Pilot-scale study of a structured bed reactor for nitrogen and organic matter removal from sanitary sewage: advances and design challenges

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i13.21560

Keywords:

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification; Polyurethane foam; Aeration setup; Isolated communities.

Abstract

Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) is a process that can remove both nitrogen and organic matter in a single unit. Several bench-scale studies show that the structured bed reactors (STBR) subjected to recirculation and intermittent aeration have achieved a good performance for SND treating different types of wastewater. Thus, this study took a step forward and evaluated the efficiency and stability of treating domestic sewage in a pilot-scale STBR. COD removal efficiencies higher than 87% were achieved in the whole experimental period. The highest Total-N removal efficiency was approximately 74 ± 7% by adopting a hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 47.2 h and intermittent aeration (2 h aerated and 1 h non-aerated). The setup of the aeration system was an important mechanism to ensure the optimal balance between nitrification and denitrification in a pilot-scale system.

Author Biographies

Kiemi de Brito Murata, School of Administration, Marketing and Communication

Biological Processes Laboratory, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. João Dagnone 1100, Santa Angelina, São Carlos, São Paulo 13563-120, Brazil.

Bruno Garcia Silva, University of São Paulo

Biological Processes Laboratory, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. João Dagnone 1100, Santa Angelina, São Carlos, São Paulo 13563-120, Brazil.

Dagoberto Yukio Okada, University of Campinas

School of Technology, University of Campinas, Rua Paschoal Marmo, 1888, Jd. Nova Itália, Limeira, São Paulo 13484-332, Brazil

Rafael Brito de Moura, Federal University of Alfenas

Institute of Science and Technology, Federal University of Alfenas, Rodovia José Aurélio Vilela, 11999 (BR 267 Km533), Poços de Caldas, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Eugenio Foresti, University of São Paulo

Biological Processes Laboratory, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. João Dagnone 1100, Santa Angelina, São Carlos, São Paulo 13563-120, Brazil.

Márcia Helena Rissato Zamariolli Damianovic, University of São Paulo

Biological Processes Laboratory, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, Av. João Dagnone 1100, Santa Angelina, São Carlos, São Paulo 13563-120, Brazil.

References

Almeida, R. G. B. de, Santos, C. E. D., Lüders, T. C., del Nery, V., Leal, C. D., Pereira, A. D., Araújo, J. C., Davenport, R. J., Barana, A. C., Lopes, D. D., & Damianovic, M. H. R. Z. (2018). Nitrogen removal by simultaneous partial nitrification, anammox and denitrification (SNAD) in a structured-bed reactor treating animal feed processing wastewater: Inhibitory effects and bacterial community. International Biodeterioration & Biodegradation, 133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ibiod.2018.06.019

American Public Health Association (APHA), American Water Works Association (AWWA), & Water Environment Federation (WEF). (2012). Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Wastewater (Eugene W. Rice, Rodger B. Baird, Andrew D. Eaton, & Lenore S. Ciesceri, Eds.; 22nd ed). American Public Health Association.

Azevedo, C. S., Correa, C. Z., Lopes, D. D., Pescim, R. R., Prates, K. V. M. C., & Barana, A. C. (2021). Aeration and non-aeration cycles (AE/NA) time: influence in combined organic matter and nitrogen removal and features of biofilm. Environmental Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1882583

Barana, A. C., Lopes, D. D., Martins, T. H., Pozzi, E., Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., del Nery, V., & Foresti, E. (2013). Nitrogen and organic matter removal in an intermittently aerated fixed-bed reactor for post-treatment of anaerobic effluent from a slaughterhouse wastewater treatment plant. Journal of Environmental Chemical Engineering, 1(3). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jece.2013.06.015

Codas, B. V. B., Schmidell, W., & Alem, P. (2002). Avaliação da transferência de oxigênio em um biorreator aerado submerso com enchimento. XXVIII Congreso Interamericano de Ingeniería Sanitaria y Ambiental, 1–8.

