Oil removal from oil/water emulsion by Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8): A study of pH, and adsorption kinetic





Zeolitic imidazolate frameworks; Nanocrystals; Emulsion oil/water; Adsorption; Kinetics.


Most traditional methods are only used to remove free oil from wastewater, and they are not efficient for separating oil-water emulsions. The adsorption separation process can be widely applied for the treatment of emulsions, mainly due to the cost and benefit of the process and the wide variety of materials that can be used as adsorbents, for example activated carbon, clays, zeolites, etc. Among the various types of porous materials called "Metal Organic Frameworks" (MOFs) are the zeolitic imidazolate (ZIFs) structures. The zeolitic structure of the ZIFs allows to exhibit high surface areas and thus to be promising adsorbents. To evaluate the adsorption capacity of ZIF-8 in the removal of emulsified oil, ZIF-8 was synthesized using Zn metal and as organic binder 2-methylimidazole (Hmim), dissolved in methanol at room temperature. ZIF-8 was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique to determine the crystalline structure. To evaluate the capacity of the emulsified oil, a pH-influence test and chemical kinetics were determined. The best pH of the emulsion for removal was pH 6. The chemical kinetics performed at pH 6 presented the best fit with the pseudo-second model with correlation coefficient 0.93. According to the kinetic data, a removal percentage of 92.43% was found with only 30 min of removal.


Arthur, J. D., Langhus, B. G., & Patel, C., (2005). Technical summary of oil & gas produced water treatment technologies. All Consulting, LLC, Tulsa.

Awad, A. M., Shaikh, S. M. R., Jalab, R., Gulied, M. H., Nasser, M. S., Benamor, A., & Adham, S. (2019). Adsorption of organic pollutants by natural and modified clays: A comprehensive review. Separation and Purification Technology, 228, 115719. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2019.115719

Barbosa, A. S., Barbosa, A. S., & Rodrigues, M. G. F. (2019). Influence of the methodology on the formation of zeolite membranes MCM-22 for the oil/water emulsion separation. Ceramica, 65(376), 531–540. https://doi.org/10.1590/0366-69132019653762676

Barbosa, A. S., Barbosa, A. S. & Rodrigues, M. G. F. (2015). Synthesis of zeolite membrane (MCM-22/ α -alumina) and its application in the process of oil-water separation. Desalination and Water Treatment, 56, 3665. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.995719

Barbosa, T. L. A. (2019). Síntese das membranas zeolíticas (NaA e SAPO-34 suportadas em alfa-Alumina) e membranas MOF (ZIF-8/alfa-Alumina) visando aplicação preditiva na síntese do metanol via hidrogenação do CO2. 2019. Tese (Doutorado em Engenharia Química), Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Paraíba.

Barbosa, T. L. A., Silva, F. M. N., Barbosa, A. S., Lima, E. G., Rodrigues, M. G. F. (2020). Synthesis and application of a composite NaA zeolite/gamma-alumina membrane for oil-water separation process ( Síntese e aplicação de uma membrana compósita zeólita NaA/gama-alumina para o processo de separação de óleo/água ). Cerâmica, 66, 137–144. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0366-69132020663782820

Bullen, J. C.; Saleesongsom, S.; Gallagher, K.; Weiss, D. (2021). A Revised Pseudo-Second-Order Kinetic Model for Adsorption, Sensitive to Changes in Adsorbate and Adsorbent Concentrations. Langmuir, 37, 3189-3201. https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.langmuir.1c00142

Chen, B., Bai, F., Zhu, Y., Xia, Y. (2014). A cost-effective method for the synthesis of zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 materials from stoichiometric precursors via aqueous ammonia modulation at room temperature. Microporous and Mesoporous Materials, 193, 7-14.


