus trial.
Sgrò, P., Sansone, M., Sansone, A., Sabatini, S., Borrione, P., Romanelli, F., & Di Luigi, L. (2019). Physical exercise, nutrition and hormones: three pillars to fight sarcopenia. The Aging Male, 22(2), 75-88.
Trouwborst, I., Verreijen, A., Memelink, R., Massanet, P., Boirie, Y., Weijs, P., & Tieland, M. (2018). Exercise and nutrition strategies to counteract sarcopenic obesity. Nutrients, 10(5), 605.
Villareal, D. T., Aguirre, L., Gurney, A. B., Waters, D. L., Sinacore, D. R., Colombo, E., ... & Qualls, C. (2017). Aerobic or resistance exercise, or both, in dieting obese older adults. New England Journal of Medicine, 376(20), 1943-1955.
Wittmann, K., Sieber, C., von Stengel, S., Kohl, M., Freiberger, E., Jakob, F., ... & Kemmler, W. (2016). Impact of whole body electromyostimulation on cardiometabolic risk factors in older women with sarcopenic obesity: the randomized controlled FORMOsA-sarcopenic obesity study. Clinical Interventions in Aging, 11, 1697.
Zamboni, M., Mazzali, G., Fantin, F., Rossi, A., & Di Francesco, V. (2008). Sarcopenic obesity: a new category of obesity in the elderly. Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, 18(5), 388-395.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Caroline Silva Mangueira Maciel; Aruana Neves Salvador de Alcântara; Hirisleide Bezerra Alves
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
1) Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
2) Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
3) Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.