Color stability of glass ionomer cement in coloring solutions: integrative review




Glass Ionomer Cements; Dentistry; Coloring Agents; Esthetics.


Background: Glass ionomer cement (GIC) has several indications in Dentistry, due to its biocompatibility properties, fluoride release and adhesion to dental tissues. Objective: To analyze the color stability of conventional GICs when immersed in coloring solutions based on data obtained in the literature. Methods: This is an integrative literature review carried out through searches in the databases PubMed, LILACS, SciELO and Cochrane Library, in which the following descriptors were used: “glass ionomer cement”, “cimentos de ionômeros de vidro”, “color”, “discoloration”, “pigmentação” e “cor”. Eligibility criteria included studies that evaluated the color stability of conventional GICs, full articles available for download, and texts published in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Clinical trials, laboratory studies and in situ studies were included and studies published in the last 25 years. Results: After analyzing the articles, 14 studies were included in the review. Predominantly, conventional GICs susceptibility to staining has been reported by immersion in coloring solutions, such as pigmenting substances from the diet, drugs in liquid form, fluoride gels, bleaching gels and biofilm-evidence solutions, in addition to laboratory dyes. On the other hand, some studies have found the color stability of conventional GICs compared to other restorative materials. Conclusions: Conventional GIC has variable color stability, depending on the dye solutions and experimental methods applied.


Adusumilli, H., Avula, J. S. S., Kakarla, P., Bandi, S., Mallela, G. M. K. & Vallabhaneni, K (2016). Color stability of esthetic restorative materials used in pediatric dentistry: an in vitro study. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 34(3), 233-237.

Almeida, M. B. de, Santos, P. H. dos, Esteves, L. M. B., Silva, L. M. A. V. da, Gallinari, M. de O., Fagundes, T. C., Antonnaccio, G. B. de M. & Briso, A. L. F. (2021). Efeito da contaminação e limpeza da dentina na resistência de união do cimento de ionômero de vidro modificado por resina. Research, Society and Development, 10(6), e53310615983.

Bezgin, T., Özer, L., Tulga Öz, F. & Özkan, P. (2015). Effect of toothbrushing on color changes of esthetic restorative materials. Journal of Esthetic and Restorative Dentistry, 27(Suppl 1), S65-S73.

Boscarioli, A. P. T., Lovadino, J. R., Consani, S. & Goes, M. F. (2002). Influência da proteção e acabamento superficial sobre a resistência ao manchamento de cimentos ionoméricos restauradores. PGR – Pós-Graduação Revista da Faculdade de Odontologia de São José dos Campos, 5(1), 69-77.

Chakravarthy, Y. & Clarence, S. (2018). The effect of red wine on colour stability of three different types of esthetic restorative materials: an in vitro study. Journal of Conservative Dentistry, 21(3), 319-323.

Choi, J. W., Lee, M. J., Oh, S. H. & Kim, K. M. (2019). Changes in the physical properties and color stability of aesthetic restorative materials caused by various beverages. Dental Materials Journal, 38(1), 33-40. 10.4012/dmj.2017-247

Debner, T., Warren, D. P. & Powers, J. M. (2000). Effects of fluoride varnish on color of esthetic restorative material. The International Journal of Esthetic Dentistry, 12, 160-163.

Diniz, A. C. S., Couto, G. A. do, Silva, T. B. da, Bauer, J. R. & Firoozmand, L. M. (2021). Comportamento clínico de ionômero de vidro bioativo (45S5) em lesões de cárie moderada: Protocolo de estudo de um ensaio clínico. Research, Society and Development, 10(10), e07101018190.

Fay, R. M., Servos, T. & Powers, J. M. (1999). Color of restorative materials after staining and bleaching. Operative Dentistry, 24, 292-296.

Jafarpour, D., Mese, A., Ferooz, M. & Bagheri, R. (2019). The effects of nanofilled resin-based coatings on the physical properties of glass ionomer cement restorative materials. Journal of Dentistry, 89, 10317.

