Preliminary analysis of linear and angular kinetic parameters of the gait of individuals with cerebral palsy




Paralysis; Gait Analysis; Kinematics; Athletes.


Normal gait patterns allow the identification of the normal movement pattern, such as the gait of people with cerebral palsy. Paralympic classification systems aim to include the participation in sports of people with cerebral palsy, minimizing the impact of the injury on the result of the competition. In this context, this study aims to investigate, functionally, the linear and angular kinetic parameters of gait in individuals with cerebral palsy. 15 participants with cerebral palsy were classified into three groups according to the classification of the International Paralympic Committee: 1) T35- diplegic; 2) T36- athetoid ataxic; 3) T37- hemiplegic. For data acquisition, we used a motion capture system in 3 dimensions. The results showed significant differences between the three groups in some linear and angular gait variables, corroborating the qualitative classification process already used by the International Paralympics Committee. In addition, we identified the existence of people with different levels of cerebral palsy within a single functional class of International Paralympics Committee.  We found significant differences in some linear and angular gait variables among the classes T35, T36 e T37, which suggest "subgroups" inside each category, and this would prevent a athlete from competing on equal terms with the other competitors.


Anderson, D. I., & Williams, A. M. (2022). Individual differences in motor skill learning. Human Movement Science, 81.

Bax, M. e. A. (2005). Proposed definition and classification of cerebral palsy. Medicine&Child Neurology, 47(8).

Damiano, D. L., Longo, E., Campos, A. C. de, Forssberg, H., & Rauch, A. (2021). Systematic Review of Clinical Guidelines Related to Care of Individuals With Cerebral Palsy as Part of the World Health Organization Efforts to Develop a Global Package of Interventions for Rehabilitation. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 102, 1–11.

Davis, B. d. (1997). Reflections on clinical gait analysis. Journal of Electromyography and Kinesiology, 7(4), 251–257.

Dini, P. D. ., & David, A. C. (2009). Repetibilidade dos parâmetros espaço-temporais da marcha: comparação entre crianças normais e com paralisia cerebral do tipo hemiplegia espástica. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, 13, 215–222.

Dorofeev, N. V., Grecheneva, A. ., & Buzhinsky, V. S. (2021). Assessment of Human Gait Parameters Based on Accelerometry. Biomedical Engineering, 55(2), 92–96.

Ferrazzoli, D., Ortelli, P., Iansek, R., & Volpe, D. (2022). Rehabilitation in movement disorders: From basic mechanisms to clinical strategies. Handb Clin Neurol, 184, 341–355.

Filho, M. C. D. M., & Santos, C. A. D. (2008). Marcha na paralisia cerebral. In L. F. Fonseca & C. L. A. Lima (Eds.), Paralisia Cerebral: neurologia, ortopedia e reabilitação (p. 658). MedBook.

G.Feldman, A., F.Levi, M., Garofolini, A., Piscitelli, D., & Zhang, L. (2021). Central pattern generator and human locomotion in the context of referent control of motor actions. Clinical Neurophysiology, 132(11), 2870–2889.

Hebert, S., Xavier, R., Pardini, A. G., & Barros Filho, T. E. P. (2003). Ortopedia e traumatologia: princípios e prática (3rd ed.). Artmed.

Jun, K., Lee, Y., Lee, S., Lee, D.-W., & Kim, M. S. (2020). Pathological Gait Classification Using Kinect v2 and Gated Recurrent Neural Networks. IEEE Access, 139881–139891.

Kwon, J. Y., Chang, H. J., Lee, J. Y., Ha, Y., Lee, P. K., & Kim, Y. H. (2011). Effects of Hippotherapy on Gait Parameters in Children With Bilateral Spastic Cerebral Palsy. Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, 9(2), 774–779.

Magee, D. J. (2005). Avaliação Muscuesquelética. Manole.

Matsuno, V. M., Camargo, M. R., Palma, G. C., & Alveno, D. . (2010). Análise do uso de suporte parcial de peso corporal em esteira e em piso fixo durante o andar de crianças com paralisia cerebral. Revista Brasileira de Fisioterapia, 14, 404–410.

Mundt, M., Thomsen, W., Witter, T., & Koeppe, A. (2021). Prediction of lower limb joint angles and moments during gait using artificial neural networks. Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing, 58(1), 211–225.

O´Sullivan, S. ., & Schmitz, T. J. (2010). Fisioterapia: avaliação e tratamento. Manole.

Peixoto, M. V. da S., Duque, A. M., Santos, A. D. dos, Lima, S. V. M. A., Ribeiro, C. J. N., Voci, S. M., Carvalho, S. de, & Nunes, M. A. P. (2021). Risk Factors for Cerebral Palsy in Brazilian Children: A Case-Control Study. Research, Society and Development, 10(5), 1–10.

Perry, J. (2005). Análise da marcha: marcha patológica. Manole.

Peterson, M. D., & Hurvitz, E. A. (2021). Cerebral Palsy Grows Up. Mayo Clin Proc, 96(6), 1404–1406.

Prosser, L. A., Lauer, R. T., Vansant, A. F., Barbe, M. F., & Lee, S. C. K. (2010). Variability and symmetry of gait in early walkers with and without bilateral cerebral palsy. Gait & Posture, 31, 522–526.

Sorsdahl, A. B., Moe-Nilssen, R., & Strand, L. (2008). Test-retest reliability of spatial and temporal gait parameters in children with cerebral palsy as measured by an electronic walkway. Gait & Posture, 27(1), 43–50.

Stolze, H., Kuhtz-Buchbeck, J. P., Mondwurf, C., Johnk, K., & Firege, L. (1998). Retest reliability of spatiotemporal gait parameters in children and adults. Gait & Posture, 7(2), 125–130.

Stolze, H., Kuhtz-buschbeck, J. P., Mondwurf, C., Boczek-Funcke, A., Johnk, K., & Keuschl, G. (1997). Gait analysis during treadmill and overground locomotion in children and adults. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 105, 490–497.

Sutherland, D. H., & Valencia, F. (1992). Pediatric Gait - normal and anormal development. In J. C. Drenann (Ed.), The Child´s foot and ankle (pp. 19–35). Raven Press.

Thompson, W. R., & Vanlandewijck, Y. C. (2020). Perspectives on research conducted at the Paralympic Games. Disability and Rehabilitation, 1–13.

Tweedy, S. M., & Bourke, J. (2009). Minimum disability criteria for wheelchair racing, running and jumping. In S. M. Tweedy & J. Bourke (Eds.), IPC Athletics Classification Project for Physical Impairments: Final Report- Stage1. IPC Athletics.

Zonta, M. B., Ramalho, A., Camargo, R. M. R., Dias, F. H., & Santos, L. H. C. (2010). Two-dimensional analysis of gait asymmetry in spastic hemiplegia. Einstein, 8(3), 343–349.




How to Cite

RODRIGUES, J. de O.; SÁ, A. A. R. de; FREITAS, D. G.; NAVES, E. L. M. Preliminary analysis of linear and angular kinetic parameters of the gait of individuals with cerebral palsy . Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 3, p. e1911326113, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i3.26113. Disponível em: Acesso em: 20 jun. 2024.



Health Sciences