Drioli, E., & Romano, M., (2001). Progress and new perspectives on integrated membrane operations for sustainable industrial growth. Industrial & Engineering Chemistry Research, 40, 1277-1300. https://doi.org/10.1021/ie0006209

Ezzati, R. (2020). Derivation of Pseudo-First-Order, Pseudo-Second-Order and Modified Pseudo-First-Order rate equations from Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms for adsorption. Chemical Engineering Journal, 392, 123705. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2019.123705

Ho Y. S., & Mckay G. (1999). Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochemistry, 34, 451-465. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0032-9592(98)00112-5

Ho, Y. S., & McKay, G. (1998). Kinetic models for the sorption of dye from aqueous solution by wood. Transactions of the Institution of Chemical Engineers, 76, 183-91. http://doi.org/10.1205/095758298529326

Ho, Y. S., & McKay, G. (1999). Batch lead (II) removal from aqueous solution by peat: equilibrium and kinetics. Process Safety and Environmental Protection. 77, 165-73. http://doi.org/10.1205/095758299529983

Ismail, N. H., Salleh, W. N. W., Ismail, A. F., Hasbullah, H., Yusof, N., Aziz, F., & Jaafar, J. (2020). Hydrophilic polymer-based membrane for oily wastewater treatment: A review. Separation and Purification Technology, 233, 116007. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2019.116007

Li, D., Zhao, Y., Wang, X., Tang, W. N., Wu, F., Yu, D., & Elfalleh, W. (2020). Effects of (+)-catechin on a rice bran protein oil-in-water emulsion: Droplet size, zeta-potential, emulsifying properties, and rheological behavior. Food Hydrocolloids, 98, 105306.

Lin, K. A., Chen, Y., & Phattarapattama, S. (2016). Efficient demulsification of oil in water emulsions using a zeolitic imidazolate framework: Adsorptive removal of oil droplets from water. Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 478, 97-106.

Melgar, V. M. A., Kim, J., & Othman, M. R. (2015). Zeolitic imidazolate framework membranes for gas separation: A review of synthesis methods and gas separation performance. Journal of Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 28, 1-15. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jiec.2015.03.006

Mota, M. F., Rodrigues, M. G. F., Machado, F. (2014). Oil-Water Separation Process with Organoclays: A Comparative Analysis. Applied Clay Science, 99, 237-245. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clay.2014.06.039

Obaid, M., Barakat, N. A., Fadali, O. A., Motlak, M., Almajid, A. A., & Khalil, K. A., (2015). Effective and reusable oil/water separation membranes based on modified polysulfone electrospun nanofiber mats. Chemical engineering Journal, 259, 449-456. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2014.07.095

Payra, S., Challagulla, S., Chakraborty, C., & Roy, S. A. (2019). Hydrogen evolution reaction induced unprecedentedly rapid electrocatalytic reduction of 4-nitrophenol over ZIF-67 compare to ZIF-8. Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, 853, 113545. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jelechem.2019.113545

Phan, A., Doonan, C. J., Uribe-Romo, F. J., Knobler, C. B., O’keeffe, M., & Yaghi, O. M. (2010). Synthesis, structure and carbon dioxide capture properties of zeolitic imidazolate frameworks. Accounts of Chemical Research, 43, 58-67. https://doi.org/10.1021/ar900116g

Pintor, A. M. A., Vilar, V. J. P., Botelho, C. M. S., & Boaventura, R. A. R. (2016). Oil and grease removal from wastewaters: Sorption treatment as an alternative to state-of-the-art technologies. A critical review. Chemical Enginering Journal, 297, 229-255. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cej.2016.03.121

Rashed, M. N. (2013). Adsorption Technique for the Removal of Organic Pollutants from Water and Wastewater. Organic Pollutants - Monitor, Risk and Treatment.

Rodrigues, D. P. A. (2021). Síntese de estruturas metalorgânicas zeolitic imidazolate framework-8: influência da cristalinidade e aplicação no processo de separação emulsão óleo/água. Dissertação (Mestrado em Engenharia Química), Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Paraíba.

