Evaluation of suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents in a hospital in Brazil

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33448/rsd-v10i17.23480

Keywords:

COVID-19; Respiratory Tract Infections; Child; Adolescent; Diagnosis.

Abstract

A COVID-19 is a disease caused by infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus. The pediatric population corresponds to 1 to 5% of confirmed cases of the disease, varying according to the country under study. This work aims to analyze suspected and confirmed cases of children and adolescents of COVID-19 in a hospital in Sergipe. This is a cross-sectional observational study involving 1,388 patients, under 20 years of age, during March 2020 and September 2021. Among patients, 54.8% were male, 10.4% had some comorbidities. It was observed that dyspnea was related to age, being frequent in children. In addition, some clinical manifestations were associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, such as headache (p=0.021), diarrhea (p=0.002), respiratory distress (p<0.001), dyspnea (p<0.001), sneezing (p <0.001) and O2 saturation < 95% (p<0.001). There was a relationship between patients who progressed to death and some variables such as the presence of comorbidities, respiratory distress, sneezing, need for stabilization and ICU (p<0.001). Most pediatric cases are asymptomatic or mild, and children have a better outcome in COVID-19, as a small percentage evolves to death, usually associated with the presence of pre-hospital comorbidities.

References

Aydogdu, A. L. F. (2020). Saúde mental das crianças durante a pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus: revisão integrativa. J Health NPEPS.5(2). https://doi.org/10.30681/252610104891

Bonfim, C. M., Nogueira, M. L., Simas, P.V., Gardinassi, L. G., Durigon, E. L., Rahal, P. & Souza, F. P. (2011). Frequent respiratory pathogens of respiratory tract infections in children attending daycare centers. J Pediatr. 87(5):439-44. http://dx.doi.org/10.2223/JPED.2126

Centro de Controle de Doenças (CDC). (2020). COVID-19 RESPONSE TEAM. Coronavirus Disease 2019 in Children – United States, 2020. MMRV Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 69 (14): 422-426.

CDC Health Alert Network. Updated guidance on evaluating and testing persons for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‐19). USA, 2020. https://emergency.cdc.gov/han/2020/HAN00429.asp

Deville, J. G., Song., E. & Ouellette, C. P. (2021). COVID-19 manifestações clínicas e diagnóstico em crianças, 2021. In UpToDate. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/covid-19-clinical-manifestations-and-diagnosis-in-children?search=covid%2019%20e%20crianca&source=search_result&selectedTitle=1~150&usage_type=default&display_rank=1.

Dong, Y., Mo, X., Hu, Y., Qi, X., Jiang, F., Jiang, Z. & Tong, S. (2021) Epidemiology of COVID-19 among children in china. Pediatrics. 145(6). https://doi.org/10.1097/INF.0000000000002739

Escosteguy, C. C., Eleuterio, T. A., Pereira, A. G. L., Marques, M. R. V. E., Brandão, A. D. & Batista, J. P. M. (2021). COVID-19: estudo seccional de casos suspeitos internados em um hospital federal do Rio de Janeiro e fatores associados ao óbito hospitalar. Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde. 30(1): e2020750. http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/s1679-49742021000100023

Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ). Instituto Nacional de Saúde da Mulher, da Criança e do Adolescente Fernandes Figueira. (2020). COVID-19 e Saúde da Criança e do Adolescente. https://portaldeboaspraticas.iff.fiocruz.br/atencaocria nca/covid-19-saude-crianca-e-adolescente.

Hillesheim, D., Tomasi, Y. T., Figueiró, T. H., Paiva, K. M. (2020). Síndrome respiratória aguda grave por COVID-19 em crianças e adolescentes no Brasil: perfil dos óbitos e letalidade hospitalar até a 38ᵃ Semana Epidemiológica de 2020. Epidemiologia e Serviços de Saúde. 29 (5):e2020644. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1679-49742020000500021

Hoang, A., Chorath, K., Moreira, A., Evans, M., Burmeister-Morton, F., Burmeister, F., Naqvi, R., Petershack, M. & Moreira, A. (2020). COVID-19 in 7780 pediatric patients: a systematic review. Eclinical Medicine. 4 (1): 100433. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.eclinm.2020.100433

Hrusak, O., Kalina, T., Wolf, J., Balduzzi, A., Provenzi, M., Rizzari, C., Rives, S., Del Pozo Carlavilla, M., Alonso, M. E. V., Domínguez-Pinilla, N., Bourquin, J. P., Schmiegelow, K., Attarbaschi, A., Grillner, P., Mellgren, K., van der Werff Ten Bosch, J., Pieters, R., Brozou, T, …, Schrappe, M. (2020). Flash survey on severe acute respiratory syndrome Coronavirus-2 infections in paediatric patients on anticancer treatment. Eur J Cancer.132:11–16. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2020.03.021

Kim, D., Quinn, J., Pinsky, B., Shah, N. H. & Brown. I. (2020). Rates of co‐infection between SARS‐CoV‐2 and other respiratory pathogens. JAMA. 323(20):2085‐2086. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.2020.6266

Lima, E. A. R., Lima, M. A. C., Costa, T. A., Leite, D. C. F., Oliveira, H. F., Azevedo, M. R. D. & Porto, C. P. S. (2021). Covid-19 suspicious cases in pediatrics: an analysis in a tertiary hospital of Brazil. International Journal of Development Research. 11(04): 45908-45912. https://doi.org/10.37118/ijdr.21463.04.2021