Kale, Y. J., Nalwade, A. V., Dahake, P. T., Dapde, M. V. & Kendre, S. B. (2019) Effect of different pediatric drug formulations on color stability of composite, zirconia-reinforced glass ionomer cement, and glass ionomer cement. Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry, 37, 151-156.

Li, Q., Yu, H. & Wang, Y. (2009). Colour and surface analysis of carbamide peroxide bleaching effects on the dental restorative materials in situ. Journal of Dentistry, 37, 348-356.

Menezes-Silva, R., Cabral, R. N., Pascotto, R. C., Borges, A. F. S., Martins, C. C., Navarro, M. F. L., Sidhu, S. K. & Leal, S. C. (2019). Mechanical and optical properties of conventional restorative glass-ionomer cements - a systematic review. Journal of Applied Oral Science, 21(27), e2018357.


Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G. & Group, P. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: the PRISMA statement. PLoS Medicine, 6(7), e1000097.

Pani, S. C., Aljammaz, M. T., Alrugi, A. M., Aljumaah, A. M., Alkahtani, Y. M. & AlKhuraif, A. (2020). Color stability of glass ionomer cement after reinforced with two different nanoparticles. International Journal of Dentistry, 31, 7808535.

Pimenta, I. C., Lovadino, J. R., Pimenta, L. A. F., Paulillo, L. A. M. S. & Liporoni, P. C. S. (1997). Avaliação do manchamento dos cimentos de ionômero de vidro por soluções evidenciadoras de placa dental. Revista ABO Nacional, 5(2), 110-112.

Prabhakar, A. R., Pattanshetti, K. & Sugandhan, S. (2013). A comparative study of color stability and fluoride release from glass ionomer cements combined with chlorhexidine. International Journal of Clinical Pediatric Dentistry, 6(1), 26-29.

Saito, S. K., Lovadino, J. R. & Kroll, L. B. (2000). Rugosidade e pigmentação superficial de materiais ionoméricos. Pesquisa Odontológica Brasileira, 14(4), 351-356.

Savas, S., Colgecen, O., Yasa, B. & Kucukyilmaz E. (2019). Color stability, roughness, and water sorption/solubility of glass ionomer-Based restorative materials. Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice, 22(6), 824-832.

Silva, D. O. C. da, Silva, I. de M., Rocha, A. de O., Anjos, L. M. dos, Lima, T. O., Santos, R. de M. dos A. & Cruz, B. P. (2021). Cimento de ionômero de vidro e sua aplicabilidade na Odontologia: Uma revisão narrativa com ênfase em suas propriedades. Research, Society and Development, 10(5), e20110514884.

Sun, L., Yan, Z., Duan, Y., Zhang, J. & Liu, B. (2018). Improvement of the mechanical, tribological and antibacterial properties of glass ionomer cements by fluorinated graphene. Dental Materials, 34(6), e115-e127.

Wang, E. & Huang, B. (2014). Discolouration of glass-ionomer cement at different fluoride concentration levels. Oral Health and Dental Management, 13(2), 1-4.

Whittemore, R. & Knafl, K. (2005) The integrative review: updated methodology. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 52(5), 546-553. 10.1111/j.1365-2648.2005.03621.x.

Yildiz, E., Karaarslan, E. S., Simsek, M., Ozsevik, A. S. & Usumez, A. (2015). Color stability and surface roughness of polished anterior restorative materials. Dental Materials Journal, 34(5), 629-639.



How to Cite

OLIVEIRA, L. A. de; SANTOS, T. A. dos; MEDEIROS, F. da C. D. de. Color stability of glass ionomer cement in coloring solutions: integrative review. Research, Society and Development, [S. l.], v. 11, n. 3, p. e2511326190, 2022. DOI: 10.33448/rsd-v11i3.26190. Disponível em: Acesso em: 17 jun. 2024.



Health Sciences