Rodrigues, D. P. A., Barbosa, T. L. A., & Rodrigues, M. G. F. (2020). Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 Nanoparticles for Rhodamine B Adsorption. Current Nanomaterials, 6, 1- 8. https://doi.org/10.2174/2468187310999201120091142

Rodrigues, D. P. A., Barbosa, T. L. A., & Rodrigues, M. G. F. (2020). Adsorção de Rodamina B em ZIF-8 e ZIF-67: Efeito nas estruturas. In Engenharia no Século XXI (pp. 16 – 29). http//doi/10.36229/978-65-86127-45-4.CAP.03

Rodrigues, M. G. F., Barbosa, T. L. A., & Rodrigues, D. P. A. (2020). Zinc imidazolate framework-8 nanoparticle application in oil removal from oil/water emulsion and reuse. Journal of Nanoparticles Research, 22, 328-342. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11051-020-05036-w

Rodrigues, M. G. F., Rodrigues, D. P. A., & Barbosa, T. L. A., (2019). Preparação da estrutura metalorgânica ZIF-8 e sua aplicação na separação emulsão óleo/água: utilização e reutilização. In XXI Congreso Argentino de Catálisis e X Congreso de Catálisis del Mercosur.

Rodrigues, M. G. F., Tomaz, P. F., Rodrigues, D. P. A., & Barbosa, T. L. A., (2019). Síntese, caracterização e aplicação de ZIF no processo de separação emulsão Óleo/Água. In XXI Congreso Argentino de Catálisis e X Congreso de Catálisis del Mercosur.

Sann, E. E., Pan, Y., Gao, Z., Zhan, S., Xia, F. (2018). Highly hydrophobic ZIF-8 particles and application for oil-water separation. Separation and Purification Technology, 206,186-191. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2018.04.027

Shams, M., Dehghani, M. H., Nabizadeh, R., Mesdaghinia, A., Alimohammadi, M., Najafpoor, A. A. (2016). Adsorption of phosphorus from aqueous solution by cubic zeolitic imidazolate framework-8: Modeling, mechanical agitation versus sonication. Journal of Molecular Liquids, 224, 151-157. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.molliq.2016.09.059

Scheibler, J. R., Santos, E. R. F., Barbosa, A. S., & Rodrigues, M. G. F. (2014). Performance of zeolite membrane (ZSM-5/γ-Alumina) in the oil/water separation process. Desalination and Water Treatment, 56(13), 3561–3567. https://doi.org/10.1080/19443994.2014.986536

Tian, Q., Liu, Q., Zhou, J., Ju, P., Waterhouse, Gin, Zhou, S., & Ai, S. (2019). Superhydrophobic sponge containing silicone oil-modified layered double hydroxide sheets for rapid oil-water separations. Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects, 570, 339-346. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.colsurfa.2019.03.031

Tien, C. (1994). Adsorption Calculation and modeling. Boston: Butteworth-Heinemann.

Tomaz, P. F. (2020). Síntese da estrutura metalorgânica ZIF-ZNI para aplicação no tratamento de efluentes oleosos. Dissertação (Mestrado em Química), Universidade Estadual da Paraíba, Paraíba.

Tomaz, P. F., Rodrigues, D. P. A., Barbosa, T. L. A., & Rodrigues, M. G. F. (2021). Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework ZIF-zni nanocrystals used for Oil-water Separation. Current Nanomaterials, 6, 1- 9. https://doi.org/10.2174/2405461506666210420131237

Wahi, R., Chuah, L. A., Choong, T. S. Y., Ngaini, Z., & Nourouzi, M. (2013). Oil removal from aqueous state by natural fibrous sorbent: An overview. Separation and Purification Technology, 113, 51-63. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.seppur.2013.04.015

Zhan, B., Liu, Y., Li, S., Kaya, C, Stegmaier, T., Aliabadi, M., Han, Z., & Ren, L. (2019). Fabrication of superwetting Cu/Cu²O cubic film for oil/water emulsion separation and photocatalytic degradation. Applied Surface Science, 496, 143580. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.143580

Zhu, Y., Wang, D., Jiang, L., & Jin, J., (2014). Recent progress in developing advanced membranes for emulsified oil/water separation. NPG Asia Materials 6, e101. https://doi.org/10.1038/am.2014.23




How to Cite

BARBOSA , T. S. B. .; BARROS , T. R. B. .; BARBOSA, T. L. A. .; RODRIGUES , D. P. A.; RODRIGUES, M. G. F. . Oil removal from oil/water emulsion by Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework-8 (ZIF-8): A study of pH, and adsorption kinetic. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 14, p. e444101422162, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i14.22162. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/22162. Acesso em: 17 jun. 2024.