Lu, X., Zhang, L., Du, H., Zhang, J., Li, Y. Y., Qu, J., Zhang, W., Wang, Y., Bao, S., Li, Y., Wu, C., Liu, H., Liu, D., Shao, J., Peng, X., Yang, Y., Liu, Z., Xiang, Y., Zhang, F., Silva, R. M., ... Wong, G. W. K. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infection in children. New Engl J Med. 382(17):663-5. https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMc2005073

Martins, L.A., Santos, D. V., Marques, P. F., Silva, E. A. L., Castro, C. T., Santos, D. B. & Camargo, C. L. (2021). Quadro clínico da população pediátrica com SARS-CoV-2 e cuidados: revisão. Rev Gaúcha Enferm. 42(esp):e20200162. https://doi.org/10.1590/1983-1447.2021.20200162

Ministério da Saúde (BR). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. (2020). Doença pelo coronavírus COVID-19. Bol Epidemiol. 32. https://www.gov.br/saude/pt-br/assuntos/boletins-epidemiologicos-1/set/boletim-epidemiologico-covid-32-final-23-09_ 18h30.pdf.

Ministério da Saúde (BR). Secretaria de Vigilância em Saúde. (2020). Especial: doença pelo coronavírus 2019. Bol Epidemiol. https://saude.gov.br/ima ges/pdf/2020/July/22/Boletim-epidemiologico-COVID-23-final.pdf.

Procianoy, R. S., Silveira, R. C., Manzoni, P. & Sant’Anna, G. (2020). Neonatal COVID-19: little evidence and the need for more information. J Pediatr. 96:269-72. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jped.2020.04.002

Qiu, H., Wu, J., Hong, L., Luo, Y., Song, Q. & Chen, D. (2020). Clinical and epidemiological features of 36 children with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zhejiang, China: an observational cohort study. Lancet Infect Dis.20(6):689-96. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30198-5

Ramos, R. T., Silva, B. C. C., Araújo, G. C. B., Riedi, C. A., Ibiapina, C. C., Bezerra, P. G. M., Ribeiro, J. D. & Santana, M. F. P. (2020). Aspectos respiratórios da COVID-19 na infância: o que o pediatra precisa saber? Residência Pediátrica. 10:2. https://doi.org/10.25060/residpediatr-2020.v10n2-349

Shekerdemian, L. S., Mahmood, N. R. & Wolfe, K. K. (2020). Characteristics and Outcomes of Children With Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Infection Admitted to US and Canadian Pediatric Intensive Care Units. JAMA Pediatrics. 174(9):868-873. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.1948

Silva, J. R. A., Argentino, A. C. A., Dulaba, L. D., Bernardelli, R. R. & Campiolo, E. L. (2020). COVID-19 em pediatria: um panorama entre incidência e mortalidade. Resid Pediatr.10(3):1-4. https://doi.org/10.25060/residpediatr-2020.v10n3-383

Souza, T. H., Nadal, J. A., Nogueira, R. J. N., Pereira, R. M. & Brandão, M. B. (2020). Clinical manifestations of children with COVID-19: A systematic review. Pediatr Pulmonol.55(8):1892-1899. https://doi.org/10.1002/ppul.24885

Suleyman, G., Fadel, R. A., Malette, K. M., Hamond, C., Abdulla, H., Entz, A., Demertzis, Z., Hanna, Z., Failla, A., Dagher, C., Chaudhry, Z., Vahia, A., Lanfranco, O. A., Ramesh, M., Zervos, M. J., Alangaden, G., Miller, J. & Brar, I. (2020). Clinical characteristics and morbidity associated with coronavirus disease 2019 in a Series of patients in metropolitan Detroit. JAMA Netw Open.3(6):e2012270. http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.12270

Toso, B. R. G. O, Viera, C. S., Furtado, M. C. C. & Bonati, P. C. R. (2020). Ações de Enfermagem no cuidado à criança na atenção primária durante a pandemia de COVID-19. Rev Soc Bras Enferm Pediatr.20(spe):6-15. https://doi.org/10.31508/1676-3793202000000122

Wang Y, Zhu F, Wang C, Wu J, Liu J, Chen X. et al. (2020). Children hospitalized with Severe COVID-19 in Wuhan. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 39 (7): 91 – 94. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2020-0702

Yamamoto, L., Santos, E. H. D., Pinto, L. S., Rocha, M. C., Kanunfre, K. A., Vallada, M. G. & Okay, T. S. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 infections with emphasis on pediatric patients: a narrative review. Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo. 4;62: e65. https://doi.org/10.1590/S1678-9946202062065

Published

22/12/2021

How to Cite

LIMA, M. A. C.; COSTA, T. A. .; CESTARI, Y. L. F. .; LEITE, D. C. F. .; OLIVEIRA, H. F. .; AZEVEDO, M. R. D. de .; PORTO , C. P. S. . Evaluation of suspected cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children and adolescents in a hospital in Brazil. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 10, n. 17, p. e108101723480, 2021. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v10i17.23480. Disponível em: https://rsdjournal.org/index.php/rsd/article/view/23480. Acesso em: 27 jan. 2022.

Issue

Section

Health Sciences