Correa, C. Z., Prates, K. V. M. C., de Oliveira, E. F., Lopes, D. D., & Barana, A. C. (2018). Nitrification/denitrification of real municipal wastewater in an intermittently aerated structured bed reactor. Journal of Water Process Engineering, 23. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jwpe.2018.03.013

Costa, R. B., Camiloti, P. R., Sabatini, C. A., Santos, C. E. D., Lima Gomes, P. C. F., & Adorno, M. Â. T. (2018). Matrix Effect Assessment of an Ion Chromatographic Method to Determine Inorganic Anions in Wastewater. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 229(7). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11270-018-3863-5

Daigger, G. T., & Littleton, H. X. (2014). Simultaneous Biological Nutrient Removal: A State-of-the-Art Review. Water Environment Research, 86(3), 245–257. https://doi.org/10.2175/106143013x13736496908555

Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., Santos, C. E. D., Martín, M. A. M., Fdz-Polanco, M., Foresti, E., Fdz-Polanco, F., & García-Encina, P. A. (2018). Specific Activity Bioassays as Tools to Evaluate Combined Nitrogen and Organic Matter Removal in SND Systems. Environmental Engineering Science, 35(9). https://doi.org/10.1089/ees.2017.0418

DiLallo, R., & Albertson, O. E. (1961). Volatile acids by direct titration. Journal Water Pollution Control Federation, 33(4), 356–365.

Eckenfelder, W. W., Goodman, B. L., & Englande, A. J. (1972). Scale-up of biological wastewater treatment reactors. Advances in Biochemical Engineering, Volume 2, 145–180. https://doi.org/10.1007/bfb0006668

EPA. (1993). Nitrogen Control. U. S. Environmental Protection Agency.

Gikas, P., & Tchobanoglous, G. (2009). The role of satellite and decentralized strategies in water resources management. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(1), 144–152. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2007.08.016

Hem, L., Rusten, B., & Ødegaard, H. (1994). Nitrification in a moving bed biofilm reactor. Water Research, 28(6), 1425–1433. https://doi.org/10.1016/0043-1354(94)90310-7

Horntvedt, B. R., Rambekk, M., & Bakke, R. (1998). Oscillating conditions for influencing the composition of mixed biological cultures. Water Science Technology, 37(4–5), 259–262.

IBGE. (2015). Pesquisa nacional por amostra de domicílios: síntese de indicadores 2013 (2nd ed). IBGE.

Macêdo, W. V., Santos, C. E. D., Guerrero, R. de B. S., Sakamoto, I. K., Amorim, E. L. C. de, Azevedo, E. B., & Damianovic, M. H. R. Z. (2019). Establishing simultaneous nitrification and denitrification under continuous aeration for the treatment of multi-electrolytes saline wastewater. Bioresource Technology, 288. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2019.121529

Moura, R. B., Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., & Foresti, E. (2012). Nitrogen and carbon removal from synthetic wastewater in a vertical structured-bed reactor under intermittent aeration. Journal of Environmental Management, 98. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2012.01.009

Moura, R. B., Santos, C. E. D., Okada, D. Y., Martins, T. H., Ferraz Júnior, A. D. N., Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., & Foresti, E. (2018). Carbon-nitrogen removal in a structured-bed reactor (SBRRIA) treating sewage: Operating conditions and metabolic perspectives. Journal of Environmental Management, 224. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2018.07.014

Moussavi, G., Kazembeigi, F., & Farzadkia, M. (2010). Performance of a pilot scale up-flow septic tank for on-site decentralized treatment of residential wastewater. Process Safety and Environmental Protection, 88(1), 47–52. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psep.2009.10.001

Oliveira, E. P., Souza, T. S. O., Okada, D. Y., Damasceno, L. H. S., & Moura, R. B. (2020). Effect of air flow, intermittent aeration time and recirculation ratio in the hydrodynamic behavior of a structured bed reactor. Chemical Engineering Journal, 394(March), 124988. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2020.124988

Ripley, L. E., Boyle, W. C., & Converse, J. C. (1986). Improved alkalimetric monitoring for anaerobic digestion of high-strength wastes. Journal of the Water Pollution Control Federation, 58(5), 406–411.

Santiago-Díaz, Á. L., García-Albortante, J., & Salazar-Peláez, M. L. (2019). UASB-septic tank as an alternative for decentralized wastewater treatment in Mexico. Environmental Technology (United Kingdom), 40(14), 1780–1792. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2018.1430170

Santos, C. E. D., Moura, R. B., Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., & Foresti, E. (2016). Influence of COD/N ratio and carbon source on nitrogen removal in a structured-bed reactor subjected to recirculation and intermittent aeration (SBRRIA). Journal of Environmental Management, 166, 519–524. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.10.054

Santos, C. E. D., Guerrero, R. de B. S., Godoi, L. A. G., Foresti, E., & Damianovic, M. H. R. Z. (2018). Dynamics of the nitrification and sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrification processes in a single reactor using oxidation-reduction potential as an indicator of the process effectiveness. Journal of Chemical Technology & Biotechnology, 93(12). https://doi.org/10.1002/jctb.5707

Silva, B. G., Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., & Foresti, E. (2018). Effects of intermittent aeration periods on a structured-bed reactor continuously fed on the post-treatment of sewage anaerobic effluent. Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering, 41(8). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00449-018-1940-1

Silva, B. G., Oliveira, J. M. S., Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., & Foresti, E. (2021). Foam aerated biofilm reactor: a novel counter-diffusional process for COD and nitrogen removal from low COD/N effluents. Environmental Technology. https://doi.org/10.1080/09593330.2021.1893830

Singh, N. K., Kazmi, A. A., & Starkl, M. (2015). A review on full-scale decentralized wastewater treatment systems: Techno-economical approach. Water Science and Technology, 71(4), 468–478. https://doi.org/10.2166/wst.2014.413

Sistema Nacional de Informações sobre Saneamento. (2019). 24o Diagnóstico dos Serviços de Água e Esgoto. http://www.snis.gov.br/downloads/diagnosticos/ae/2018/Diagnostico_AE2018.pdf

Surampalli, R. Y., Tyagi, R. D., Scheible, O. K., & Heidman, J. a. (1997). Nitrification, denitrification and phosphorus removal in sequential batch reactors. Bioresource Technology, 61(2), 151–157. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0960-8524(97)00034-5

von Sperling, M. (2016). Urban wastewater treatment in Brazil. Inter-American Development Bank, August, 27. www.iadb.org

Water Environment Federation (WEF), American Society of Civil Enginneers (ASCE), & Environmental and Water Resource Institute (EWRI). (2006). Biological nutrient removal (BNR) operation in wastewater treatment plants: WEF Manual of Practice No. 30 (No. 109). McGraw-Hill Education.

Wosiack, P. A., Lopes, D. D., Damianovic, M. H. R. Z., Foresti, E., Granato, D., & Barana, A. C. (2015). Removal of COD and nitrogen from animal food plant wastewater in an intermittently-aerated structured-bed reactor. Journal of Environmental Management, 154. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2015.02.026

Yang, S., & Yang, F. (2011). Nitrogen removal via short-cut simultaneous nitrification and denitrification in an intermittently aerated moving bed membrane bioreactor. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 195, 318–323. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2011.08.045

Downloads

Published

22/10/2021

How to Cite

MURATA, K. de B.; SILVA, B. G. .; SANTOS, C. E. D. dos; OKADA, D. Y.; MOURA, R. B. de; FORESTI, E.; DAMIANOVIC, M. H. R. Z. . Pilot-scale study of a structured bed reactor for nitrogen and organic matter removal from sanitary sewage: advances and design challenges. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 13, p. e589101321560, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i13.21560. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/21560. Acesso em: 6 dec. 2021.

Issue

Section

Engineerings